mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi

mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi
Maharvir-prasad-dwivedi.jpg
mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ke sammaan mein jaari daak-ticket
janm: 1921
daulatapur gaaainv raayabareli Bhaarat
mrutyu: 1995
daulatapur gaaainv raayabareli Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: lekhak
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: padya
vishay: kahaaniyaaain

aachaarya mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi (1864–1938) hindi ke mahaan saahityakaar, patrakaar evam yugapravartak the. unhone hindi saahitya ki avismaraneeya seva ki aur apne yug ki saahityik aur saanskrutik chetna ko disha aur drushti pradaan ki. unke is atulaneeya yogadaan ke kaaran aadhunik hindi saahitya ka doosra yug 'Dwivedi yug' (1893–1918) ke naam se jaana jaata hai.[1] unhone satrah varsh tak hindi ki prasiddh patrika sarasvati ka sampaadan kiya. hindi navajaagaran mein unki mahaan bhoomika rahi. bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan ko gati va disha dene mein bhi unka ullekhaneeya yogadaan raha.

anukram

jeevan parichay

mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ka janm uttar pradesh ke raayabareli jile ke daulatapur gaaainv mein san 1864 mein hua tha. inke pita ka naam pan॰ raamasahaaya dube tha. ye kaanyakubj braahman the. dhanaabhaav ke kaaran inki shiksha ka kram adhik samay tak na chal saka. inhein ji I pi railway mein naukri mil gayi. 18 varsh ki aayu mein rel vibhaag Ajmer mein 1 varsh ka pravaas. naukri chhodkar Mumbai prasthaan evam teleegraaf ka kam seekhakar Indian midlaind railway mein taar babu ke roop mein niyukti. apne uchchaadhikaari se na patane aur svaabhimaani svabhaav ke kaaran 1904 mein jhaaainsi mein rel vibhaag ki 200 rupaye maasik vetan ki naukri se tyaagapatr de diya.

naukri ke saath-saath Dwivedi adhyayan mein bhi jute rahe aur hindi ke atirikt maraathi, gujaraati, sanskrut aadi ka achha gyaan praapt kar liya.

san 1903 mein Dwivedi ji ne sarasvati maasik patrika ke sanpaadan ka kaaryabhaar sainbhaala aur use satrah varsh tak kushalataapoorvak nibhaaya. jaise hi unhein 'sarasvati' se aamantran praapt hua, unhone railway ki naukri se tyaagapatr de diya. 200 roopaye maasik ki naukri ko tyaagakar maatr 20 roopaye pratimaas par sarasvati ke sampaadak ke roop mein kaarya karna unke tyaag ka parichaayak hai.[2] sanpaadan-kaarya se avakaash praapt kar Dwivedi ji apne gaaainv chale aae aur vaheen san 1938 mein inka svargavaas ho gaya.

prakaashit krutiyaaain

mahaaveeraprasaad Dwivedi hindi ke pehle lekhak the, jinhonne keval apni jaateeya parampara ka gahan adhyayan hi naheen kiya tha, balki use aalochakeeya drushti se bhi dekha tha. unhone anek vidhaaon mein rachana ki. kavita, kahaani, aalochna, pustak sameeksha, anuvaad, jeevani aadi vidhaaon ke saath unhonne arthashaastr, vigyaan, itihaas aadi anya anushaasanon mein na sirf vipul maatra mein likha, balki anya lekhakon ko bhi is disha mein lekhan ke liye prerit kiya. Dwivedi ji keval kavita, kahaani, aalochna aadi ko hi saahitya maanane ke viruddh the. ve arthashaastr, itihaas, puraatatv, samaajashaastr aadi vishyon ko bhi saahitya ke hi daayare mein rakhate the. vastut: svaadheenata, svadeshi aur svaavalanban ko gati dene vaale gyaan-vigyaan ke tamaam aadhaaron ko ve aandolit karna chaahate the. is kaarya ke liye unhonne sirf upadesh naheen diya, balki manasa, vaacha, karmana swayam likhkar dikhaaya.

unhonne vedon se lekar panditraaj jagannaath tak ke sanskrut-saahitya ki nirantar pravahamaan dhaara ka avagaahan kiya tha evam upayogita tatha kalaatmak yogadaan ke prati ek vaigyaanik drushti apanaayi thi. unhonne shreeharsh ke sanskrut mahaakaavya naishadheeyacharitm par apni pehli aalochna pustak 'naishadhacharit charcha' naam se likhi (1899), jo sanskrut-saahitya par hindi mein pehli aalochna-pustak bhi hai. fir unhonne lagaataar sanskrut-saahitya ka anveshan, vivechan aur moolyaankan kiya. unhonne sanskrut ke kuchh mahaakaavyon ke hindi mein aupanyaasik roopaantar bhi kiya, jinmein kaalidaas krut raghuvansh, kumaarasanbhav, meghadoot, kiraataarjuneeya pramukh hain.

sanskrut, brajabhaasha aur khadi boli mein sfut kaavya-rachana se saahitya-saadhana ka aarambh karne vaale mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ne sanskrut aur angreji se kramash: brajabhaasha aur hindi mein anuvaad-kaarya ke alaava prabhoot samaalochanaatmak lekhan kiya. unki maulik pustakon mein naatyashaastr (1904 E.), vikramaankadev charitcharya (1907 E.), hindi bhaasha ki utpatti (1907 E.) aur sanpattishaastr (1907 E.) pramukh hain tatha anoodit pustakon mein shiksha (harbart speinsar ke 'education' ka anuvaad, 1906 E.) aur svaadheenata (jaan, stuart mil ke 'on librti' ka anuvaad, 1907 E.).

Dwivedi ji ne vistrut roop mein saahitya rachana ki. inke chhote-bade granthon ki sankhya kul milaakar 81 hai. padya ke maulik-granthon mein kaavya-manjoosha, kavita kalaap, devi-stuti, shatak aadi pramukh hai. ganga lahari, riatu tarangini, Kumar sambhav saar aadi inke anoodit padya-granth hain.

gadya ke maulik granthon mein tarunopadesh, naishadh charitra charcha, hindi kaalidaas ki samaalochana, naataya shaastr, hindi bhaasha ki utpatti, kaaleedaas ki nirankushata aadi vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hain. anuvaadon mein vekan vichaar, ratnaavali, hindi mahaabhaarat, veni sansaar aadi pramukh hain.

maulik padya rachanaaeain

  • devi stuti-shatak (1892 E.)
  • kaanyakubjaavaleevratam (1898 E.)
  • samaachaar patra sampaadan stav: (1898 E.)
  • naagari (1900 E.)
  • kaanyakubj-abala-vilaap (1907 E.)
  • kaavya manjoosha (1903 E.)
  • suman (1923 E.)
  • Dwivedi kaavya-maala (1940 E.)
  • kavita kalaap (1909 E.)

padya (anoodit)

  • vinaya vinod (1889 E.)- bhartruhari ke 'vairaagyashatak' ka dohon mein anuvaad
  • vihaar vaatika (1890 E.)- geet govind ka bhaavaanuvaad
  • sneh maala (1890 E.)- bhrutahari ke 'shrungaar shatak' ka dohon mein anuvaad
  • shri mahimn stotr 1891 E.)- sanskrut ke 'mahimn stotr ka sanskrut vrutton mein anuvaad
  • ganga lahari (1891 E.)- panditraaj jagannaath ki 'ganga lahari' ka savaiyon mein anuvaad
  • ritutarangini (1891 E.)- kaalidaas ke 'ritusanhaar' ka chhaayaanuvaad
  • sohaagaraat (aprakaashit)- baairan ke 'braaidal night' ka chhaayaanuvaad
  • kumaarasambhavasaar (1902 E.)- kaalidaas ke 'kumaarasambhavam' ke pratham paaainch sargon ka saaraansh.

maulik gadya rachanaaeain

  • tarunopadesh (aprakaashit)
  • hindi shikshaavali truteeya bhaag ki samaalochana (1901 E.)
  • vaigyaanik kosh (1906i.),
  • 'naatyashaastr' (1912i.)
  • vikramaankadevacharitcharcha (1907i.)
  • hindi bhaasha ki utpatti (1907i.)
  • sampattishaastr (1907i.)
  • kautilya kuthaar (1907i.)
  • kaalidaas ki nirkunshata (1912i.)
  • vanita-vilaap (1918i.)
  • audyaagiki (1920i.)
  • rasajnya ranjan (1920i.)
  • kaalidaas aur unki kavita (1920i.)
  • sukavi sankeertan (1924i.)
  • ateet smruti (1924i.)
  • saahitya sandarbh (1928i.)
  • adbhut aalaap (1924i.)
  • mahilaamod (1925i.)
  • aadhyaatmiki (1928i.)
  • vaichitrya chitran (1926i.)
  • saahityaalaap (1926i.)
  • vijnya vinod (1926i.)
  • kovid keertan (1928i.)
  • videshi vidvaan (1928i.)
  • praacheen chinh (1929i.)
  • charit charya (1930i.)
  • puraavrutt (1933i.)
  • drushya darshan (1928i.)
  • aalochanaanjali (1928i.)
  • charitra chitran (1929i.)
  • puraatattv prasang (1929i.)
  • saahitya seekar (1930i.)
  • vigyaan vaarta (1930i.)
  • vaagvilaas (1930i.)
  • sankalan (1931i.)
  • vichaar-vimarsh (1931i.)

gadya (anoodit)

  • bhaamini-vilaas (1891i.)- panditraaj jagannaath ke 'bhaamini vilaas' ka anuvaad
  • amrut lahari (1896i.)- panditraaj jagannaath ke 'yamuna stotr' ka bhaavaanuvaad
  • bekan-vichaar-ratnaavali (1901i.)- bekan ke prasiddh nibndhon ka anuvaad
  • shiksha (1906i.)- harbart speinsar ke 'ejyukeshan' ka anuvaad
  • 'svaadheenata' (1907i.)- John stuart mil ke 'on librti' ka anuvaad
  • jal chikitsa (1907i.)- jarman lekhak lui kone ki jarman pustak ke angreji anuvaad ka anuvaad
  • hindi mahaabhaarat (1908i.)-'mahaabhaarat' ki katha ka hindi roopaantar
  • raghuvansh (1912i.)- 'raghuvansh' mahaakaavya ka bhaashaanuvaad
  • veni-sanhaar (1913i.)- sanskrut kavi bhattanaaraayan ke 'veneesanhaar' naatak ka anuvaad
  • Kumar sambhav (1915i.)- kaalidaas ke 'Kumar sambhav' ka anuvaad
  • meghadoot (1917i.)- kaalidaas ke 'meghadoot' ka anuvaad
  • kiraataarjuneeya (1917i.)- bhaaravi ke 'kiraataarjuneeyam' ka anuvaad
  • praacheen pandit aur kavi (1918i.)- anya bhaashaaon ke lekhon ke aadhaar par praacheen kaviyon aur panditon ka parichay
  • aakhyaayika saptak (1927i.)- anya bhaashaaon ki chuni hui saat aakhyaayikaaon ka chhaayaanuvaad

varnya vishay

hindi bhaasha ke prasaar, paathakon ke ruchi parishkaar aur jnyaaanavardhan ke liye Dwivedi ji ne vividh vishyon par anek nibandh likhe. vishay ki drushti se Dwivedi ji nibandh aath bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiye ja sakte hain - saahitya, jeevan charitra, vigyaan, itihaas, bhoogol, udyog, shilp bhaasha, adhyaatm. Dwivedi ji ne aalochanaatmak nibandhon ki bhi rachana ki. unhonne aalochna ke kshetr mein sanskrut teekaakaaron ki bhaanti krutiyon ka gun-dosh vivechan kiya aur khandan-mandan ki shaastraarth paddhati ko apnaaya hai.

bhaasha

Dwivedi ji saral aur subodh bhaasha likhne ke pakshapaati the. unhonne swayam saral aur prachalit bhaasha ko apnaaya. unki bhaasha mein na to sanskrut ke tatsam shabdon ki adhikta hai aur na urdoo-faarasi ke aprachalit shabdon ki bharamaar hai ve gruh ke sthaan par ghar aur uchch ke sthaan par ooaincha likhna adhik pasand karte the. Dwivedi ji ne apni bhaasha mein urdoo aur faarasi ke shabdon ka nissankoch prayog kiya, kintu is prayog mein unhonne keval prachalit shabdon ko hi apnaaya. Dwivedi ji ki bhaasha ka roop poornat: sthit hai. vah shuddh parishkrut aur vyaakaran ke niyamon se bandhi hui hai. unka vaakya-vinyaas hindi ko prakruti ke anuroop hai kaheen bhi vah angreji ya urdoo ke dhang ka naheen.

shaili

Dwivedi ji ki shaili ke mukhyat: teen roop drushtigt hote hain-

parichyaatmak shaili

Dwivedi ji ne naye-naye vishyon par lekhani chalaai. vishay naye aur praarambhik hone ke kaaran Dwivedi ji ne unka parichay saral aur subodh shaili mein karaaya. aise vishyon par lekh likhte samay Dwivedi ji ne ek shikshak ki bhaanti ek baat ko kai baar duharaaya hai taaki paathakon ki samajh mein vah bhali prakaar aa jaae. is prakaar lekhon ki shaili parichyaatmak shaili hai.

aalochanaatmak shaili

hindi bhaasha ke prachalit doshon ko door karne ke liye Dwivedi ji is shaili mein likhte the. is shaili mein likhkar unhonne virodhiyon ko munh-tod uttar diya. yeh shaili ojapoorn hai. ismein pravaah hai aur iski bhaasha gambhir hai. kaheen-kaheen yeh shaili ojapoorn na hokar vyangyaatmak ho jaati hai. aise sthalon par shabdon mein chulabulaahat aur vaakyon mein saralata rahati hai. 'is myoonisipaalti ke Chairman (jise ab kuchh log kursi main bhi kehne lage hain) shreemaan boocha shaah hain. baap daade ki kamaai ka laakhon rupaya aapke ghar bhara hain. padhe-likhe aap Ram ka naam hain. Chairman aap sirf isliye hue hain ki apni car gujaari gavarnameint ko dikhaakar aap rai bahaadur ban jaaen aur khushaamadiyon se aath pahar chaunsath ghar-ghire rahein.'

vichaaraatmak athva gaveshanaatmak shaili

gambhir saahityik vishyon ke vivechan mein Dwivedi ji ne is shaili ko apnaaya hai. is shaili ke bhi do roop milte hain. pehla roop un lekhon mein milta hai jo kisi vivaadagrast vishay ko lekar janasaadhaaran ko samajhaane ke liye likhe gaye hain. ismein vaakya chhote-chhote hain. bhaasha saral hai. doosra roop un lekhon mein paaya jaata hai jo vidvaanon ko sambodhit kar likhe gaye hain. ismein vaakya apekshaakrut lambe hain. bhaasha kuchh klisht hai. udaaharan ke liye -

apsamaar aur vikshaptata maanasik vikaar ya rog hai. usaka sambandh keval man aur mastishk se hai. pratibha bhi ek prakaar ka manovikaar hi hai. in vikaaron ki paraspar itni sanlagnata hai ki pratibha ko apsamaar aur vikshiptata se alag karna aur pratyek parinaam samajh lena bahut hi kathin hai.

mahatvapoorn kaarya

hindi ke mahaan lekhak va patrakaar mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi

hindi saahitya ki seva karne vaalon mein Dwivedi ji ka vishesh sthaan hai. Dwivedi ji ki anupam saahitya-sevaaon ke kaaran hi unke samay ko Dwivedi yug ke naam se pukaara jaata hai.

  • bhaarateindu yug mein lekhakon ki drushti ki shuddhata ki or naheen rahi. bhaasha mein vyaakaran ke niyamon tatha viraam-chihnon aadi ki koi paravaah naheen ki jaati thi. bhaasha mein aasha kiya, ichha kiya jaise prayog dikhaai padte the. Dwivedi ji ne bhaasha ke is svaroop ko dekha aur shudhd karne ka sankalp kiya. unhonne in ashudhdiyon ki or aakarshit kiya aur lekhakon ko shudhd tatha parimaarjit bhaasha likhne ki prerana di.
  • Dwivedi ji ne khadi boli ko kavita ke liye vikaas ka kaarya kiya. unhonne swayam bhi khadi boli mein kavitaaen likheen aur anya kaviyon ko bhi utsaahit kiya. shri maithili sharan gupt, ayodhya Singh upaadhyaaya jaise khadi boli ke shreshth kavi unheen ke prayatnon ke parinaam hain.
  • Dwivedi ji ne naye-naye vishyon se hindi saahitya ko sampann banaaya. unheen ke prayaason se hindi mein anya bhaashaaon ke granthon ke anuvaad hue tatha hindi-sanskrut ke kaviyon par aalochanaatmak nibandh likhe gaye.

sandarbh

  1. Hindi Language iloveindia.com, Retrieved 2011-07-02.
  2. Dwivedi ji : saahityik patrakaarita ke janak (vebaduniya)

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain