mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh

mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh

mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh (punjabi: ਮaaਹaaਾaaਰaaਾaaਜaaਾ ਰaaਣaaਜaaੀaaਤ ਸaaਿaaੰaaਘ) (1780-1839) sikh saamraajya ke raaja the. ve sher-A Punjab ke naam se prasiddh hain. mahaaraaja ranajeet ek aisi vyakti the, jinhonne na keval Punjab ko ek sashakt soobe ke roop mein ekajut rakha, balki apne jeete-ji angrejon ko apne saamraajya ke paas bhi naheen fatakane diya.

ranajeet Singh ka janm san 1780 mein gujaraanvaala (ab Pakistan) mein hua tha. un dinon Punjab par sikhon aur Afghaanon ka raaj chalta tha jinhonne poore ilaake ko kai mislon mein baant rakha tha. ranajeet ke pita maha Singh sukarachakiya misl ke commander the. pashchimi Punjab mein sthit is ilaake ka mukhyaalaya gujaraanvaala mein tha. chhoti si umr mein chechak ki vajah se mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ki ek aankh ki roshani jaati rahi. mahaj 12 varsh ke the jab pita chal base aur raajapaat ka saara bojh inheen ke kandhon par aa gaya.

12 April 1801 ko ranajeet ne mahaaraaja ki upaadhi grahan ki. guru naanak ke ek vanshaj ne unki taajaposhi sampann karaai. unhonne Lahore ko apni rajdhani banaaya aur san 1802 mein amrutasar ki or rukh kiya.

mahaaraaja ranajeet ne Afghaanon ke khilaaf kai ladaaiyaan ladeen aur unhein pashchimi Punjab ki or khaded diya. ab peshaavar samet pashtoon kshetr par unheen ka adhikaar ho gaya. yeh pehla mauka tha jab pashtoonon par kisi gair muslim ne raaj kiya. uske baad unhonne peshaavar, Jammu Kashmir aur aanandapur par bhi adhikaar kar liya.

pehli aadhunik bhaarateeya sena - "sikh khaalasa sena" gathit karne ka shreya bhi unheen ko jaata hai. unki saraparasti mein Punjab ab bahut shaktishaali sooba tha. isi taakatavar sena ne lambe arse tak Britain ko Punjab hadapne se roke rakha. ek aisa mauka bhi aaya jab Punjab hi ekamaatr aisa sooba tha, jis par angrejon ka kabja naheen tha.

british itihaasakaar J ti vheelar ke mutaabik, agar vah ek peedhi puraane hote, to poore Hindustan ko hi fatah kar lete. mahaaraaja ranajeet khud anapadh the, lekin unhonne apne raajya mein shiksha aur kala ko bahut protsaahan diya.

unhonne Punjab mein kaanoon evam vyavastha kaayam ki aur kabhi bhi kisi ko saja A maut naheen di.[krupaya uddharan jodein] unka sooba dharmanirpeksh tha unhonne hinduon aur sikhon se vasoole jaane vaale jajiya par bhi rok lagaai. kabhi bhi kisi ko sikh dharm apnaane ke liye vivsh naheen kiya. unhonne amrutasar ke haramindar saahib guroodvaare mein sangamaramar lagavaaya aur sona madhvaaya, tabhi se use svarn mandir kaha jaane laga.

beshakeemati heera kohinoor mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ke khajaane ki raunak tha. san 1839 mein mahaaraaja ranajeet ka nidhan ho gaya. unki samaadhi Lahore mein banvaai gayi, jo aaj bhi vahaan kaayam hai. unki maut ke saath hi angrejon ka Punjab par shikanja kasana shuroo ho gaya. angrej-sikh yuddh ke baad 30 March 1849 mein Punjab british saamraajya ka ang bana liya gaya aur kohinoor mahaaraani Victoria ke hujoor mein pesh kar diya gaya.

anukram

parichay

ranajeetasinh ka janm san 1780 E. mein hua tha. mahaanasinh ke marne par ranajeetasinh baarah varsh ki avastha mein misl sukare chakiya ke neta hue. san 1798 E. mein jamaan shaah ke Punjab se laut jaane par unhone Lahore par adhikaar kar liya. dheere-dheere satalaj se sindhu tak, jitni mislein raaj kar rahi theen, sabko usane apne vash mein kar liya. satalaj aur yamuna ke beech fulakiyon misl ke shaasak raajya kar rahe the. san 1806 E. mein ranajeetasinh ne inko bhi apne vash mein karna chaaha, parantu safal na hue.

ranajeetasinh mein sainik netrutv ke gun the. ve dooradarshi the. ve saaainvale rang ka naate kad ke manushya the. unki ek aaainkh sheetala ke prakop se chali gayi thi. parantu yeh hote hue bhi vah tejasvi the. isliye jab tak vah jeevit the, sabhi mislein dabi theen.

us samay angrejon ka raajya yamuna tak pahuainch gaya tha aur fulakiyaaain misl ke raaja angreji raajya ke prabhutv ko maanane lage the. angrejon ne ranajeetasinh ko is kaarya se mana kiya. ranajeetasinh ne angrejon se ladna uchit na samjha aur sandhi kar li ki satalaj ke aage ham apna raajya na badhaaeainge. ranajeetasinh ne fraanseesi sainikon ko bulaakar, usaki sainik kamaan mein apni sena ko vilaayati dhang par taiyaar kiya.

ab unane Punjab ke dakshini, pashchimi aur uttari bhaagon par aakraman karna praarambh kiya aur das varsh mein multaan, peshaavar aur Kashmir tak apne raajya ko badha liya.

ranajeetasinh swayam kuroop the parantu sundar striyaaain aur sundar purush unhe samaan roop se aakrusht karte the aur vah aise logon se ghira rahana pasand karte the.

ranajeetasinh ne peshaavar ko apne adhikaar mein avashya kar liya tha, kintu us soobe par poorn adhikaar karne ke liye use kai varshon tak kada sangharsh karna pada tha. vah poore Punjab ka svaami ban chuka; aur use angrejon ke hastakshep ka saamana naheen karna pada. parantu jis samay angrejon ne naipoliyn ki senaaon ke viruddh sikkhon se sahaayata maaaingi thi, unhein praapt na hui.

ranajeetasinh ne san 1808 E. mein apni mahatvaakaankshini saas sadaakor ke naam peshaavar ka raajya parivrtit kar diya tha. kyonki yeh angrejon ki agent mahila thi. ranajeetasinh ne apni kuchakrapriya saas se jhagada karke use kaid kar liya tha aur hvadani ke gadh ko apne adhikaar mein kar liya tha. british sena ki ek tukadi ne bandi vidhva sadaakaur ko chhudaaya aur adhikaar ko vaapas dilaaya. british sena ke saath ranajeetasinh kisi prakaar ka jhagada naheen chaahate the.

angrejon ki taraf se sandhi ki sharton ko bhang karne ka aarop lagaaya ja sakta tha. isliye chupachaap maun rahakar usane taiyaariyaaain praarambh ki theen fir bhi 1809 E. mein laard minto se sandhi kar li. yadyapi is sandhi se mahaaraaj ko sikkhon mein bahut apamaanit hona pada tha. uparyukt sandhi ke kaaran Punjab ke afagaani raajya tatha Afghanistan ko kuchh had tak aantakit kar sake the. 1802, 1806 tatha 1810 E. mein mulataan par chadhaai ki aur adhikaar kar liya evam shaah shooja se sandhi karke apne yahaaain rakha aur usase ek gilaas paani ke liye 'kohenoor heera' praapt kiya. 1811 E. mein Kabul ke shaah Mehmood ke aakraman ki baat sunakar aur yeh jaankaar ki Mehmood ka iraada kaashmeer ke shaasak par aakraman ka hai, usane kaashmeer par aakraman kar diya taaki Mehmood ko vaapas jaana sambhav ho jaae aur usaki mitrata bhi ise mil jaae. kaashmeer ke baad isne peshaavar par 1822 mein chadhaai kar di, yaaramuhammad khaaain afagaaniyon ka netrutv karta hua bahut bahaaduri se lada lekin ant mein paraajit hua. is yuddh mein sikkhon ka bhi bada nuksaan hua. 1838 mein peshaavar par ranajeetasinh ke adhikaar se bhayabheet hokar dostamuhammad khaaain kaabulanaresh bahut bhayabheet hua aur roos tatha Iran se dosti kar li. is baat ko dhyaan mein rakhakar angrejon ne swayam ranajeetasinh tatha shaahashuja ke saath ek trigutasandhi karaai. mahaaraaja ranajeetasinh asvasth ho rahe the. 1838 mein lakava ka aakraman hua, yadyapi upachaar kiya gaya aur angrej doctoron ne bhi ilaaj kiya, lekin 27 June 1839 E. ko usaka praanaant ho gaya. yeh udaarahrudaya bhi tha. kaashi vishvanaath mandir par jo svarnapatr aaj dikhaai deta hai vah usaki kaasheeyaatra tatha udaarata ka parichaayak hai. usane daan ke liye 47 lakh rupae ki sampatti alag kar rakhi thi. jagannaathamandir par bhi vah kohenoor heera chadhaana chaahata tha lekin us heere ko to videsh mein jaakar chhinn-bhinn hona tha. mahaaraaja ke baad sikkhon ke aapasi vaimanasya, raashtradroh tatha angreji kootaneetijnyaata ka javaab na dene ki asamarthata se sikkh raajya mit gaya.

Kashmir aur kohinoor

mahaaraaj ranajeet Singh ka saamraajya

baat san 1812 ki hai. Punjab par mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ka ekachhatr raajya tha. us samay mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ne Kashmir ke soobedaar ataamohammad ke shikanje se Kashmir ko mukt karaane ka abhiyaan shuroo kiya tha. is abhiyaan se bhayabheet hokar ataamohammad Kashmir chhodkar bhaag gaya. Kashmir abhiyaan ke peechhe ek anya kaaran bhi tha. ataamohammad ne Mehmood shaah dvaara paraajit shaahashuja ko sheragadh ke kile mein kaid kar rakha tha. use kaidakhaane se mukt karaane ke liye usaki begam vafa begam ne Lahore aakar mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh se praarthana ki aur kaha ki meharabaani kar aap mere pati ko ataamohammad ki kaid se riha karva dein, is ehsaan ke badle beshakeemati kohinoor heera aapko bheint kar doongi. shaahashuja ke kaid ho jaane ke baad vafa begam hi un dinon Afghanistan ki shaasika thi. isi kohinoor ko hadapne ke laalach mein Bhaarat par aakraman karne vaale Ahmad shaah abdaali ke pautr jamaan shaah ko swayam usi ke bhaai Mehmood shaah ne kaidakhaane mein bhayankar yaatanaaen dekar usaki aankhein niklava li theen.

jamaan shaah Ahmad shaah abdaali ke bete taimoor shaah ka beta tha, jiska bhaai tha Mehmood shaah. astu, mahaaraaja ranajeeti Singh swayam chaahate the ki ve Kashmir ko ataamohammad se mukt karavaaen. at: suyog aane par mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ne Kashmir ko aajaad kara liya. unke deevaan mohakamachand ne sheragadh ke kile ko gher kar vafa begam ke pati shaahashuja ko riha kar vafa begam ke paas Lahore pahuncha diya. Rajkumar khadgasinh ne unhein mubaarak haveli mein thaharaaya. par vafa begam apne vaade ke anusaar kohinoor heera mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ko bheint karne mein vilamb karti rahi. yahaan tak ki kai maheene beet gaye. jab mahaaraaja ne shaahashuja se kohinoor heere ke baare mein poochha to vah aur usaki begam donon hi bahaane banaane lage. jab jyaada jor diya gaya to unhonne ek nakali heera mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ko saunp diya, jo jauhariyon ke pareekshan ki kasauti par nakali saabit hua. ranajeet Singh krodh se bhar uthe aur mubaarak haveli gher li gayi. do din tak vahaan khaana naheen diya gaya. varsh 1813 ki pehli June thi jab mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh shaahashuja ke paas aae aur fir kohinoor ke vishay mein poochha. dhoort shaahashuja ne kohinoor apni pagadi mein chhipa rakha tha. kisi tarah mahaaraaja ko iska pata chal gaya. at: unhonne shaahashuja ko Kabul ki raajagaddi dilaane ke liye "gurugranth saahab" par haath rakhakar pratijnyaa ki. fir use "pagadi-badal bhaai" banaane ke liye usase pagadi badal kar kohinoor praapt kar liya. parde ki ot mein baithi vafa begam mahaaraaja ki chaturaai samajh gain. ab kohinoor mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ke paas pahunch gaya tha aur ve santusht the ki unhonne Kashmir ko aajaad kara liya tha. unki ichha thi ki ve kohinoor heere ko jagannaathapuri ke mandir mein pratishthit Bhagwan jagannaath ko arpit karein. hindu mandiron ko manon sona bheint karne ke liye ve prasiddh the. kaashi ke vishvanaath mandir mein bhi unhonne akoot sona arpit kiya tha. parantu jagannaath Bhagwan (puri) tak pahunchane ki unki ichha koshaadhyaksh beleeraam ki kuneeti ke kaaran poori na ho saki.

mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ki mrutyu ke pashchaat angrejon ne san 1845 mein sikhon par aakraman kar diya. firojapur kshetr mein sikh sena veerataapoorvak angrejon ka mukaabala kar rahi thi. kintu sikh sena ke hi senaapati laalasinh ne vishvaasaghaat kiya aur morcha chhodkar Lahore palaayan kar gaya. is kaaran vijay ke nikat pahunchakar bhi sikh sena haar gayi. angrejon ne sikhon se kohinoor heera le liya. saath hi Kashmir aur hajaara bhi sikhon se chheen liye kyonki angrejon ne dedh karod rupae ka jurmaana sikhon par kiya tha, arthaabhaav-grast sikh kisi tarah keval 50 lakh rupae hi de paae the. laard haarding ne inglaind ki raani Victoria ko khush karne ke liye kohinoor heera London pahuncha diya, jo "East India company" dvaara raani Victoria ko saunp diya gaya. un dinon mahaaraaja ranajeet Singh ke putr dileep Singh vaheen the. kuchh logon ka kathan hai ki dileep Singh se hi angrejon ne London mein kohinoor hadpa tha. kohinoor ko 1 maah 8 din tak jauhariyon ne taraasha aur fir use raani Victoria ne apne taaj mein jadva liya.

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