mahaanadi

mahaanadi
Mahanadi River.JPG
udeesa mein mahaanadi
desh Bhaarat
mukhya shahar dhamatari, aarang, sirpur, shivreenaaraayan, chan‍aadrapur, sanbalapur, Cuttack, Champaran, sanbalapur
lambaai 885 ki.mi. (550 meal)
udgam sihva Raipur Chhattisgarh
mukh Bengal ki khaadi
mukhya sahaayak nadiyaaain
- vaamaangi shivnaath, pairi, sondhur, hasadev, arapa
- dakshinaangi jonk, jonk, khaaroon
महानदी उपग्रह से लिया गया चित्र
mahaanadi upagrah se liya gaya chitr

Chhattisgarh tatha udeesa anchal ki sabse badi nadi hai. praacheenakaal mein mahaanadi ka naam chitrotpala[k] tha. mahaananda evam neelotpala bhi mahaanadi ke hi naam hain. mahaanadi ka udgam Raipur ke sameep dhamatari jile mein sthit sihaava naamak parvat shreni se hua hai. mahaanadi ka pravaah dakshin se uttar ki taraf hai. sihaava se nikalkar raajim mein yeh jab pairi aur sodhul nadiyon ke jal ko grahan karti hai tab tak vishaal rup dhaaran kar chuki hoti hai. aitihaasik nagari aarang aur uske baad sirpur mein vah viksit hokar shivreenaaraayan mein apne naam ke anurup mahaanadi ban jaati hai. mahaanadi ki dhaara is dhaarmik sthal se mud jaati hai aur dakshin se uttar ke bajaay yeh poorv disha mein bahne lagti hai. sanbalapur mein jile mein pravesh lekar mahaanadi chhtteesagadh se bida le leti hai. apni poori yaatra ka aadhe se adhik bhaag vah Chhattisgarh mein bitaati hai. sihaava se nikalkar Bengal ki khaadi mein girne tak mahaanadi lagbhag 855 ki॰mee॰ ki doori tay karti hai. Chhattisgarh mein mahaanadi ke tat par dhamatari, kaanker, chaaraama, raajim, champaaran, aarang, sirpur, shivri Narayan aur udeesa mein sambalapur, balaangeer, Cuttack aadi sthaan hain tatha pairi, sondhur, shivnaath, hasadev, arapa, jonk, tel aadi mahaanadi ki pramukh sahaayak nadiyaaain hain. mahaanadi ka delta Cuttack nagar se lagbhag saat meal pehle se shuroo hota hai. yahaaain se yeh kai dhaaraaon mein vibhkt ho jaati hai tatha Bengal ki khaadi mein mil jaati hai. is par bane pramukh baaaindh hain- rudri, gangarel tatha heeraakund. yeh nadi poorvi Madhya Pradesh aur udeesa ki seemaaon ko bhi nirdhaarit karti hai.

anukram

itihaas

atyant praacheen hone ke kaaran mahaanadi ka itihaas puraan shreni ka hai. aitihaasak granthon ke anusaar mahaanadi aur usaki sahaayak nadiyaaain praacheen shuklamat parvat se nikli hain. iska praacheen naam mandavaahini bhi tha aisa ullekh na keval itihaasakaar hi naheen balki bhoogolavid bhi karte hain. mahaanadi ke sambandh mein bheeshm parv mein varnan hai jismein kaha gaya hai ki bhaarateeya praja chitrotpala ka jal peeti thi. arthaat mahaabhaarat kaal mein mahaanadi ke tat par aaryo ka nivaas tha. raamaayan kaal mein bhi poorv ikshvaaku vansh ke nareshon ne mahaanadi ke tat par apna raajya sthaapit kiya tha. muchakund, dandak, kalmaashapaad, bhaanumant aadi ka shaasan praacheen dakshin kosal mein tha. mahaanadi ki ghaati ki apni vishisht sabhyata hai. is aitihaasik nadi ke taton se shuru hui yeh sabhyata dheere dheere nagaron tak pahuainchi.

bhoogol

mahaanadi ka udgam dhamatari jile mein sthit sihaava naamak parvat shreni se hua hai. mahaanadi ka pravaah dakshin se uttar ki taraf hai. yeh pravaah pranaali ke anurup sthalakhand ke dhaal ke svabhaav ke anusaar bahti hai isliye ek svayanbhoo jaladhaara hai. pradesh ki seemaant uchch bhoomi se nikalne waali mahaanadi ki anya sahaayak nadiyaaain kendreeya maidaan ki or pravaahit hoti hui mahaanadi se samakon par milkar jal sanchaya karti hain. nadiyon ki jalakshamata ke hisaab se yeh godaavari nadi ke baad doosare kram par hai. Chhattisgarh mein 286 ki॰mee॰ ki yaatra ke is padaav mein mahaanadi seemaant seedhiyon se utarate samay chhoti-chhoti nadiyaaain prapaat bhi banaati hain. mahaanadi ki anek sahaayak nadiyaaain hain. shivnaath nadi Chhattisgarh ki doosari sabse badi nahi hai jo mahaanadi mein shivreenaaraayan mein milti hai. pairi nadi ek aur sahaayak nadi hai jo vrundaanakagadh jameendaari se niklati hi raajim kshetr mein mahaanadi se milti hai. iske atirikt khaaroon tatha arapa nadiyaaain bhi shivnaath nadi mein samaahit hokar mahaanadi ki vishaal jalaraashi ka hissa banti hain.

dhaarmik mahatva

raajim mein prayaag ki tarah mahaanadi ka sammaan hai. hajaaron log yahaaain snaan karne pahuainchate hain. shivreenaaraayan mein bhi Bhagwan jagannaath ki katha hai. ganga ke samaan pavitra hone ke kaaran mahaanadi ke tat par anek dhaarmik, saanskrutik aur lalit kala ke kendra sthit hain. sirpur, raajim, malhaar, kharaud, shivreenaaraayan, chandrapur aur sanbalapur pramukh nagar hain. sirpur mein gandheshvar, roodri mein roodreshvar, raajim mein Rajiv lochan aur kuleshvar, malhaar paataaleshvar, kharaud mein lakshmaneshvar, shivreenaaraayan mein Bhagwan Narayan, chandrachood mahaadev, maheshvar mahaadev, annapoorna devi, lakshmeenaaraayan, shreeraamalakshmanajaanaki aur jagannaath, balabhadr aur subhadra ka bhavya mandir hai. giraudapuri mein guroo ghaaseedaas ka peeth aur turaturiya mein love kush ki janm sthali baalmiki aashram hone ke pramaan milte hain. isi prakaar chandrapur mein maan chandraseni aur sanbalapur mein samaleshvari devi ka varchasv hai. isi kaaran Chhattisgarh mein inhein kaashi aur prayaag ke samaan pavitra aur mokshadaayi maana gaya hai. shivreenaaraayan mein Bhagwan Narayan ke charan ko sparsh karti hui rohini kund hai jiske darshan aur jal ka aachaman karne se moksh ki praapti hoti hai. suprasidhd praacheen saahityakaar pandit maalikraam bhogaha iska varnan karte hue kehte hain ki is nadi mein snaan karne se sabhi paapon se mukti mil jaati hai.[gh]

vyaavasaayik mahatva

ek samay mein mahaanadi aavaagaman ka saadhan ban jaati thi. naav ke dvaara log mahaanadi ke maadhyam se yaatra karte the. vyaapaarik drushti se bhi yeh yaatra upayogi thi. itihaasakaar ullekh karte hain ki pehle is nadi ke jalamaarg se Calcutta tak vastuon ka aayaat-niryaat hua karta tha. Chhattisgarh ke utpann hone waali anek vastuon ko mahaanadi aur usaki sahaayak nadiyon ke maarg ke samudra-tat ke baajaaron tak bheja jaata tha. mahaanadi par July se February ke beech naavein chalti thi. aaj bhi anek kshetron mein log mahaanadi mein naav se is paar se us paar ya chhoti-moti yaatra karte hain. mahaanadi ke tatavarti kshetron aur aaspaas heera milne ke tathya bhi mile hain. gibsan naamak ek angrej vidvaan ne apni report mein iska ullekh bhi kiya hai. uske anusaar sanbalapur ke nikat heeraakood arthaat heeraakund naamak sthaan ek chhota-sa dweep hai. yahaaain heera mila karta tha. in heeron ki rom mein badi khapat thi. mahaanadi mein rom ke sikke ke paaye jaane ko ve is tathya se jodte hain. vhenasaang ne bhi apni yaatra mein likha tha ki madhyadesh se heera lekar log kaling mein becha karte the, yeh madhyadesh sanbalapur hi tha. Ali yuropiyn trevhalars in Nagpur tereetari naamak british rikaard jo san 1766 ka hai mein ullekh hai ki ek angrej ko is baat ke liye bheja gaya tha ki vah sanbalapur jaakar vahaaain heere ke vyaapaar ki sambhaavnaaon ka pata lagaaye. heeraakund baandh bhi isi mahaanadi ko baandh kar banaaya gaya hai.

saanskrutik mahatva

mahaanadi ne Chhattisgarh mein sarvaadhik nadi-sabhyata ko janm diya hai. Chhattisgarh ki praacheen rajdhani sirpur mahaanadi ke tat par sthit hai. mahaanadi ki ghaati ki apni vishisht sabhyata hai jo itihaas mein darj hai. mahaanadi aur usaki sahaayak nadiyaaain Punjab ki sindhu aur uske sahaayak nadiyon ke samaan gaurav-gaatha se samruddh hai. mahaanadi ki vishaalata aur iske mahatva ko dekhkar ise mahaanadi ki upaadhi di gayi hai.[1] mahaabhaarat ke bheeshm parv mein chitrotpala nadi ko punyadaayini aur paap vinaashini kehkar stuti ki gayi hai[kh]. someshvaradev ke mahuda taamrapatr mein mahaanadi ko chitrotpala-ganga kaha gaya hai[g]. mahaanadi ko ganga kehne ke baare mein maanyata hai ki tretaayug mein shrrungi rishi ka aashram sihaava ki pahaadi mein tha. ve ayodhya mein mahaaraaja dasharath ke nivedan par putreshthi yagya karaakar laute the. unke kamandal mein yagya mein prayukt ganga ka pavitra jal bhara tha. samaadhi se uthate samay kamandal ka abhimantrit jal gir pada aur bahakar mahaanadi ke udgam mein mil gaya. gangaajal ke milne se mahaanadi ganga ke samaan pavitra ho gayi.

sandarbh

  1. "mahaanadi ki sanskruti ka pravaah" (echateeem). srujanagaatha. http://www.srijangatha.com/2007-08/September07/lok-alok-dr.trisha%20sharma.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.

teeka tippani

k. ^ “achitrotpala chitrarathaan manjulaan vaahini tatha. mandaakineen vaitaraneen koshaan chaapi mahaanadeem..” --(mahaabhaarat – bheeshmaparv – 9/34)
“amandaakineedashaarna ch chitrakoota tathaiv ch. tamasa pippaleeshyeni tatha chitrotpalaapi ch..” --(matsya puraanbhaaratavarsh varnan prakaran – 50/25)
“achitrotpala vetravapi karamoda pishaachika. tathaanyaatilghushroni vipaaya shevala nadi..” (brahm puraanbhaaratavarsh varnan prakaran – 19/31)
kh. ^ utpaleshan sabhaasaadya yeevachchitra maheshvari. chitrotpaleti kathita sarvapaap pranaashini. (mahaabhaarat bheeshmaparv)
g. ^ yaspaadharodhastan chandanaanaan prakshaalanaadavaari kavahaar kaale. chitrotpala svarnaavati gataaऽpi gangorbhi sansaktabhivaavimaati.
gh. ^ rohini kundahi sparsh kari chitrotpal jal nhaaya. yog bhrasht yogi mukati paavat paap bahaaya.