mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh (dviteeya vishvayuddh)

mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh ka prachaarapatr
"maatrubhoomi bula rahi hai"
hitlar vaalon ka jaloos

soviyt sangh ka mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh (roosi: Вaaеaaлaaиaaкaaаaaя Оaaтaaеaaчaaеaaсaaтaaвaaеaaнaaнaaаaaя Вaоaйaнaа - veleekaya otechestvennaya voyna) - ya dviteeya vishvayuddh, jo soviyt janta ke liye 1941-1945 varshon mein vishesh roop se apne desh ke astitv ki raksha ko lekar sab se badi ghatna ke roop mein duniya ke itihaas mein jaana jaata hai. is yuddh mein do karod assi lakh se zyaada soviyt nivaasi maare gaye.

anukram

aarambh

san 1933 mein Germany mein hitlar ke netrutv mein faasiston ne satta hathiya li, jarman janta ke janavaadi adhikaaron aur aajaadi ko dafna diya aur desh mein apna khooni truteeya saamraajya (jarman: Drittes Reich "dreettes raykh") kaayam kar liya. hajaaron faasist-virodhiyon ko jailon aur najraband-kainpon mein thooains diya gaya. jarman sarkaar ne badi bhaari hamlaavar fauj khadi ki aur naveenatam jangi saaj-saamaan se use lais kiya. Germany ki saari arth-vyavastha yuddh ki taiyaari mein jut gayi.
faasist aakraman ka pehla shikaar hua Spain. baad mein kramash: ostriya, chekoslovaakiya aur Poland ki baari aayi. Britain aur fraaains ne September, 1939 mein Germany par yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. May-June 1940 mein faasist Germany ne fraans par kbja kar liya. Europe ke bahut bade ilaake mein faasiston ki nayi vyavastha (jarman: Die Neue Ordnung "di noiye ordanung") laagoo kar di gayi, jis ke kaaryakram ke anusaar kuchh jaatiyon tatha raashtreeya alpasankhyakon, vishesh roop se yahoodi, slaav, neegro aur jipsi logon ka tatha samalingi aur yehova ke saakshiyon ke vinaash ko nishchit kiya jaata tha.

san 1941 - soviyt sangh par chadhaai

soviyt sangh par chadhaai

22 June 1941 ki subah ko jarman faasiston ne soviyt sangh ke saath hui anaakraman-sandhi bhang kar ke soviyt desh par chadhaai kar di. tab se soviyt logon ka mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh shuroo hua.
yuddh ke pehle daur mein faasist sena ke paas laal sena ke mukaabale mein zyaada sainik tatha afsar aur fauji saaj-saamaan, khaas taur se tank tatha vimaan the aur is kaaran laal sena peechhe hatne ke liye vivsh thi. soviyt sarkaar ke aahvaan par faasist Germany aur us ke saathi-raashtron ke khilaaf mukti-sangraam ladne ke liye saari soviyt janta uth khadee ho gayi.

pehle faasist janaralon ka khyaal tha ki soviyt sangh par jaldi aur aasaani se ve vijay haasil kar leinge. 1941 ki sharad mein faasist Moscow ke najdeek pahuainch gaye. Moscow ke nikat unhon ne apni mukhya faujein jama to kar leen, magar Moscow par kbja karna un se na ho saka. December, 1941 mein Moscow ke paas hitlari faujon ki kamar tod di gayi aur unhein peechhe khaded diya gaya. pehli baar faasist senaaon ko itni sakht paraajaya ka muainh dekhna padaa. itne mein faasiston ke kbje mein aaye hue ilaakon ke logon se chhaapemaar sangharsh chalaane ke liye soviyt sarkaar ki or se appeal ki gayi aur in kshetron mein bahut se chhaapemaar daste tatha gupt sangathan kaayam hue jinhon ne faasist hamlaavaron ke khilaaf sangharsh chhed diya aur vishaal morche par ladti soviyt faujon ko sahaayata di.

leningraad ki naakebandi

leningraad shahar (1991 se seint peetarsabarg) ke najdeek faasist faujein September ke shuroo mein pahuainch gain aur chhaapa maar kar us par kbja karne ki kai baar koshish ki. par un ki sabhi koshishein asafal ho gayeen. tab hitlari kamaan ne shahar ki naakebandi shuroo karne ka hukm diya. leningraad ke sabhi thal-maarg kaat diye gaye aur shahar sab or se faasist daston dvaara gher liya gaya. jarmanon ne shahar par golaabaari aur havaai bamabaari aarambh kar di. naakebandi 8 September 1941 ko shuroo hui aur 900 din jaari rahi. ghere mein rahate samay 9,42,803 leningraadavaasi bhookhon mare. par leningraad ke kaarakhaanon mein tank, topein, masheenaganein vagairah hathiyaar banaaye ja rahe the. tank kaarakhaanon se seedhe hi morche par chale jaate the jo bahut hi najdeek tha. leningraad ki zaroori madad karne ke, mukhya roop se khaane ki cheejein vahaaain pahuainchaane ke liye ladoga jheel par jami barf ke oopar se 160 kilometer lamba raasta banaaya gaya. leningraadavaalon ke liye khaane ki cheejein le kar laariyaaain is raaste se jaati theen. faasist is par bam barasaate the, fir bhi aisi kathin paristhitiyon mein bhi leningraad ke rakshakon ko sahaayata uttarottar adhik maatra mein pahuainchati jaati thi.
18 January 1944 ko laal sena ne naakebandi tod di aur January maheene ke ant mein leningraad ke paas khadee faasist faujon ko chakanaachoor kar diya. is tarah shahar aajaad kara diya gaya.

san 1942 - staalingraad ki ladaai

staalingraad ki ladaai

faasist Germany se joojhane mein soviyt sangh ke mitr-raashtron Britain aur sanyukt raajya America ne pashchimi Europe mein doosra morcha kholne ka apna vaada poora naheen kiya jis se faayda utha kar faasiston ne soviyt-jarman morche ke dakshini bhaag par 1942 ki garmiyon mein bhaari faujein jama keen. unhon ne donabaas par kbja kar liya aur staalingraad (1961 se volgograad) ki or badh aaye. tainkon, topon tatha havaai jahaajon se lais das lakh se zyaada sainikon aur afsaron ko jarman kamaan ne staalingraad par dhaava bolne ke liye bheja. pachaas hajaar se zyaada staalingraadavaalon ne morchebandiyaaain majboot keen. yuddhon ke itihaas mein sab se sakht ladaai staalingraad ke paas ladee gayi.
September, 1942 ke madhya mein jarman staalingraad ke andar ghus pade. volga nadi tak pahuainchane mein bhi faasist kaamayaab ho gaye. ek-ek sadak, ek-ek ghar, ek-ek manjil, yahaaain tak ki ek-ek kamre ke liye bhi shahar mein ghamaasaan ladaai chhid gayi, jo ek sau chaalees din jaari rahi. aakhir 19 November 1942 ki subah ko laal sena ke daston ne hamle ki kaarravaaiyaaain shuroo keen aur chaar dinon ke andar staalingraad ke paas faasiston ko gher liya. jarmanon ke teen lakh tees hajaar sainik tatha afsar badee bhaari maatra mein yuddh-saadhanon samet laal sena ke ghere mein aa gaye. 2 fravari 1943 ko staalingraad ke paas ki ladaai faasiston par soviyt sipaahiyon ki vijay ke saath samaapt ho gayi. volga ke kinaare aur staalingraad ki deevaaron se faasist hamlaavaron se soviyt bhoomi ko mukt karne ka, faasist gulaami se Europe ki janataaon ko aajaad karaane ka abhiyaan shuroo hua.

san 1943 - soviyt sena ke morche par hamle ki kaarravaaiyaaain

staalingraad ke paas soviyt sainikon ki vijay ne dviteeya vishvayuddh ka saara rukh badal diya. is vijay ke baad faasi vaad ke viruddh Europe ke logon aur Japani saamraajyavaad ke viruddh Asia ki janataaon ka sangharsh jor pakadta gaya. faasist senaaon ki staalingraad ke paas sakht paraajaya hui, par unhon ne ek nayi yojana banaayi aur us ka naam rakha "sitedal". is yojana ke anusaar faasist kamaan ka iraada tha ki koorsk shahar ke paas ke ilaake mein soviyt daston ko gher kar un ka vinaash kar diya jaae aur fir Moscow par kbja kar ke ladaai ko jaldi se samaapt kar diya jaae. faasiston ka yeh iraada soviyt kamaan ne bhaaainp liya aur morche ke koorskavaale hisse par soviyt daston ne shaktishaali morchebandiyon ka jaal bichha diya. 5 July 1943 ki subah ko faasist faujon ne koorsk shahar ke paas laal sena ke daston ke khilaaf hamle ki kaarravaaiyaaain shuroo kar Dean. is ladaai mein faasiston ne behad badee sankhya mein tank, vimaan aur topein jhonk Dean.

koorsk ka sangraam

laal sena ke daston ne faasiston ka hamla rok diya aur fir khud un par toot pade. koorsk ke sangraam mein jarman apne paaainch lakh se zyaada sainikon-afsaron se haath dho baithe. koorsk ke paas ki vijay ke baad soviyt daston ne uttar se dakshin tak tamaam vishaal morche par hamle ki kaarravaai ek saath chaaloo kar di. 23 August 1943 ke din soviyt daston ne ukraaina ke audyogik shahar khaarakov (khaarkeevh) ko aajaad kiya jis se dnepar nadi ke baayein tateeya ukraaina ko poorn roop se mukt karne ke liye uchit paristhitiyaaain utpann ho gain. October, 1943 ke shuroo tak saara uttari kokeshiya aajaad kar diya gaya. saath hi laal sena ke daste kai nukton par dnepar nadi paar kar gaye aur daayein tateeya ukraaina se faasist hamlaavaron ko khadedna shuroo kar diya. 9 November 1943 ko laal sainikon ne ukraaina ki rajdhani keev shahar ko aajaad kiya. 1943 ki garmiyon aur patajhad mein laal sena ke daston ne behad lambe-chaude ilaake ko - jarmanon ke kbje mein aayi soviyt bhoomi ke do-tihaai bhaag ko - aajaad kar diya.

san 1944 - pashchimi morcha

pashchimi Europe mein doosra morcha:
naarmandi ki ladaai

1944 ki garmiyaaain hote-na-hote soviyt ukraaina ka kshetr hamlaavaron se mukt ho gaya. laal sena ke daste chekoslovaakiya aur romaaniya ki raajya-seema paar kar gaye. morche par ki sthiti badal gayi. yeh saaf ho gaya ki soviyt sangh apni hi taakt se faasist Germany ko aur us ke saathi-raashtron ko hara sakta hai aur faasist gulaami se Europe ki janataaon ko aajaad kara sakta hai. in paristhitiyon ke anukool soviyt sangh ke jangi mitr-raashtron - Britain aur san0 raa0 America - ne 9 June 1944 ko naarmandi mein apna faujein utaareen. is tarah pashchimi Europe mein doosra morcha aakhir khula to, magar do saal ki deri se. faasist Germany soviyt sangh ke jangi mitr-raashtron ki faujon ka dat kar mukaabala na kar saki, kyonki us ki sabhi mukhya senaaeain soviyt-jarman morche par ulajhi hui theen.

1944 ki garmiyon mein soviyt sena ke daston ne faasist faujon par muainh-tod vaar kiye aur teji se pashchim ki or badhte chale. June-August, 1944 mein soviyt daston ne Belarus mein faasist sena ke sab se bade tukade ko gher kar chakanaachoor kar diya. jarman ke paaainch lakh chaalees hajaar sainik maare gaye aur bandi banaaye gaye. is tarah 1944 ki patajhad tak soviyt sena ne faasiston ke kbje mein aayi saari soviyt dharati aajaad kar li. lekin jarmanon ke paas ab bhi ladne ki badee taakt baaki thi. faasist sena ki mukhya shaktiyaaain - 200 se adhik diveejanein - pehle hi ki tarah soviyt-jarman morche par jama theen. apne kshetr ko aajaad karne ke baad soviyt sena ke daston ne Europe ke logon ko faasist gulaami se mukt hone mein madad di. 1944 ki garmiyon mein polish sena khadee karne, use hathiyaaron se lais karne aur Poland se faasiston ko khadedne mein soviyt sainikon ne polish janta ki sahaayata ki. polish janta ne jan-sarkaar kaayam ki. soviyt sena ke daston ke vaaron se faasist gut gir padaa. faasist Germany ke saathi-raashtra ek ke baad ek us se alag ho gaye. romaaniya, bulgaariya aur Hungary ke janataaon ne apne yahaaain ki faasist sarkaaron ko ulat diya aur jan-sarkaarein kaayam keen jinhon ne faasist Germany par yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. fir soviyt sena ke daston ne yugoslaav mukti-sena se mil kar faasiston ko yugoslaaviya se bhi maar bhagaaya.

san 1945 - sattaavaadi Germany par vijay

barlin ke "raykhstaag" par soviyt sangh ka jhanda

1945 ke shuroo tak faasist Germany apne tamaam saathiyon ko kho chuki thi. fir bhi ladaai jaari rahi. jarmanon ki pradhaan senaaeain soviyt sena ke daston se bhidee hui theen. paschimi Europe ke morche par faasist sena yadyapi kam sankhya mein thi tathaapi hitlari kamaan ne December, 1944 ke shuroo mein aardeins ke pahaadee kshetr mein british tatha ameriki faujon ke khilaaf hamla aarambh kar diya. sattaavaadi prabhaag morcha tod kar aage badheen. british tatha Amreeki faujein zabardast khtare mein pad gayeen. isliye british sarkaar ne soviyt sangh ki sarkaar se appeal ki ki vah soviyt-jarman morche par laal sena ke daston ka hamla jaldi shuroo kare. soviyt sarkaar ne laal sena ke daston ko aadesh diya ki ve 12 January 1945 ko, nirdhaarit samay se dedh hafte pehle hi hamla shuroo kar dein. soviyt daston ka abhiyaan baaltik saagar se le kar kaarpathiyaai pahaadon tak ke vishaal morche par ek saath shuroo hua. is tarah soviyt sainikon ne mitr-raashtron ki senaaon ko paraajaya se bachaaya. soviyt daston ke hamle ne sattaavaadi kamaan ko pashchim mein jangi kaarravaaiyaaain band kar apni diveejanein soviyt-jarman morche par vaapas laane ke liye vivsh kiya.

soviyt daste sattaavaadi Germany ki rajdhani barlin ke nikat pahuainch gaye. ab sattaavaadi Germany ki sena poorn paraajaya se koi bhi cheej bacha naheen sakti thi. 25 April 1945 ko soviyt daston ne barlin ki raksha-sena ko gher liya. soviyt sainikon ka barlin par hamla 29 apraul ko shuroo hua aur 27 April tak is vishaal nagar ka bahut badaa hissa soviyt daston ke kbje mein aa chuka tha. 30 April ko soviyt sipaahiyon ne barlin shahar ke sansad-bhavan (jarman: Reichstag "raykhstaag") par chhaapa maar kar kbja kar liya aur us par laal jhanda fahara diya. 2 May ko soviyt daston ne saare barlin shahar par kbja kar liya aur faasist nagar-sena ke bache sainikon ne apne afsaron ke saath aatmasamarpan kar diya. barlin par kbja karne ke baad soviyt daston ne chekoslovaakiya ki rajdhani praag ko aajaad karaaya. praagavaalon ne hathiyaarband vidroh kiya tha, is kaaran faasist shahar ka vinaash karna aur sabhi shahariyon ko ktl karna chaahate the. soviyt tainkon ne barlin se praag tak ka faasala ek hi din mein tay kar ke praag ko bacha diya. 8 May 1945 ko faasist Germany ke bila shart aatmasamarpan karne ke sandhiptr par hastaakshar hue. mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh faasist raajyon ke hamlaavar gut ki poori paraajaya ke saath samaapt ho gaya.
9 May 1945 ko soviyt sangh ne faasist Germany ko chakanaachoor kar ke us par vijay ka diwas manaaya.