mahaakaavya

sanskrut kaavyashaastr mein mahaakaavya (epik) ka pratham sootrabaddh lakshan aachaarya bhaamah ne prastut kiya hai aur paravarti aachaaryon mein dandi, rudrat tatha vishvanaath ne apne apne dhang se is lakshan ka vistaar kiya hai. aachaarya vishvanaath ka lakshananiroopan is parampara mein antim hone ke kaaran sabhi poorvavarti maton ke saarasankalan ke roop mein upalabdh hai.

anukram

mahaakaavya ke lakshan

aachaarya vishvanaath ke anusaar mahaakaavya ka lakshan is prakaar hai :

jismein sargon ka nibandhan ho vah mahaakaavya kahalaata hai. ismein devata ya sadrush kshatriya, jismein dheerodaattatvaadi gun hon, naayak hota hai. kaheen ek vansh ke anek satkuleen bhoop bhi naayak hote hain. shrungaar, veer aur shaant mein se koi ek ras angi hota hai tatha anya sabhi ras ang roop hote hain. usamein sab naatakasandhiyaaain rahati hain. katha aitihaasik athva sajjanaashrit hoti hai. chaturvarg (dharm, arth, kaam, moksh) mein se ek usaka fal hota hai. aarambh mein namaskaar, aasheervaad ya varnyavastunirdesh hota hai. kaheen khalon ki ninda tatha sajjanon ka gunakathan hota hai. na atyalp aur na atideergh ashtaadhik sarg hote hain jinmein se pratyek ki rachana ek hi chhand mein ki jaati hai aur sarg ke ant mein chhandaparivrtan hota hai. kaheen-kaheen ek hi sarg mein anek chhand bhi hote hain. sarg ke ant mein aagaami katha ki soochana honi chaahiye. usamein sandhya, soorya, chandrama, raatri, pradosh, andhakaar, din, praat:kaal, madhyaahn, mrugaya, parvat, ritu, van, saagar, sanyog, vipralanbh, muni, svarg, nagar, yagya, sangraam, yaatra aur vivaah aadi ka yathaasanbhav saangopaang varnan hona chaahiye (saahityadarpan, parichhed 6,315-324).

aachaarya vishvanaath ka uparyukt niroopan mahaakaavya ke svaroop ki vaigyaanik evam kramabaddh paribhaasha prastut karne ke sthaan par usaki pramukh aur gaun visheshataaon ka kramaheen vivran upasthit karta hai. iske aadhaar par sanskrut kaavyashaastr mein upalabdh mahaakaavya ke lakshanon ka saar is prakaar kiya ja sakta hai :

kathaanak - mahaakaavya ka kathaanak aitihaasik athva itihaasaashrit hona chaahiye.

vistaar - kathaanak ka kalaver jeevan ke vividh roopon evam varnanon se samruddh hona chaahiye. ye varnan praakrutik, saamaajik aur raajeetik kshetron se is prakaar sanbanddh hone chaahiye ki inke maadhyam se maanav jeevan ka poorn chitr uske sampoorn vaibhav, vaichitrya evam vistaar ke saath upasthit ho sake. iseeliye usaka aayaam (ashtaadhik sargon mein) vistrut hona chaahiye.

vinyaas - kathaanak ki sanghatana naatya sandhiyon ke vidhaan se yukt honi chaahiye arthaat mahaakaavya ke kathaanak ka vikaas kramik hona chaahiye. usaki aadhikaarik katha evam anya prakaranon ka paarasparik sambandh upakaarya-upakaarak-bhaav se hona chaahiye tatha inmein auchityapoorn poorvaapar anviti rahani chaahiye.

naayak - mahaakaavya ka naayak devata ya sadrush kshatriya ho, jiska charitra dheerodaatt gunon se samanvit ho - arthaat vah mahaasattv, atyant gambhir, kshamaavaan aviktthan, sthircharitr, nigoodh, ahankaaravaan aur drudhvrat hona chaahiye. paatr bhi usi ke anuroop vishisht vyakti, raajaputr, muni aadi hone chaahiye.

ras - mahaakaavya mein shrungaar, veer, shaant evam karun mein se kisi ek ras ki sthiti angi roop mein tatha anya rason ki ang roop mein hoti hai.

fal - mahaakaavya sadvrut hota hai - arthaat usaki pravrutti Shiv evam satya ki or hoti hai aur usaka uddeshya hota hai chatuvarg ki praapti.

shaili - shaili ke sandarbh mein sanskrut ke aachaaryon ne praaya: atyant sthool roodhiyon ka ullekh kiya hai. udaaharanaarth ek hi chhand mein sarg rachana tatha sargaant me chhandaparivrtan, ashtaadhik sargon mein vibhaajan, naamakaran ka aadhaar aadi. parantu mahaakaavya ke anya lakshanon ke aalok mein yeh spasht hi hai ki mahaakaavya ki shaili naanaavarnan kshama, vistaaragarbha, shravya vrutton se alankrut, mahaapraan honi chaahiye. aachaarya bhaamah ne is bhaasha ko saalankaar, agraamya shabdon se yukt arthaat shisht naagar bhaasha kaha hai.

mahaakaavya ke sambandh mein pashchimi mat

mahaakaavya ke jin lakshanon ka niroopan bhaarateeya aachaaryon ne kiya, shabdabhed se unheen se milti-julati visheshataaon ka ullekh pashchim ke aachaaryon ne bhi kiya hai. arastoo ne traasadi se mahaakaavya ki tulana karte hue kaha hai ki "geet evam drushyavighaan ke atirikt (mahaakaavya aur traasadi) donon ke ang bhi samaan hi hain." arthaat mahaakaavya ke mool tatv chaar hain - kathaavastu, charitra, vichaaratatv aur padaavali (bhaasha).

kathaavastu

kathaavastu ke sambandh mein unka mat hai ki

  • (1) mahaakaavya ki kathaavastu ek or shuddh aitihaasik yathaarth se bhinn hoti hai or doosari or sarvatha kaalpanik bhi naheen hoti. vah prakhyaat (jaateeya dantakathaaon par aashrit) honi chaahiye aur usamein yathaarth se bhavyatar jeevan ka ankan hona chaahiye.
  • (2) usaka aayaam vistrut hona chaahiye jiske antargat vividh upaakhyaanon ka samaavesh ho sake. "usamein apni seemaaon ka vistaar karne ki badi kshamata hoti hai" kyonki traasadi ki bhaanti vah rangamanch ki deshakaal sambandhi seemaaon mein paribddh naheen hota. usamein anek ghatnaaon ka sahaj samaavesh ho sakta hai jisse ek or kaavya ko ghanatv aur garima praapt hoti hai aur doosari or anek upaakhyaanon ke niyojan ke kaaran rochak vaividhya utpann ho jaata hai.
  • (3) kintu kathaanak ka yeh vistaar aniyantrit naheen hona chaahiye. usamein ek hi kaarya hona chaahiye jo aadi madhya avsaan se yukt evam svat: poorn ho. samast upaakhyaan isi pramukh kaarya ke saath sanbanddh aur is prakaar se gunfit hon ki unka parinaam ek hi ho.
  • (4) iske atirikt traasadi ke vastusangathan ke anya gun -- poorvaaparakram, sanbhaavyata tatha kutoohala—aabhi mahaakaavya mein yathaavat vidyamaan rahate hain. usaki paridhi mein adbhut evam atipraakrut tatv ke liye adhik avakaash rahata hai aur kutoohal ki sambhaavana bhi mahaakaavya mein apekshaakrut adhik rahati hai. kathaanak ke sabhi kutoohalavardhak ang, jaise sthitivipryaya, abhigyaan, sanvruti aur vivruti, mahaakaavya ka bhi utkarsh karte hain.

paatr

mahaakaavya ke paatron ke sambandh mein arastoo ne keval itna kaha hai ki "mahaakaavya aur traasadi mein yeh samaanata hai ki usamein bhi uchchatar koti ke paatron ki padyabaddh anukruti rahati hai." traasadi ke paatron se samaanata ke aadhaar par yeh nishkarsh nikaalna kathin naheen ki mahaakaavya ke paatr bhi praaya: traasadi ke samaan - bhadr, vaibhavashaali, kuleen aur yashasvi hone chaahiye. rudrat ke anusaar mahaakaavya mein pratinaayak aur uske kul ka bhi varnan hota hai.

prayojan aur prabhaav

arastoo ke anusaar mahaakaavya ka prabhaav aur prayojan bhi traasadi ke samaan hona chaahiye, arthaat manovegon ka virechan, usaka prayojan aur tajjanya man:shaanti usaka prabhaav hona chaahiye. yeh prabhaav naitik athva raagaatmak athva donon prakaar ka ho sakta hai.

bhaasha, shaili aur chhand

arastoo ke shabdon mein mahaakaavya ki shaili ka bhi "poorn utkarsh yeh hai ki vah prasann (prasaadagun yukt) ho kintu kshudr na ho." arthaat garima tatha prasaadagun mahaakaavya ki shaili ke mool tatv hain aur garima ka aadhaar hai asaadhaaranata. unke mataanusaar mahaakaavya ki bhaashaashaili traasadi ki karunamadhur alankrut shaili se bhinn, lokaatikraant prayogon se kalaatmak, udaatt evam garimaavarishth honi chaahiye.

mahaakaavya ki rachana ke liye ve aadi se ant tak ek hi chhand - veer chhand - ke prayog par bal dete hain kyonki usaka roop anya vrutton ki apeksha adhik bhavya evam garimaamaya hota hai jismein aprachalit evam laakshanik shabd badi saralata se antarbhukt ho jaate hain. paravarti vidvaanon ne bhi mahaakaavya ke vibhinn tatvon ke sandarbh mein unheen visheshataaon ka punaraakhyaan kiya hai jinka ullekh aachaarya arastoo kar chuke the. veerakaavya (mahaakaavya) ka aadhaar sabhi ne jaateeya gaurav ki puraakathaaon ko sveekaar kiya hai. John heringatan veerakaavya ke liye aitihaasik aadhaarabhoomi ki aavashyakta par bal dete hain aur speinsar veerakaavya ke liye vaibhav aur garima ko aadhaarbhoot tatv maanate hain. France ke kavi aalochakon pailetiye, vokalein aur ronasaar aadi ne bhi mahaakaavya ki kathaavastu ko sarvaadhik garimaayam, bhavya aur udaatt karte hue uske antargat aise vaataavaran ke nirmaan ka aagrah kiya hai jo kshudr ghatnaaon se mukt evam bhavya ho.

saaraansh

bhaarateeya aur paashchaatya aalochakon ke uparyukt niroopan ki tulana karne par spasht ho jaata hai ki donon mein hi mahaakaavya ke vibhinn tatvon ke sandarbh mein ek hi gun par baar-baar shabdabhed se bal diya gaya hai aur vah hai - bhavyata evam garima, jo audaatya ke ang hain. vaastav mein, mahaakaavya vyakti ki chetna se anupraanit na hokar samast yug evam raashtra ki chetna se anupraanit hota hai. isi kaaran uske mool tatv deshakaal saapeksh na hokar saarvabhaum hote hain -- jinke abhaav mein kisi bhi desh athva yug ki koi rachana mahaakaavya naheen ban sakti aur jinke sadbhaav mein, paramparaagat shaastreeya lakshanon ki baadha hone par bhi, kisi kruti ko mahaakaavya ke gaurav se vanchit karna sambhav naheen hota. ye mool tatv hain -

  • (1) udaatt kathaanak
  • (2) udaatt kaarya athva uddeshya
  • (3) udaatt charitra
  • (4) udaatt bhaav aur
  • (5) udaatt shaili.

is prakaar audaatya athva mahattatv hi mahaakaavya ka praan hai.

sanskrut ke mahaakaavya

raghuvansh, kumaarasambhav, keeraataarjuneeyam, shishupaalavadh aur naishadhacharit ko 'panchamahaakaavya' kaha jaata hai.

praakrut aur apabhransh ke mahaakaavya

  • raavan vahi (raavan vadh)
  • leelaabai (leelaavati)
  • sirichinhakavvan (shri chinh kaavya)
  • usaanirudm (ushaaniruddh)
  • kans vahi (kans vadh)
  • padmacharit
  • ritthanemichriu
  • mahaapuraan
  • naagakumaar charit
  • yashodhara charit

hindi ke mahaakaavya

  • 11. baalakrushn sharma 'naveen' - urmila
  • 13. anoop sharma - siddhaarth, varddhamaan
  • 15. girija datt shukl 'Girish' - taarak vadh

tamil ke mahaakaavya

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain