mahaadevi varma

mahaadevi varma
Ajkal mukhprishth1 cropped.png
mahaadevi varma 'aajkal' ke mukhaprushth se
janm: 26 March, 1907
frrukhaabaad, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 11 September, 1987
Allahabad, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: adhyaapak, lekhak
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: hindi
kaal: aadhunik kaal
vidha: gadya aur padya
vishay: geet, rekhaachitr, sansmaran va nibandh
saahityik
aandolan
:
chhaayaavaad va
rahasyavaad
pramukh kruti(yaaain): yaama kavita sangrah
hastaakshar: Hastaksharmahadevi s.jpg

mahaadevi varma (26 March 1907 — 11 September 1987) hindi ki sarvaadhik pratibhaavaan kavayitriyon mein se hain. ve hindi saahitya mein chhaayaavaadi yug ke chaar pramukh stambhon[k] mein se ek maani jaati hain.[1] aadhunik hindi ki sabse sashakt kavayitriyon mein se ek hone ke kaaran unhein aadhunik meera ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.[2] kavi niraala ne unhein “ahindi ke vishaal mandir ki sarasvatee” bhi kaha hai.[kh] mahaadevi ne svatantrata ke pehle ka Bhaarat bhi dekha aur uske baad ka bhi. ve un kaviyon mein se ek hain jinhonne vyaapak samaaj mein kaam karte hue Bhaarat ke bheetar vidyamaan haahaakaar, rudan ko dekha, parakha aur karun hokar andhakaar ko door karne waali drushti dene ki koshish ki.[3] na keval unka kaavya balki unke saamaajasudhaar ke kaarya aur mahilaaon ke prati chetna bhaavana bhi is drushti se prabhaavit rahe. unhonne man ki peeda ko itne sneh aur shrungaar se sajaaya ki deepashikha mein vah jan-jan ki peeda ke roop mein sthaapit hui aur usane keval paathakon ko hi naheen sameekshakon ko bhi gaharaai tak prabhaavit kiya.[g]

unhonne khadi boli hindi ki kavita mein us komal shabdaavali ka vikaas kiya jo abhi tak keval brujabhaasha mein hi sambhav maani jaati thi. iske liye unhonne apne samay ke anukool sanskrut aur baangla ke komal shabdon ko chunakar hindi ka jaama pahanaaya. sangeet ki jaankaar hone ke kaaran unke geeton ka naad-saundarya aur paini uktiyon ki vyanjana shaili anyatr durlabh hai. unhonne adhyaapan se apne kaaryajeevan ki shurooaat ki aur antim samay tak ve prayaag mahila vidyaapeeth ki pradhaanaachaarya bani raheen. unka baal-vivaah hua parantu unhonne avivaahit ki bhaanti jeevan-yaapan kiya. pratibhaavaan kavayitri aur gadya lekhika mahaadevi varma saahitya aur sangeet mein nipun hone ke saath-saath[4] kushal chitrakaar aur srujanaatmak anuvaadak bhi theen. unhein hindi saahitya ke sabhi mahattvapoorn puraskaar praapt karne ka gaurav praapt hai. Bhaarat ke saahitya aakaash mein mahaadevi varma ka naam dhruv taare ki bhaanti prakaashamaan hai. gat shataabdi ki sarvaadhik lokapriya mahila saahityakaar ke roop mein ve jeevan bhar poojaneeya bani raheen.[5] varsh 2007 unki janm shataabdi ke roop mein manaaya gaya.

anukram

jeevani

janm aur parivaar

mahaadevi ka janm 26 March 1907 ko praat: 8 baje[6] frrukhaabaad uttar pradesh, Bhaarat mein hua. unke parivaar mein lagbhag 200 varshon ya saat peedhiyon ke baad pehli baar putri ka janm hua tha. at: Baba babu baaainke vihaari ji harsh se jhoom uthe aur inhein ghar ki devi — mahaadevi maanate hue[6] putri ka naam mahaadevi rakha. unke pita shri govind prasaad varma Bhaagalpur ke ek college mein praadhyaapak the. unki maata ka naam hemaraani devi tha. hemaraani devi badi dharm paraayan, karmanishth, bhaavuk evam shaakaahaari mahila theen.[6] vivaah ke samay apne saath sinhaasanaaseen Bhagwan ki moorti bhi laayi theen[6] ve pratidin kai ghante pooja-paath tatha raamaayan, geeta evam vinaya patrika ka paaraayan karti theen aur sangeet mein bhi unki atyadhik ruchi thi. iske bilkul vipreet unke pita govind prasaad varma sundar, vidvaan, sangeet premi, naastik, shikaar karne evam ghoomane ke shaukeen, maansaahaari tatha hainsamukh vyakti the. mahaadevi varma ke maanas bandhuon mein sumitraanandan pant evam niraala ka naam liya ja sakta hai, jo unase jeevan paryant raakhi baindhavaate rahe.[7] niraala ji se unki atyadhik niktata thi,[8] unki pusht kalaaiyon mein mahaadevi ji lagbhag chaalees varshon tak raakhi baaaindhati raheen.[9]

shiksha

mahaadevi ji ki shiksha Indore mein mission school se praarambh hui saath hi sanskrut, angreji, sangeet tatha chitrakala ki shiksha adhyaapakon dvaara ghar par hi di jaati rahi. beech mein vivaah jaisi baadha pad jaane ke kaaran kuchh din shiksha sthagit rahi. vivaahoparaant mahaadevi ji ne 1919 mein kraasthavet college Allahabad mein pravesh liya aur college ke chhaatraavaas mein rahane lageen. 1921 mein mahaadevi ji ne aathaveen kaksha mein praant bhar mein pratham sthaan praapt kiya. yaheen par unhonne apne kaavya jeevan ki shuruaat ki. ve saat varsh ki avastha se hi kavita likhne lagi theen aur 1925 tak jab unhonne maitrik ki pareeksha utteern ki, ve ek safal kavayitri ke roop mein prasiddh ho chuki theen. vibhinn patra-patrikaaon mein aapki kavitaaon ka prakaashan hone laga tha. kaalej mein subhadra kumaari chauhaan ke saath unki ghanishth mitrata ho gayi. subhadra kumaari chauhaan mahaadevi ji ka haath pakad kar sakhiyon ke beech mein le jaati aur kahateen ― “asuno, ye kavita bhi likhti hain”. 1932 mein jab unhonne Allahabad vishvavidyaalaya se sanskrut mein ema॰ae॰ paas kiya tab tak unke do kavita sangrah neehaar tatha rashmi prakaashit ho chuke the.

vaivaahik jeevan

san 1916 mein unke Baba shri baaainke vihaari ne inka vivaah bareli ke paas nabaav ganj kasbe ke nivaasi shri svaroop Narayan varma se kar diya, jo us samay dasveen kaksha ke vidyaarthi the. shri varma intar karke Lucknow medical college mein boarding house mein rahane lage. mahaadevi ji us samay kraasthavet college Allahabad ke chhaatraavaas mein theen. shreemati mahaadevi varma ko vivaahit jeevan se virkti thi. kaaran kuchh bhi raha ho par shri svaroop Narayan varma se koi vaimanasya naheen tha. saamaanya stri-purush ke roop mein unke sambandh madhur hi rahe. donon mein kabhi-kabhi patraachaar bhi hota tha. yada-kada shri varma Allahabad mein unase milne bhi aate the. shri varma ne mahaadevi ji ke kehne par bhi doosra vivaah naheen kiya. mahaadevi ji ka jeevan to ek sannyaasini ka jeevan tha hi. unhonne jeevan bhar shvet vastr pahana, takht par soin aur kabhi sheesha naheen dekha. san 1966 mein pati ki mrutyu ke baad ve sthaai roop se Allahabad mein rahane lageen.

kaaryakshetr

mahaadevi, hajaari prasaad Dwivedi aadi ke saath

mahaadevi ka kaaryakshetr lekhan, sanpaadan aur adhyaapan raha. unhonne Allahabad mein prayaag mahila vidyaapeeth ke vikaas mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan kiya. yeh kaarya apne samay mein mahila-shiksha ke kshetr mein kraantikaari kadam tha. iski ve pradhaanaachaarya evam kulapati bhi raheen. 1932 mein unhonne mahilaaon ki pramukh patrika 'chaaaind' ka kaaryabhaar sambhaala. 1930 mein neehaar, 1932 mein rashmi, 1934 mein neeraja, tatha 1936 mein saandhyageet naamak unke chaar kavita sangrah prakaashit hue. 1939 mein in chaaron kaavya sangrahon ko unki kalaakrutiyon ke saath vruhadaakaar mein yaama sheershak se prakaashit kiya gaya. unhonne gadya, kaavya, shiksha aur chitrakala sabhi kshetron mein nae aayaam sthaapit kiye. iske atirikt unki 18 kaavya aur gadya krutiyaan hain jinmein mera parivaar, smruti ki rekhaaen, path ke saathi, shrunkhala ki kadiyaaain aur ateet ke chalachitr pramukh hain. san 1955 mein mahaadevi ji ne Allahabad mein saahityakaar sansad ki sthaapana ki aur pan ilaachandr Joshi ke sahayog se saahityakaar ka sanpaadan sambhaala. yeh is sanstha ka mukhapatr tha. unhonne Bhaarat mein mahila kavi sammelanon ki neev rakhi.[10] is prakaar ka pehla akhil bhaaratavarsheeya kavi sammelan 15 April 1933 ko subhadra kumaari chauhaan ki adhyakshata mein prayaag mahila vidyaapeeth mein sampann hua.[11] ve hindi saahitya mein rahasyavaad ki pravartika bhi maani jaati hain.[12] mahaadevi bauddh dharm se bahut prabhaavit theen. mahaatma Gandhi ke prabhaav se unhonne janaseva ka vrat lekar jhoosi mein kaarya kiya aur bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam mein bhi hissa liya. 1936 mein naineetaal se 25 kilometer door raamagadh kasabe ke umaagadh naamak gaaainv mein mahaadevi varma ne ek baingala banavaaya tha. jiska naam unhonne meera mandir rakha tha. jitne din ve yahaaain raheen is chhote se gaaainv ki shiksha aur vikaas ke liye kaam karti raheen. vishesh roop se mahilaaon ki shiksha aur unki aarthik aatmanirbharata ke liye unhonne bahut kaam kiya. aajkal is bangale ko mahaadevi saahitya sangrahaalaya ke naam se jaana jaata hai.[13][14] shrunkhala ki kadiyaaain mein striyon ki mukti aur vikaas ke liye unhonne jis saahas va drudhta se aavaaj uthaai hain aur jis prakaar saamaajik roodhiyon ki ninda ki hai usase unhein mahila muktivaadi bhi kaha gaya.[15] mahilaaon va shiksha ke vikaas ke kaaryon aur janaseva ke kaaran unhein samaaj-sudhaarak bhi kaha gaya hai.[16] unke sampoorn gadya saahitya mein peeda ya vedana ke kaheen darshan naheen hote balki adamya rachanaatmak rosh samaaj mein badlaav ki adamya aakaanksha aur vikaas ke prati sahaj lagaav parilkshit hota hai.[17]

unhonne apne jeevan ka adhikaansh samay uttar pradesh ke Allahabad nagar mein bitaaya. 11 September 1987 ko Allahabad mein raat 9 bajkar 30 minute par unka dehaant ho gaya.

pramukh krutiyaaain

mahaadevi ji kavayitri hone ke saath-saath vishisht gadyakaar bhi theen. unki krutiyaaain is prakaar hain.

panth tumhaara mangalamaya ho. mahaadevi ke hastaakshar
mahaadevi varma ki pramukh gadya rachanaaeain

kavita sangrah

1. neehaar (1930)
2. rashmi (1932)
3. neeraja (1934)
4. saandhyageet (1936)

5. deepashikha (1942)
6. saptaparna (anoodit-1959)

7. pratham aayaam (1974)

8. agnirekha (1990)

shreemati mahaadevi varma ke anya anek kaavya sankalan bhi prakaashit hain, jinmein uparyukt rachanaaon mein se chune hue geet sankalit kiye gaye hain, jaise aatmika, parikrama, sandhini (1965), yaama (1936), geetaparv, deepageet, smaarika, neelaanbara aur aadhunik kavi mahaadevi aadi.

mahaadevi varma ka gadya saahitya

  • rekhaachitr: ateet ke chalachitr (1941) aur smruti ki rekhaaen (1943),
  • sansmaran: path ke saathi (1956) aur mera parivaar (1972 aur sansmaran (1983))
  • chune hue bhaashanon ka sankalan: sanbhaashan (1974)
  • nibandh: shrunkhala ki kadiyaaain (1942), vivechanaatmak gadya (1942), saahityakaar ki aastha tatha anya nibandh (1962), sankalpita (1969)
  • lalit nibandh: kshanada (1956)
  • kahaaniyaaain: gilloo
  • sansmaran, rekhaachitr aur nibandhon ka sangrah: himaalaya (1963),

anya nibandh mein sankalpita tatha vividh sankalanon mein smaarika, smruti chitr, sanbhaashan, sanchayan, drushtibodh ullekhaneeya hain. ve apne samay ki lokapriya patrika 'chaaaind' tatha 'saahityakaar' maasik ki bhi sampaadak raheen. hindi ke prachaar-prasaar ke liye unhonne prayaag mein 'saahityakaar sansad' aur rangavaani naatya sanstha ki bhi sthaapana ki.

mahaadevi varma ka baal saahitya

mahaadevi varma ki baal kavitaaon ke do sankalan chhape hain.

  • thaakuraji bhole hain
  • aaj khareedeinge ham jvaala

samaalochana

aadhunik geet kaavya mein mahaadevi ji ka sthaan sarvopari hai. unki kavita mein prem ki peer aur bhaavon ki teevrata vartamaan hone ke kaaran bhaav, bhaasha aur sangeet ki jaisi triveni unke geeton mein pravaahit hoti hai vaisi anyatr durlabh hai. mahaadevi ke geeton ki vedana, pranayaanubhooti, karuna aur rahasyavaad kaavyaanuraagiyon ko aakarshit karte hain. par in rachanaaon ki virodhi aalochanaaeain saamaanya paathak ko digbhramit karti hain. aalochakon ka ek varg vah hai, jo yeh maankar chalte hain ki mahaadevi ka kaavya nitaant vaiyaktik hai. unki peeda, vedana, karuna, krutrim aur banaavati hai.

  • aachaarya raamachandr shukl jaise moordhanya aalochakon ne unki vedana aur anubhootiyon ki sachchaai par prashn chinh lagaaya hai —[gh] doosari or
  • aachaarya hajaari prasaad Dwivedi jaise sameekshak unke kaavya ko samashti parak maanate hain.[ङ]
  • shomer ne 'deep' (neehaar), madhur madhur mere deepak jal (neeraja) aur mom sa tan gal chuka hai kavitaaon ko uddhrut karte hue nishkarsh nikaala hai ki ye kavitaaen mahaadevi ke 'aatmabhakshi deep' abhipraaya ko hi vyaakhyaayit naheen karateen balki unki kavita ki saamaanya mudra aur bunaavat ka pratinidhi roop bhi maani ja sakti hain.
  • satyaprakaash mishr chhaayaavaad se sambandhit unki shaastr meemaansa ke vishay mein kehte hain ― “amahaadevi ne vaidushya yukt taarkikta aur udaaharanon ke dvaara chhaayaavaad aur rahasyavaad ke vastu shilp ki poorvavarti kaavya se bhinnata tatha vishishtata hi naheen bataayi, yeh bhi bataaya ki vah kin arthon mein maanaveeya sanvedan ke badlaav aur abhivyakti ke nayepan ka kaavya hai. unhonne kisi par bhaav saamya, bhaavopaharan aadi ka aarop naheen lagaaya keval chhaayaavaad ke svabhaav, charitra, svaroop aur vishishtata ka varnan kiya.”[18]
  • prabhaakar shrotriya jaise maneeshi ka maanana hai ki jo log unhein peeda aur niraasha ki kavayitri maanate hain ve yeh naheen jaante ki us peeda mein kitni aag hai jo jeevan ke satya ko ujaagar karti hai.[ch]

yeh sach hai ki mahaadevi ka kaavya sansaar chhaayaavaad ki paridhi mein aata hai, par unke kaavya ko unke yug se ekdam asamprukt karke dekhna, unke saath anyaaya karna hoga. mahaadevi ek sajag rachanaakaar hain. Bengal ke akaal ke samay 1943 mein inhonne ek kaavya sankalan prakaashit kiya tha aur Bengal se sambandhit “abang bhoo shat vandanaa” naamak kavita bhi likhi thi. isi prakaar cheen ke aakraman ke prativaad mein himaalaya naamak kaavya sangrah ka sanpaadan kiya tha. yeh sankalan unke yugabodh ka pramaan hai.

gadya saahitya ke kshetr mein bhi unhonne kam kaam naheen kiya. unka aalochna saahitya unke kaavya ki bhaanti hi mahatvapoorn hai. unke sansmaran bhaarateeya jeevan ke sansmaran chitr hain.

unhonne chitrakala ka kaam adhik naheen kiya fir bhi jalarangon mein 'vaush' shaili se banaae gaye unke chitr dhundhale rangon aur layapoorn rekhaaon ka kaaran kala ke sundar namoone samajhe jaate hain. unhonne rekhaachitr bhi banaae hain. daahini or kareen shomar ki kitaab ke mukhaprushth par mahaadevi dvaara banaaya gaya rekhaachitr hi rakha gaya hai. unke apne kavita sangrahon yaama aur deepashikha mein unke rangeen chitron aur rekhaankanon ko dekha ja sakta hai.

puraskaar va sammaan

daakatikt

unhein prashaasanik, ardhaprashaasanik aur vyaktigat sabhi sansthaaoain se puraskaar va sammaan mile.

  • 16 September 1991 ko Bhaarat sarkaar ke daakataar vibhaag ne jayashankar prasaad ke saath unke sammaan mein 2 rupae ka ek yugal ticket bhi jaari kiya hai.[24]

mahaadevi varma ka yogadaan

mahaadevi se jude vishisht sthal

saahitya mein mahaadevi varma ka aavirbhaav us samay hua jab khadeeboli ka aakaar parishkrut ho raha tha. unhonne hindi kavita ko brujabhaasha ki komalata di, chhandon ke naye daur ko geeton ka bhandaar diya aur bhaarateeya darshan ko vedana ki haardik sveekruti di. is prakaar unhonne bhaasha saahitya aur darshan teenon kshetron mein aisa mahattvapoorn kaam kiya jisne aanevaali ek poori peedhi ko prabhaavit kiya. shacheeraani gurtoo ne bhi unki kavita ko susajjit bhaasha ka anupam udaaharan maana hai.[chh] unhonne apne geeton ki rachana shaili aur bhaasha mein anokhi laya aur saralata bhari hai, saath hi prateekon aur binbon ka aisa sundar aur svaabhaavik prayog kiya hai jo paathak ke man mein chitr sa kheench deta hai.[j] chhaayaavaadi kaavya ki samruddhi mein unka yogadaan atyant mahattvapoorn hai. chhaayaavaadi kaavya ko jahaaain prasaad ne prakrutitttv diya, niraala ne usamein muktachhand ki avataarana ki aur pant ne use sukomal kala pradaan ki vahaaain chhaayaavaad ke kalevar mein praan-pratishtha karne ka gaurav mahaadevi ji ko hi praapt hai. bhaavaatmakata evam anubhooti ki gahanata unke kaavya ki sarvaadhik pramukh visheshata hai. hrudaya ki sookshmaatisookshm bhaav-hiloron ka aisa sajeev aur moort abhivyanjan hi chhaayaavaadi kaviyon mein unhein 'mahaadevi' banaata hai.[25] ve hindi bolne vaalon mein apne bhaashanon ke liye sammaan ke saath yaad ki jaati hain. unke bhaashan jan saamaanya ke prati samvedna aur sachchaai ke prati drudhta se paripoorn hote the. ve Delhi mein 1983 mein aayojit teesare vishv hindi sammelan ke samaapan samaaroh ki mukhya atithi theen. is avsar par diye gaye unke bhaashan mein unke is gun ko dekha ja sakta hai.[26]

yadyapi mahaadevi ne koi upanyaas, kahaani ya naatak naheen likha to bhi unke lekh, nibandh, rekhaachitr, sansmaran, bhoomikaaon aur lalit nibandhon mein jo gadya likha hai vah shreshthatam gadya ka utkrusht udaaharan hai.[jh] usamein jeevan ka sampoorn vaividhya samaaya hai. bina kalpana aur kaavyaroopon ka sahaara liye koi rachanaakaar gadya mein kitna kuchh arjit kar sakta hai, yeh mahaadevi ko padhkar hi jaana ja sakta hai. unke gadya mein vaichaarik paripkvata itni hai ki vah aaj bhi praasangik hai.[nya] samaaj sudhaar aur naari svatantrata se sambandhit unke vichaaron mein drudhta aur vikaas ka anupam saamanjasya milta hai. saamaajik jeevan ki gahari paraton ko chhoone waali itni teevr drushti, naari jeevan ke vaishamya aur shoshan ko teekhepan se aankane waali itni jaagruk pratibha aur nimn varg ke nireeh, saadhanaheen praaniyon ke anoothe chitr unhonne hi pehli baar hindi saahitya ko diye.

maulik rachanaakaar ke alaava unka ek roop srujanaatmak anuvaadak ka bhi hai jiske darshan unki anuvaad-krut 'saptaparna' (1960) mein hote hain. apni saanskrutik chetna ke sahaare unhonne ved, raamaayan, theragaatha tatha ashvaghosh, kaalidaas, bhavabhooti evam jayadev ki krutiyon se taadaatmya sthaapit karke 39 chayanit mahatvapoorn anshon ka hindi kaavyaanuvaad is kruti mein prastut kiya hai. aarambh mein 61 prushtheeya 'apni baat' mein unhonne bhaarateeya maneesha aur saahitya ki is amoolya dharohar ke sambandh mein gahan shodhapoorn vimrsh kiya hai jo keval stri-lekhan ko hi naheen hindi ke samagr chintanaparak aur lalit lekhan ko samruddh karta hai.[27]

yeh bhi dekhein

teeka-tippani

k. ^ chhaayaavaad ke anya teen stambh hain, jayashankar prasaad, sooryakaant tripaathi niraala aur sumitraanandan pant.

kh. ^ hindi ke vishaal mandir ki veenaapaani, sfoorti chetna rachana ki pratima kalyaani ―niraala

g. ^ unhonne khadi boli hindi ko komalata aur madhurata se sansikt kar sahaj maanaveeya sanvedanaaon ki abhivyakti ka dwaar khola, virh ko deepashikha ka gaurav diya aur vyashti moolak maanavataavaadi kaavya ke chintan ko pratishthaapit kiya. unke geeton ka naad-saundarya aur paini uktiyon ki vyanjana shaili anyatr durlabh hai. ―anisha sahagal[28]

gh. ^ “ais vedana ko lekar unhonne hrudaya ki aisi anubhootiyaaain saamane rakhi hain, jo lokottar hain. kahaaain tak ye vaastavik anubhootiyaaain hain aur kahaaain tak anubhootiyon ki ramaneeya kalpana, yeh naheen kaha ja sakta.” ―aachaarya raamachandr shukl

ङ. ^ “amahaadevi ka 'main' sandarbh bhed se sabka naam hai.” sachchaai yeh hai ki mahaadevi vyashti se samashti ki or jaati hain. unki peeda, vedana, karuna aur dukhavaad mein vishv ki kalyaan kaamna nihit hai. ―hajaari prasaad Dwivedi

ch. ^ vastut: mahaadevi ki anubhooti aur srujan ka kendra aaainsoo naheen aag hai. jo drushya hai vah antim satya naheen hai, jo adrushya hai vah mool ya prerak satya hai. mahaadevi likhti hain: “aaag hooain jisse dhulakate bindu himjal ke” aur bhi spashtata ki maaaing ho to ye panktiyaaain dekhein: mere nishvaason mein bahti rahati jhanjhaavaat/aaainsoo mein dinraat pralaya ke ghan karte utpaat/kasak mein vidyut antardhaan. ye aaainsoo sahaj saral vedana ke aaainsoo naheen hain, inke peechhe jaane kitni aag, jhanjhaavaat pralaya-megh ka vidyut-garjan, vidroh chhipa hai. ―prabhaakar shrotriya[29]

chh. ^ mahaadevi ji ki kavita susajjit bhaasha ka anupam udaaharan hai ―ashacheeraani gurtoo[30]

j. ^ mahaadevi ke prageeton ka roop vinyaas, bhaasha, prateek-binb laya ke star par adbhut upalabdhi kaha ja sakta hai. ―akrushnadatt paaleevaal[31]

jh. ^ ek mahaadevi hi hain jinhonne gadya mein bhi kavita ke marm ki anubhooti karaai aur 'gadya kaveetaan nikshan vadanti' ukti ko charitaarth kiya hai. vilkshan baat to yeh hai ki na to unhonne upanyaas likha, na kahaani, na hi naatak fir bhi shreshth gadyakaar hain. unke granth lekhan mein ek or rekhaachitr, sansmaran ya fir yaatraavrutt hain to doosari or sampaadkeeya, bhoomikaaeain, nibandh aur abhibhaashan, par sabamein jaise sampoorn jeevan ka vaividhya samaaya hai. bina kalpanaashrit kaavya roopon ka sahaara liye koi rachanaakaar gadya mein itna kuchh arjit kar sakta hai, yeh mahaadevi ko padhkar hi jaana ja sakta hai. ―araamaji paandeya[32]

nya. ^ mahaadevi ka gadya jeevan ki aaainch mein tapa hua gadya hai. nikhra hua, nithra hua gadya hai. 1956 mein likha hua unka gadya aaj 50 varsh baad bhi praasangik hai. vah puraana naheen pada hai. ―araajendr upaadhyaaya[33]

sandarbh

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  2. "Mahadevi Verma: Modern Meera" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). litrari India. http://literaryindia.com/Literature/Indian-Authors/mahadevi-verma.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  3. "mahaadevi ka surgeon : pratirodh aur karuna" (echateeemael). tadbhav. http://www.tadbhav.com/Mahadevi%20ka.htm#mahadevi. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  4. "gadyakaar mahaadevi varma" (echateeemael). taapteelok. http://www.taptilok.com/2006/01-03-2006/sahitya_Hindi_sahitya.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  5. vashishth, aar.ke. (2002). uttar pradesh (maasik patrika) ank-7. Lucknow, Bhaarat: soochana evam janasanpark vibhaag, u.pr.. pa॰ 24.
  6. a aa i E Singh 2007, prushth 38-40
  7. a aa paandeya 1968, prushth 10
  8. "jo rekhaaeain kah na sakeingi" (echateeem). abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/sansmaran/2004/jo_rekhayen.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  9. "mahaakavi ka bajat". navabhaarat times. 7 February, 2007. http://navbharattimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-1575202.cms.
  10. sudha (maasik patrika). Lucknow. May 1933.
  11. chaaaind (maasik patrika). Lucknow. May 1933.
  12. "Mahadevi Verma" (angreji mein) (echateeem). saunet. http://www.sawnet.org/books/authors.php?Verma+Mahadevi. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  13. "Famous Personalities Mahadevi Verma" (angreji mein) (eesapeeeks). kumaaooain mandal vikaas nigam limited. http://www.kmvn.org/famouspersonalities.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  14. "mahaadevi pahaadon ka vasant manaati theen" (echateeem). indradhanush India. http://www.indradhanushindia.org/magazine/oct2007/13.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  15. "Forging a Feminist Path" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). India tugedar. http://www.indiatogether.org/women/people/varma.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  16. "Mahadevi Verma" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). vumanaanalimitd. http://www.womenunlimited.net/catalogue/autobiographies_11.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  17. "Mahadevi Verma" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). vaumpo - vumans pauyatri listasarv. http://www.usm.maine.edu/wompo/Mahadevi-Verma.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  18. "mahaadevi ka surgeon : pratirodh aur karuna" (echateeemael). tadbhav. http://www.tadbhav.com/Mahadevi%20ka.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  19. "Conferment of Sahitya Akademi Fellowship" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). saahitya academy. http://www.sahitya-akademi.org/sahitya-akademi/fello.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  20. "Jnanpith Award" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). vebaindiya. http://www.webindia123.com/government/award/jnanpith.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  21. gupta, indira (2004) (angreji mein). India's 50 Most Illustrious Women. aaikaun books. pa॰ 38-40.
  22. "vah cheeni bhaai" (echateeemael). abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/sansmaran/2001/chinibhai.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  23. "neel aakaasher neeche" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). mrunaal sen. http://mrinalsen.org/neel_akasher_niche.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  24. "India post" (angreji mein) (echateeemael). indiynapost. http://www.indianpost.com/viewstamp.php/Alpha/M/MAHADEVI%20VERMA?PHPSESSID=fcb7e71cf6772341cae0bd9dabc9642f. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  25. vaanjape, pro shubhada (2006). pushpak (ardh-vaarshik patrika) ank-6. Hyderabad, Bhaarat: kaadambini club. pa॰ 113.
  26. "samaapan samaaroh hai, to man bhaari hai" (echateeem). vishv hindi sammelan. http://www.vishwahindi.com/mahadeviji.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  27. "bhaarateeya chintan parampara aur 'saptaparna'" (echateeem). saahityakunj. http://www.sahityakunj.net/LEKHAK/Rishabhdeo/bhaarti_chintan_parmpra_saptprNaa_Alekh_mahadevi.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  28. "hindi ki sarasvatee: mahaadevi varma" (echateeemael). srujanagaatha. http://www.srijangatha.com/march%2007/shesh-vishesh.hastakshar.mahadevivarma.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  29. "mahaadevi: aaainsoo naheen aag hai" (echateeemael). jaagaran. http://ind.jagran.com/sahitya/Inner.aspx?idarticle=517&idcategory=5. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  30. gurtoo, shacheeraani. mahaadevi varma. pa॰ 4.
  31. paaleevaal, krushnadatt (2007). aajkal (maasik patrika). si ji O complex, lodeerod, nai Delhi-110 003: prakaashan vibhaag, soochana bhavan. pa॰ 15.
  32. varma 1997, prushth 113
  33. upaadhyaaya, Rajendra (March 2007). aajkal (maasik patrika). si ji O complex, lodeerod, nai Delhi-110 003: prakaashan vibhaag, soochana bhavan. pa॰ 66.

granthasoochi

  • varma, dheerendr (1985), written at Varanasi, Bhaarat, hindi saahitya kosh, bhaag pratham aur do (truteeya san॰), jnyaaanamandal limited .
  • Singh, naamavar (2004), written at nai Delhi, Bhaarat, chhaayaavaad, Rajkamal prakaashan, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8126707356 .
  • shomar, kareen (1998), written at sanyukt raajya America, Mahadevi Verma and the Chhayavad Age of Modern Hindi Poetry, oksafrd university press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0195644500 .
  • vaajapaayi, ashok (2004), written at prayaag, aadhunik kavi, hindi saahitya sammelan, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ HB-13704 .
  • Singh, dau॰ Rajkumar (2007), written at Mathura, vichaar vimarsh — mahaadevi varma: janm, shaishavaavastha evam baalyaavastha, saagar prakaashan .
  • paandeya, gangaaprasaad (1970), written at Allahabad, Bhaarat, maheeyasi mahaadevi, lokabhaarati prakaashan .
  • varma, mahaadevi (1997), written at nai Delhi, Bhaarat, ateet ke chalachitr, raadhaakrushn prakaashan, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7119-099-5 .
  • paandeya, gangaaprasaad (1968), written at Allahabad, Bhaarat, mahaapraan niraala, lokabhaarati prakaashan .

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