mahaabhaashya

patanyajali ne paanini ke ashtaadhyaayi ke kuchh chune hue sootron par bhaashya likhi jise vyaakaranamahaabhaashya ka naam diya (maha+bhaashya (sameeksha, tippani, vivechana, aalochna)). vyaakaran mahaabhaashya mein kaatyaayan vaartik bhi sammilit hain jo paanini ke ashtaadhyaayi par kaatyaayan ke bhaashya hain. kaatyaayan ke vaartik kul lagbhag 1500 hain jo anyatr naheen milte balki keval vyaakaranamahaabhaashya mein patanjali dvaara sandarbh ke roop mein hi upalabdh hain.

sanskrut ke teen mahaan vaiyaakaranon mein patanjali bhi hain. anya do hain - paanini tatha kaatyaayan (150 isha poorv). mahaabhaashya mein shiksha (phonology, including accent), vyaakaran (grammar and morphology) aur nirukt (etymology) - teenon ki charcha hui hai.

anukram

rachanaakaal

iski rachana isa poorv doosari shataabdi ki maani jaati hai. mahaabhaashyakaar "patanjali" ka samay asandigdh roop mein gyaat hai. pushyamitr shung ke shaasanakaal mein patanjali vartamaan the. mahaabhaashya ke nishchit saakshya ke aadhaar par vijyoparaant pushyamitr ke shraut (ashvamedh yagya) mein sambhavat: patanjali purohit the. yeh (ih pushyamitran yaajayaam:) mahaabhaashya se siddh hai. saaket aur maadhyamika par yavanon ke aakramanakaal mein patanjali vidyamaan the. at: mahaabhaashya aur mahaabhaashyakaar patanjali - donon ka samay isa poorv dviteeya shataabdi nishchit hai. dviteeya shataabdi E.poo. mein mauryon ke braahman senaapati pushyamitr shung - maurya vanshi bruhadrath ko maarakaar gaddi par baithe the. naana panditon ke vichaar se 200 E.poo. se lekaar 140 E.poo. tak mahaabhaashya ki rachana ka maanya kaal hai.

mahatta

mahaabhaashya ki mahatta ke anek kaaran hain. pratham hetu hai usaki paandityapoorn vishisht vyaakhyaashaili. vivaadaaspad sthalon ka poorvapaksh upasthit karne ke baad uttarapaksh upasthit kiya hai. shaastraarth prakriya mein poorv aur uttar pakshon ka vyavahaar chala aa raha hai. iske atirikt aavashyak hone par us paksh ka bhi upanyaas kiya hai. vishyapratipaadan doosari visheshata hai. mahaabhaashya ki vyaakhya ka kram to ashtaadhyaayi aur tadantargat chaar paadon aur unke sootron ka kram hai. par bhaashya ke apne kram mein vyaakhya ka niyojan vibhkt hai, jiska arth yeh bhi hota hai ki ek "mahaabhaashya" likha jaata raha.

"patanjali" ne apne mahaabhaashya mein vyaakaran ki daarshanik shabdanityatvavaad ya sfotabaad athva shabdabrahmavaad ka kiya hai. is siddhaant ko bhartruhari ne vistaar ke se vaakyapadeeya mein pallavit kiya hai. mahaabhaashya ki mahatta ka yeh kaaran hai. saahityik drushti se mahaabhaashya ka gadya atyant akrutrim, muhaavaredaar, dhaaraapraavaahik aur spashtaarthabodh hai. bhartruhari ne ispar teeka likhi thi par usaka adhikaansh anupalabdh hai. keyyat ki "pradeep" naamak teeka aur naagoj udyot naam se "pradeepateeka" prakaashit hai. bhattoji Dixit ne apne "shabdakaustubh" ki rachana mahaabhaashya ke aadhaar par ki.

sanskrut vyaakaran mein "munitraya" ko bahut hi uchch aur praamaanik pad diya gaya hai. ashtaadhyaayi-car paanini, vaarttikkaar kaatyaayan aur mahaabhaashyakaar patanjali - inheen teenon ko "munitraya" kaha gaya hai. vyaakaranashaastr ke itihaas mein paanineeya vyaakaran ki shaakha ke atirikt poorv aur paravarti anek vyaakaran shaakhaaeain rahi hain. parantu "munitraya" se poshit aur samarthit vyaakaran ki paanineeya shaakha ko jo prasiddhi, maanyata aur lokapriyta praapt hui vah anya shaakhaaon ko naheen mil saki - jiska kaaran mahaabhaashya hi maana gaya hai. ashtaadhyaayi par "kaatyaayan" ne vaarttikon ki rachana dvaara vyaakaranasiddhaanton ko adhik poorn aur spasht banaaya. "patanjali" ne mukhyat: vaarttikon ki vyaakhya ko mahaabhaashya dvaara aage badhaaya. anek sthalon par unhonne kaatyaayanamat ka pratyaakhyaan aur paaninimt ki maanyata bhi siddh ki hai. kabhi-kabhi un sootron ki bhi vivechana ki hai jo kaatyaayan ne chhod diye the.

is mahaabhaashya ki rachanaapeethika ka nirdesh karte hue vaakyapadeeyakaar "bhartruhari" ne bataaya hai ki jab vyaakaran ke paathak sanksheparuchi aur alpavidyaaparigrah ban gaye, "sangrah" granth (jiske karta parampara ke anusaar vyaadi hain) ast ho gaya tab teerthadarshi guru patanjali ne mahaabhaashya ki rachana ki, jismein sabhi nyaayabeejon ka bhi nibandhan hai. isse pata chalta hai ki "patanjali" ke poorv "sangrah" naamak granth mein vyaakaran sambaddh vivechan atyant vistrut tha. "sangrah" naamak granth mein ek lakh shlok hone ka ullekh mahaabhaashya tatha pradeep ki teeka 'udyot' mein naagesh bhatt ne kiya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

anya pathaneeya saamagri

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  • Mahāabhāaṣaya of Patañajali (Śaarīaamadbhagavat-patañajali-muni-viracitaṃ Pāatañajalaṃ Mahāabhāaṣayam) by Patañajali (in Sanskrit), Publisher: Vāarāaṇaasī : Vāaṇaīavilāasa Prakāaśaana, 1987-1988., OCLC: 20995237
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