madurai

yeh lekh nirvaachit lekh banane ke liye parakhane hetu rakha gaya hai. adhik jaankaari ke liye nirvaachit lekh aavashyakataaeain dekhein.
madurai / madurai
shahar
मदुरई शहर का दृश्य
madurai shahar ka drushya
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya tamil naadu
jila madurai jila
mahaapaur raajan chellappa
janasankhya
ghanatv
1,016,885 (2011 tak )
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
109 km² (42 sq mi)
• 8 meter (26 fee॰)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: www.maduraicorporation.in

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 9°a48′aN 78°a06′aE / 9.8°aN 78.10°aE / 9.8; 78.10 madurai ya madurai (tamil: மaaதaaுaaரaaை evam uchchaaran: [mɐaad̪aaɯaarəaaj]), dakshin Bhaarat ke tamil naadu raajya ke madurai jile ka mukhyaalaya nagar hai. yeh bhaarateeya praayadveep ke praacheenatam base shaharon mein se ek hai.[1] is shahar ko apne praacheen mandiron ke liye jaana jaata hai. yahaaain ka meenaakshi mandir vishv ke prasiddh mandiron mein se ek hai. is shahar ko kai anya naamon se bulaate hain, jaise koodal maanagar, tungaanagar (kabhi na sone waali nagari), malligi maanagar (mogare ki nagari) tha poorv ka Athens. yeh vaigai nadi ke kinaare sthit hai. lagbhag 2500 varsh puraana yeh sthaan tamil naadu raajya ka ek mahatvapoorn saanskrutik aur vyaavasaayik kendra hai. yahaan ka mukhya aakarshan meenaakshi mandir hai jiske oonche gopuram aur durlabh moortishilp shraddhaaluon aur sailaaniyon ko aakarshit karte hain. is kaaranan ise mandiron ka shahar bhi kehte hain.[1] madurai ek samay mein tamil shiksha ka mukhya kendra tha aur aaj bhi yahaan shuddh tamil boli jaati hai. yahaaain shiksha ka prabandh uttam hai. yeh nagar jile ka vyaapaarik, audyogik tatha dhaarmik kendra hai. udyogon mein soot kaatane, raingane, malamal bunane, lakdi par khudaai ka kaam tatha peetal ka kaam hota hai. yahaaain ki janasankhya 11 lakh 8 hajaar 755 (2004 anumaanit) hai.[2] aadhunik yug mein yeh pragati ke path par agrasar hai aur antarraashtreeya star paane mein prayaasarat hai, kintu apni samruddh parampara aur sanskruti ko bhi sanrakshit kiye hue hai. is shahar ke praacheen yoonaan evam rom ki sabhyataaon se 550 E.poo. mein bhi vyaapaarik sampark the.[3][1]

anukram

bhoogol evam mausam

madurai shahari kshetr ka upagrah chitr
madurai
jalavaayu saarani (vyaakhya)
j f ma a m joo ju a si a na di
20
30
20
13.5
32
21
18
35
23
55
37
25
70
37
26
40
36
26
49.5
36
25
104
35
25
119
34
24
188
32
24
145
30
23
51
29
21
ausat adhiktam evam nyoonatam taapamaan (°ase.)
kul varsha (mi.mi)
srot: nirvaan tuar[4]

madurai shahar ka kshetrafal 52 ki.mi.² hai, jiska shahari kshetr ab 130 ki.mee²[5] tak fail chuka hai. iski sthiti 9°a56′aN 78°a07′aE / 9.93°aN 78.12°aE / 9.93; 78.12 par hai.[6] is shahar ki ausat samudratal se oonchaai 101 meter hai. yahaan ka mausam shushk evam garm hai, jo October-December mein varsha ke kaaran aardr ho jaata hai. greeshm kaal mein taapamaan adhiktam 40 di. evam nyoonatam 26.3 di. se. rahata hai. sheetakaal mein yeh 29.6 tatha 18 di.se. ke beech rahata hai. ausat vaarshik varsha 85 se.mi. hoti hai.

janasaaainkhyiki

Bhaarat ki 2001 ki janagananusaar[7], madurai shahar ki nagarapaalika seema ke bheetar janasankhya 928,869 hai, evam shahari kshetr ki janasankhya 1,194,665 hai. ismein se 51% purush evam 49% striyaan hain. madurai ki ausat saaksharata dar 79% hai, jo raashtreeya dar 59.5% se kaheen oonchi hai. purush dar 84% evam stri dar 74% hai. shahar ki 10% janasankhya 6 varsh se neeche ki hai. shahar mein pratyek 1000 purushon par 968 striyon ki sankhya hai.[8]

itihaas

vaigai nadi par baandh

pehle iska naam madhura ya madhuraapuri tha. katipya shilaalekhon tatha taamrapatron se vidit hota hai ki 11veen shati tak yahaaain, beech mein kuchh samay ko chhodkar paandya raajavansh ka shaasan tha. sangam-kaal ke kavi nakkeerar ne hi sundareshvarar ke kuchh ansh rache the- jo aaj bhi mandir ke paaramparik utsavon par aayojit naatya hote hain.[9] madurai shahar ka utthaan dasveen shataabdi tak hua, jab is par chol vansh ke raaja ka adhikaar hua.[9] madurai ki sampannta shataabdi ke aaranbhik bhaag mein kuchh kam star par fir se vaapas I, fir yeh shahar vijyanagar saamraajya ke adheen ho gaya aur yahaan naayak vansh ke raaja aae, jinmein sarvapratham tirumal naayak tha.[9] paandya vansh ke antim raaja sundar paandya ke samay malik kaafoor ne madura par aakraman kiya (1311 E). 1372 mein kanpan udaiya ne ispar adhikaar kar liya aur yeh vijyanagar saamraajya mein mila liya gaya. 1559-63 i0 tak naayak vansh ke pratishthaata vishvanaath ne raajya ka vistaar kiya. 1659 mein raaja tirumal ki mrutyu ke baad madura raajya ki shakti ksheen honi lagi. 1740 mein chaaaind saahab ke aakraman ke baad naayak vansh ki satta samaapt ho gayi. kuchh samay pashchaat ispar angrejon ka shaasan sthaapit ho gaya. moorti aur mandir nirmaan ke shilp ki drushti se madura ka vishesh mahatva hai. meenaakshi aur sundareshvar Shiv ke mandir praacheen bhaarateeya shilp ke utkrusht udaaharan hain.

sthaapatya

vaigai nadi ka ek drushya

madurai shahar meenaakshi sundareshvarar mandir ko ghere hue aaspaas basa hua hai. mandir ke kinaare se ek doosare ko ghere hue aayataakaar sadkein, mahanagar ki shahari sanrachana ka bhaas deti hain. poora shahar ek kamal ke roop mein racha hua hai.[9].

bhaasha

madurai aur niktavarti kshetron mein mukhyat: tamil bhaasha hi boli jaati hai. madurai tamil ki boli kongoo tamil, nellai tamil, raamanaad tamil evam chennai tamil se bhinn hai. tamil ke sang anya boli jaane waali bhaashaaen hain hindi, angreji, urdu, Saurashtra, malayalam evam kannad, haalaanki un sabhi bhaashaaon mein yahaan tamil shabd sama gaye hain.

pramukh aakarshan

vandeeyur mariymman teppaakulam

vandeeyur mariymman teppaakulam ek vishaal kund hai. sarovar ke uttar mein Tamil Nadu ki graameen devi mariymman ka mandir hai. 1636 mein bana yeh kund madurai ka patthar se bana sabse bada kund hai. iska nirmaan raaja tirumalai naayak ne karavaaya tha. unki varshagaanth (January-February) par yahaan rangabirange flot festival ka aayojan kiya jaata hai jismein sarovar ko roshani aur diyon se sajaaya jaata hai. is utsav mein bhaag lene ke liye sthaaneeya logon ke alaava badi sankhya mein sailaani bhi yahaan aate hain.

tirumalai naayak pailes

tirumalai naayak pailes madurai ka ek pramukh paryatak sthal hai. iska nirmaan 1636 mein kiya gaya tha. Italy ke ek vaastukaar ne raaja ke liye ise banaaya tha. raaja aur unka parivaar yahaan rahate the. svargavilaas aur rangavilaas mahal ke do hisse hain. iske alaava bhi mahal me anek sthaan hain jahaan paryatakon ko jaane ki anumati hai. is mahal mein ghoomane ke liye pravesh shulk dena padta hai. kaha jaata hai ki british raaj mein is jagah ka istemaal prashaasanik kaaryo ke liye kiya jaata tha. ab iski dekharekh bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan vibhaag karta hai aur ise raashtreeya smaarak ghoshit kiya ja chuka hai. shaam ko yahaan dhvani evam prakaash kaaryakram ka aayojan kiya jaata hai jismein roshani aur dhvani ke maadhyam se raaja ke jeevan aur unke madurai mein shaasan ke baar mein bataaya jaata hai.

Gandhi sangrahaalaya

Gandhi sangrahaalaya

Gandhi sangrahaalaya raani mangammal ke lagbhag 300 varsh puraane mahal mein sthit hai. yeh sangrahaalaya desh ke un saat sangrahaalayon mein se ek hai jinka nirmaan Gandhi memoriyl trast ne karavaaya tha. yahaan par raashtrapita mahaatma Gandhi ke jeevan aur kaaryo ko darshaaya gaya hai. sangrahaalaya mein Gandhiji ki kitaabon aur patron, dakshin bhaarateeya graameen udyogon evam hastashilp ka sundar sangrah dekha ja sakta hai. ise kuchh bhaagon ke baanta ja sakta hai jaise- pradarshini, photo gailari, khaadi, graameen udyog vibhaag, open air theatre aur sangrahaalaya.

meenaakshi mandir

devi meenaakshi ko samarpit meenaakshi mandir madurai ki pehchaan hai. yeh desh ke pramukh shakti peethon mein se ek hai. yahaan prativrsh hajaaron ki sankh‍aaya mein shraddhaalu darshan karne aate hain. 65 hajaar varg meter mein faile is vishaal mandir ko yahaan shaasan karne vaale vibhinn vanshon ne vistaar pradaan kiya. dakshin mein sthit imaarat sabse oonchi hai jiski oonchaai 160 feet hai. iska nirmaan 16veen shataabdi mein kiya gaya tha. mandir parisar ka sabse pramukh aakarshan hajaar stambhon wala kaksh hai jo sabse baahar ki or sthit hai. darshan ka samay: subah 5 baje-dopahar 13:30 baje, shaam 4 baje-raat 09:30 baje

tirupparanakundram

Bhagwan murugan ke chh: nivaas sthaanon mein se ek tirupparanakundram madurai se 10 kimi. dakshin mein sthit hai. yahaan saal bhar bhakton ka jamaavada laga rahata hai. isi sthaan par Bhagwan murugan ka devayaani ke saath vivaah hua tha isliye yeh sthaan shaadi karne ke liye pavitra maana jaata hai. chattaanon ko kaat kar banaae gaye is mandir mein Bhagwan ganapati, Shiv, durga, vishnu aadi ke alag se mandir bhi bane hue hain. is mandir ki sabse badi visheshata yeh hai ki iske sabse bheetari mandir ko ek hi chattaan se kaatkar banaaya gaya hai. is mandir ki ek aur visheshata yahaan ke gufa mandir hain jinmein taraashi gayi Bhagwan ki pratimaaen samaan doori par banaai gayi hain. unki yeh samaanata sabhi ko aakarshit karti hai. in gufaaon tak aane ke liye sankar andhiyaare raaste se hokar jaana padta hai.

ajagar koil

ajagar kovil

madurai shahar se 21 kimi. door ajagar Bhagwan vishnu ka khoobsoorat mandir he. yahaan par Bhagwan vishnu ko ajagar naam se pukaara jaata hai. ve devi meenaakshi ke bhaai the. jab chitrai maah mein devi ka vivaah hua tha to ajagar shaadi mein shaamil hone ke liye yahaan se madurai gaye the. Bhagwan subramanyam ke chh: nivaason mein se ek palaamudhirsolakshar ajagar koil ke oopar chaar kimi. door hai. pahaadi ki choti par nuburagangai naamak jharana hai jahaan teerthayaatri snaan karte hain.

niktavarti sthal

pariyaar vanyajeev abhyaaranya

madurai se 155 kimi. door periyaar vanyajeev abhyaaranya hai. mukhya roop se yeh abhyaaranya bhaarateeya haathiyon ke nivaas sthaan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. abhyaaranya mein ek maanav nirmit jheel hai jahaan haathi, gaur aur saanbhar ko paani peete dekha ja sakta hai. October se June yahaan aane ka sahi samay hota hai.

raamesh‍aavaram

yeh mandir hinduon ke chaar dhaamon mein se ek hai. hindu maanyataanusaar ek hindu ke liye mukti praapti ki yaatra banaaras mein shuru hoti hai aur raamesh‍aavaram mein khatm hoti hai. hindu mahaakaavyon ke anusaar yaheen par Bhagwan Ram ne Shiv ki upaasana ki thi. isliye vaishnav aur shaiv donon ke liye yeh sthaan mahatva rakhata hai. samudra ke poorvi kinaare par sthit raamanaathasvaami mandir apne adbhut aakaar aur khoobsoorti se taraashe gaye stambhon ke liye prasiddh hai. is mandir ka galiyaara Asia ka sabse bada galiyaara hai. is mandir ka nirmaan 12veen shataabdi ke baad ke vibhinn vanshon ne vibhinn samay avadhiyon ke dauraan kiya tha.

aaj raamesh‍aavaram ki pehchaan paryatak sthal ke saath-saath dakshin Bhaarat ke pramukh samudri bhojan kendra ke roop mein ki jaati hai. raamesh‍aavaram mein ek Bhaarat-Norway machhaleepaalan pariyojana chalaai ja rahi hai jahaan aadhunik machhali udyog ke vikaas mein sahaayata ki jaati hai.

kodaikanaal

yeh dakshin Bhaarat ka ek pramukh parvateeya sthal hai. samudra tal se 2130 meter ki oonchaai par sthit kodaikanaal ko kodai naam se bhi pukaara jaata hai. pahaadon se ghire is sthaan par poore varsh mausam suhaana bana rahata hai. yahaan anek prakaar ke fool bhi dekhe ja sakte hain. baarah saal mein ek baar khilne wala kurinji fool yahaan dekha ja sakta hai. yahaan ke khoobsoorat jharane aur jheel paryatakon ka dhyaan apni or kheenchati hain.

aavaagaman

ear dikkan ka ek vimaan, madurai vimaanakshetr par.
vaayu maarg

madurai vimaanakshetr niyamit udaanon ke jariye chennai, kaaleekat, Mumbai aur paandicheri se juda hua hai.

rel maarg

madurai railway station shahar ko chennai aur tirunelaveli se jodta hai. yeh dakshini railway ka mahatvapoorn jankshan hai. in do shaharon ke alaava bhi yeh desh ke anya pramukh shaharon se juda hua hai.

sadak maarg

madurai se chennai, bangaluru, Coimbatore, kanyaakumaari, raamesh‍aavaram, paandicheri aadi dakshin bhaarateeya shaharon ke liye niyamit basein chalti hain.

kraya-vikraya

madurai apne mandiron aur aitihaasik sthalon ke liye hi naheen balki soot aur resham ke liye bhi prasiddh hai. inka pramukh baajaar puthu mandapam mein hai. yeh ek stambh wala hall meenaakshi mandir ke pravesh dwaar ke paas hai. yeh sthaan soot ki dukaanon ke liye prasiddh hai. madurai ki sanagundi saadi bhi prasiddhah hain. yeh saadi mahilaaon ke beech bahut pasand ki jaati hai. sajaavat ke liye madurai se lakdi aur peetal se bani sajaavati vastuen khareedi ja sakti hain.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain