madhyayug

roman saamraajya ke patan ke uparaant, paashchaatya sabhyata ek hajaar varshon ke liye us yug mein pravisht hui, jo saadhaaranataya madhyayug (middle ejej) ke naam se vikhyaat hai. aitihaasik reeti se yeh kehna kathin hai ki kis kis kaal athva ghatna se is yug ka praarambh aur ant hota hai. mote taur se madhyayug ka kaal pashchimi Europe mein paaainchaveen shataabdi ke praarambh se pandrahaveen tak kaha ja sakta hai.

tathaakathit madhyayug mein ekaroopata naheen hai aur iska vibhaajan do nishchit evam pruthak yugon mein kiya ja sakta hai. 11veen shataabdi ke pehle ka yug satat sangharshon, anushaasanaheenata, tatha nirksharata ke kaaran 'andhayug' kahalaaya, yadyapi ismein bhi Europe ko roopaantarit karne ke kadam uthaae gaye. is yug ka praarambh roman saamraajya ke pashyimi Europe ke pradeshon mein, barbar goth frainks vaindal tatha varagandiyn ke dvaara sthaapit jarman saamraajya se hota hai. yahaaain tak ki shaktishaali shaarlamen (742-814) bhi thode hi samay ke liye vyavastha la saka. shaarlamen ke prapaulon ki kalah tatha uttari slaav aur sooraasen ke aakramanon se pashchimi Europe ek baar fir usi araajakata ko pahuaincha jo saataveen aur aathaveen shataabdi mein thi. ataev saataveen aur aathaveen shataabdi ka isaai sansaar, pratham shataabdi ke lagbhag ke greek rom jagat ki apeksha sabhyata evam sanskruti ki nimn shreni par tha. gruhanirmaan vidya ke atirikt, shiksha, vigyaan tatha kala kisi bhi kshetr mein unnati naheen hui thi. fir bhi andhayug utana andh naheen tha, jitna bataaya jaata hai. isaai bhikshu evam paadariyon ne jnyaaanadeep ko prajvalit rakha.

11veen shataabdi ke ant se 15veen shataabdi tak ke uttar madhya yug mein maanav pratyek disha mein unnatisheel raha. raashtreeya ekta ki bhaavana England mein 11veen shataabdi mein, tatha France mein 12veen shataabdi mein I. shaarlamain ke uttaraadhikaariyon ki shithilta tatha isaai church ke abhyudaya ne, Pope ko isaai samaaj ka ekamaatr adhishtaata banane ka avsar diya. ataev, Pope tatha roman samraat ki pratispardha, paavan dharmayuddh, vidya ka niyantran tatha roman ketholik dharm ke antarraashtreeya svaroop ityaadi mein is pratidvandvita ka aabhaas milta hai.

13veen shataabdi ke ant tak raashtreeya raajya itne shaktishaali ho gaye the ki church ki shakti ka hraas nishchit prateet hone laga. naveen shataabdi se 14veen shataabdi tak, pashchimi Europe ka bhautik, raajaneetik tatha saamaajik aadhaar saamantavaad tha, jiske udaya ka kaaran raaja ki shaktiyon ka ksheen hona tha. samaaj ka yeh sangathan bhoomivyavastha ke maadhyam se paida hua. bhoomipti saamant ko apne raajya ke antargat saari janta ka pratyaksh svaamitv praapt tha. madhyayug naagrik jeevan ke vikaas ke liye ullekhaneeya hai. adhikaansh madhyayugeen nagar saamanton ki gadhiyon, mathon tatha vaanijya keindron ke aas paas viksit hue. 12veen tatha 13veen shataabdi mein Europe mein vyaapaar ki unnati hui. Italy ke nagar visheshataya venis tatha jenoaa poorvi vyaapaar ke kendra bane. inke dvaara Europe mein rooi, resham, bahumoolya ratn, svarn tatha masaale maingaae jaate the. purohit tatha saamant varg ke samaanaantar hi vyaapaarik varg ka khyaati praapt karna madhyayug ki visheshataaon mein hai. inheen mein se aadhunik madhyavarg prasfutit hua. madhyayug ki kala tatha bauddhik jeevan apni vishesh safalataaon ke liye prasiddh hai. madhyayug mein laitin antararaashtreeya bhaasha thi, kintu 11veen shataabdi ke uparaant varnaakyoolar bhaashaaon ke udaya ne is praacheen bhaasha ki praathamikta ko samaapt kar diya. vidya par se paadariyon ka svaamitv bhi sheeghrata se samaapt hone laga. 12veen aur 13veen shataabdi se vishvavidyaalayon ka udaya hua. arastoo ki rachanaaon ke saath saath, kaanoon, darshan, tatha dharmashaastron ka adhyayan sarvapriya hone laga. kintu vaigyaanik saahitya ka sarvatha abhaav tha. bhavan-nirmaan-kala ki pradhaanata thi, jaisa vaibhavashaali church, girjaagharon tatha nagar bhavanon se spasht hai. bhavananirmaan ki roman paddhati ke sthaan par gothik paddhati viksit hui. aadhunik yug ki adhikaansh visheshataaeain uttar madhyayug ke pravaahon ki pragaadhta hai.

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