madhya poorv

madhya poorv ka raajaneetik naksha

madhya poorv (ya poorv mein jyaada prachalit poorv ke kareeb (Near East)) dakshin pashchim Asia, dakshin poorvi Europe aur uttari poorvi afreeka mein vistaarit kshetr hai. iski koi spasht seema rekha naheen hai, aksar is shabd ka prayog poorv ke paas (Near East) ke ek paryaaya ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata, theek sudoor poorv (Far East) ke viprit. madhya poorv shabd ka prachalan 1900 ke aaspaas ke United kingadam mein shuroo hua.

anukram

itihaas

madhyapoorv, apne vistrut roop mein ek bahut hi puraana kshetr hai. aksar pashchimi vidvaan ise sabhyata ke aarambh sthal ki sanjnyaa dete hain kyonki yahaaain yahoodi, isaai aur islaam dharm ke alaava anya kai mato aur vishvaason ka janm hua tha. urvar chandr us kshetr ko kehte hain jo aaj ke dakshini Iraq mein dajala aur furaat nadiyon ke beech tha. pashchimi vidvaan maanate hain ki sabse pehle sabhyata ki shuruaat yaheen se hui thi. bebeelon aur misr ki sabhyataaon ko praacheen duniya ki sabse viksit sabhyata maana jaata hai. aksar cheeni sabhyata ke samarthak iska virodh karte hain par yahaaain kai asaadhaaran avadhaaranaaon ka janm hua jaise- lekhan kala, kai dharm aur dharmayuddh.

isa ke 1200 saal pehle hajarat moosa ne misr ke faraao (raaja) ke yahaaain se yahoodiyon ko mukt karaaya aur isaraayal tatha judaya naamak do raajyon ki sthaapana aaj ke ijaraayal ke kshetr mein ki. isa ke 770 saal pehle bebeelon ke aseeriya aur akkad ne kramash: in donon par adhikaar kar liya. inhonne yahoodiyon ko bahut yaatanaae di. unke mandiron ko nasht kar daala aur inhein is kshetr se poorv ki taraf (aaj ke Iran) visthaapit kar diya. 559 isaapoorv mein paars ke raaja kurosh ne apni satta sthaapit ki aur usane bebeelon par adhikaar kar liya. is kaal mein yahoodiyon ko apni maatrubhoomi vaapas lautane ka avsar mila. faarasiyon (paarasi) ne yahoodiyon ko apna mandir banaane ki bhi anumati di. isaapoorv 330 mein sikndar ne faaras par adhikaar kar liya. isa poorv 100 ke aaspaas yeh roman saamraajya ka ang bana. roman logon ke apne devi-devata the aur ve yahoodiyon ko baagi ke roop mein dekhte the. isa maseeh ne isaai dharm ka aarambh kiya. par 313 isvi se pehle tak rom ke shaasakon ne isaaiyon ko bahut prataadna di. bijentaain (poorvi roman), faarasi (saasaani) aur arabon ke beech kai yuddh hue. muhammad saahab ke paranoparaant faaras par arabon ka adhikaar ho gaya auk kaalaantar mein Iran islaam mein parivrtit ho gaya. par kuchh raajanaitik kaaranon se Irani shiya bane jabki arab sunni rahe.

solahaveen sadi mein turkon ne makka par adhikaar kar liya aur ve islaam ke sarvesarva ho gaye. yahoodiyon ko bhagaaya gaya aur ve Europe mein basate gaye. 1900 isvi ke aaspaas yahoodi Europe se bhaag kar aaj ke isaraayal mein aane lage jo ab turkon ka fileesteen praant tha. 1948 mein yahoodiyon ne nae svatantr isaraayal ki ghoshana ki. arab deshon aur isaraayal mein kai yuddh hue.

madhya-poorv sangharsh ka itihaas

arab aur isaraail ke sangharsh ki chhaaya morokko se lekar poore khaadi kshetr par hai. is sangharsh ka itihaas kaafi puraana hai.

14 May 1948 ko pehla yahoodi desh isaraail astitv mein aaya. yahoodiyon aur arabon ne ek doosare par hamle shuroo kar diye. lekin yahoodiyon ke hamlon se flasteeniyon ke paaainv ukhad gaye aur hajaaron log jaan bachaane ke liye Lebanon aur misr bhaag khade hue.

peeelao ka gathan

1948 mein isaraail ke gathan ke baad se hi arab desh isaraail ko javaab dena chaahate the. January 1964 mein arab deshon ne flasteeni liberation organaaijeshan (peeelao) naamak sangathan ki sthaapana ki. 1969 mein yaasir araafaat ne is sangathan ki baagdor sanbhaal li. iske pehle araafaat ne ftah naamak sangathan banaaya tha jo isaraail ke viruddh hamle kar kaafi charcha mein aa chuka tha.

1967 ka yuddh

isaraail aur iske padosiyon ke beech badhte tanaav ka ant yuddh ke roop mein hua. yeh yuddh 5 June se 11 June 1967 tak chala aur is dauraan madhya poorv sangharsh ka svaroop badal gaya. isaraail ne misr ko gja se, Syria ko golan pahaadiyon se aur jaurdan ko pashchimi tat aur poorvi yarushalam se dhakel diya. iske kaaran paaainch lakh aur flasteeni begharabaar ho gaye.

1973 ka sangharsh

jab kootaneetik tareekon se misr aur Syria ko apni jameen vaapas naheen mili to 1973 mein unhonne isaraail par chadhaai kar di. amareeka, soviyt sangh aur sanyukt raashtra sangh ne sangharsh ko rokane mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. is yuddh ke baad isaraail amareeka par aur adhik aashrit ho gaya. idhar Saudi arab ne isaraail ko samarthan dene vaale deshon ko petrolium padaarthon ki bikri par pratibandh laga diya jo March 1974 tak jaari raha.

shaanti samjhauta

misr ke raashtrapati Anwar saadaat 19 November 1977 ko yarushalam pahuainche aur unhonne isaraaili sansad mein bhaashan diya. saadaat isaraail ko maanyata dene vaale pehle arab neta bane. arab deshon ne misr ka bahishkaar kiya lekin alag se isaraail se sandhi ki. 1981 mein isaraail ke saath samjhaute ke kaaran islaami charampanthiyon ne saadaat ki hatya kar di.

flasteeni intifaada

isaraail ke kabje ke virodh mein 1987 mein flasteeniyon ne intifaada yaani janaaandolan chheda jo jldi hi poore kshetr mein fail gaya. ismein naagrik avajnyaa, hadtaal aur bahishkaar shaamil tha. lekin iska ant isaraaili sainikon par patthar feinkane se hota. javaab mein isaraaili surakshaabal goli chalaate aur flasteeni ismein maare jaate.

shaanti prayaas

khaadi yuddh ke baad madhya poorv mein shaanti sthaapana ke liye amareeka ki pahal par 1991 mein Madrid mein shikhar sammelan ka aayojan hua. 1993 mein norv ke shahar oslo mein bhi shaanti ke liye vaarta aayojit ki gayi. ismein isaraail ki or se vahaaain ke tatkaaleen pradhaanamantri raubin aur flasteeni neta yaasir araafaat ne hissa liya. iske baad tatkaaleen Amreeki raashtrapati bill Clinton ki pahal par hvaait house mein shaanti ke ghoshana patron par hastaakshar hue. pehli baar ilaraaili pradhaanamantri robin aur ftasteeni neta araafaat ko logon ne haath milaate dekha.

flasteeni praadhikaaran

4 May 1994 ko isaraail aur peeelao ke beech kaahira mein sahamati hui ki isaraail kabje vaale kshetron ko khaali kar dega. iske saath hi flasteeni praadhikaaran ka udaya hua. lekin gja par flasteeni praadhikran ke shaasan mein anek mushkilein pesh aain. in samasyaaon ke baavajood misr ke shahar taaba mein oslo dviteeya samjhauta hua. is par pun: hastaakshar hue. lekin in samjhauton se bhi shaanti sthaapit naheen ho pai aur hatyaaon aur aatmaghaati hamlon ka daur jaari hai.

desh aur kshetr

desh aur jhande kshetr
(varg kimi)
janasankhya dhanatv
(per km²)
rajdhani GDP (kul) prati vyakti mudra sarkaar aadhikaarik bhaasha
faaras ka pathaar:
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 1,648,195 71,208,000 42 Tehran $753 billion (2007) $10,600 (2007) iraaniyn riyaal islaamil ganaraajya faarasi
mesaapotaamiya:
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq 437,072 24,001,816 55 Baghdad $102.3 billion (2007) $3,600 (2007) Iraqi deenaar sansadeeya lokatantr (vikaasasheel) arabi, kurdeesh
arab praayadveep:
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait 17,820 3,100,000 119 Kuwait shahar $130.1 billion (2007) $39,300 (2007) kuvaiti deenaar samvaidhaanik vanshaanugat arabi
Flag of Bahrain.svg bahareen 665 656,397 987 manaama $24.5 billion (2007) $32,100 (2007) bahareeni deenaar samvaidhaanik raajashaahi arabi
Flag of Oman.svg omaan 212,460 3,200,000 13 maskat $61.6 billion (2007) $24,000 (2007) omaan riyaal poorn raajashaahi arabi
Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar 11,437 793,341 69 doha $57.7 billion (2007) $80,900 (2007) kataari riyaal raajashaahi arabi
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg saudi arab 1,960,582 23,513,330 12 riyaad $564.6 billion (2007) $23,200 (2007) riyaal poorn raajashaahi arabi
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg sanyukt arab ameeraat 82,880 5,432,746 30 aaboodhaabi $167.3 billion (2007) $37,300 (2007) yooei dirhaam sangheeya samvaidhaanik raajashaahi arabi
Flag of Yemen.svg yaman 527,970 18,701,257 35 saana $52 billion (2007) $2,300 (2007) yamani riyaal ganaraajya arabi
levaant:
Flag of Israel.svg Israel 20,770 7,029,529 290 jerusalam3 $185.9 billion (2007) $25,800 (2007) Israeli nai shikl sansadeeya lokatantr hibroo, arabi
Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan 92,300 5,307,470 58 ammaan $28 billion (2007) $4,900 (2007) jaardani deenaar samvaidhaanik raajashaahi arabi
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 10,452 3,677,780 354 berut $42.3 billion (2007) $11,300 (2007) lebanaani pound ganaraajya arabi
Flag of Syria.svg Syria 185,180 17,155,814 93 damask $87 billion (2007) $4,500 (2007) Syriai pound adhyaksheeya ganaraajya arabi
bhoomadhya saagar:
Flag of Cyprus.svg saaipras 9,250 792,604 90 nikosiya $21.4 billion (2007) $27,100 (2007) Euro ganaraajya yoonaani, Turkey
anaatoliya:
तुर्की Turkey1 783,562 72,334,256 91 Ankara $888 billion (2007) $12,900 (2007) Turkey leera sansadeeya lokatantr Turkey
uttari Africa:
Flag of Egypt.svg misr 1,001,449 77,498,000 74 kaahira $404 billion (2007) $5,500 (2007) misri pound arddh-adhyaksheeya ganaraajya (lokatantr) arabi
svashaasi kshetr: filsteen:
फ़िलस्तीन gaaja patti 360 1,376,289 3,823 gaaja $5 billion (pashchimi kinaara shaamil) (2006) $1,100 (pashchimi kinaara shaamil) (2006) Israeli nai shikl filsteeni raashtreeya praadhikran hamaas arabi
फ़िलस्तीन pashchimi kinaara 5,8603 2,500,0005 4323,4 raamallaah Israeli nai shikl filsteeni raashtreeya praadhikran fatah arabi

Source:

Notes:

1 Turkey ke ganana mein poorvi theres shaamil hai, jo anaatoliya ka hissa naheen hai.

2 Israeli kaanoon ke adheen. sanyukt raashtra jerusalam ko Israel ki rajdhani maanyata naheen deta.

3 1967 ke pehle ki seema ke anusaar, pashchimi kinaara poori tarah se shaamil.

4 iske atirikt kareeb 400,000 Israeli rahavaasi pashchimi kinaare mein, jiska aadha hissa poorvi jerusalam mein aata hai.

baahari kadiyaaain