madhvaachaarya

madhvaachaarya, maadhavaachaarya vidyaaranya se bhinn hain.


madhvaachaarya

madhvaachaarya (tulu : ಶaa್aaರaaೀ ಮaaಧaa್aaವaaಾaaಚaaಾaaರaa್aaಯaaರaaು) (1238-1317) Bhaarat mein bhakti aandolan ke samay ke sabse mahatvapoorn daarshanikon mein se ek the. ve poornaprajnya va aanandateerth ke naam se bhi prasiddh hain. ve tatvavaad ke pravartak the jise dvaitavaad ke naam se jaana jaata hai. dvaitavaad, vedaant ki teen pramukh darshanon mein ek hai. madhvaachaarya ko vaayu ka truteeya avataar maana jaata hai (hanumaan aur bheem kramash: pratham va dviteeya avataar the).

madhvaachaarya kai arthon mein apne samay ke agradoot the, ve kai baar prachalit reetiyon ke viruddh chale gaye hain. unhone dvait darshan ka pratipaadan kiya. inhone dvait darshan ke brahmasootr par bhaashya likha aur apne vedaant ke vyaakhyaan ki taarkik pushti ke liye ek svatantr granth 'anuvyaakhyaan' bhi likha. shreemadbhagavadgeeta aur upanishdon par teekaaeain, mahaabhaarat ke taatparya ki vyaakhya karanevaala granth mahaabhaaratataatparyanirnaya tatha shreemadbhaagavatapuraan par teeka ye inke anya granth hai. rigved ke pehle chaalees sookton par bhi ek teeka likhi aur anek svatantr prakaranon mein apne mat ka pratipaadan kiya. aisa lagta hai ki ye apne mat ke samarthan ke liye prasthaanatrayi ki apeksha puraanon par adhik nirbhar hain.

anukram

jeevani

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

Om
itihaas · devata
sampradaaya · aagam
vishvaas aur darshanashaastr
punarjanm · moksh
karm · pooja · maaya
darshan · dharm
vedaant ·yog
shaakaahaar · aayurved
yug · sanskaar
bhakti {{hindu darshan}}
granth
vedasanhita · vedaang
braahmanagranth · aaranyak
upanishd · shreemadbhagavadgeeta
raamaayan · mahaabhaarat
sootr · puraan
shikshaapatri · vachanaamrut
sambandhit vishay
daivi dharm ·
vishv mein hindu dharm
guru · mandir devasthaan
yagya · mantr
shabdakosh · hindu parv
vigrah
praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

HinduSwastika.svg

hindu maapan pranaali

inka janm dakshin kannad jile ke udupi shivlli naamak sthaan ke paas paajak naamak ek gaaainv mein san 1238 E mein hua. alpaavastha mein hi ye ved aur vedaangon ke achhe jnyaaata hue aur sannyaas liya. pooja, dhyaan, adhyayan aur shaastracharcha mein inhonne sannyaas le liya. shankar mat ke anuyaayi achyutapreksh naamak aachaarya se inhonne vidya grahan ki aur guru ke saath shaastraarth kar inhonne apna ek alag mat banaaya jise "dvait darshan" kehte hain. inke anusaar vishnu hi paramaatma hain. raamaanuj ki tarah inhonne shri vishnu ke aayudhon, shankh, chakr, gada aur padm ke chinhon se apne angon ko anlakrut karne ki pratha ka samarthan kiya. desh ke vibhinn bhaagon mein inhonne apne anuyaayi banaae. udupi mein Krishna ke mandir ka sthaapan kiya, jo unke saare anuyaayiyon ke liye teerthasthaan ban gaya. yajnyaon mein pashubali band karaane ka saamaajik sudhaar inheen ki den hai. 79 varsh ki avastha (san 1317 E) mein inka dehaavasaan hua. Narayan panditaachaarya krut sumadhvavijya aur manimanjari naamak granthon mein madhvaachaarya ki jeevani or kaaryon ka paaramparik varnan milta hai. parantu ye granth aachaarya ke prati lekhak ke shraddhaalu hone ke kaaran atiranjana, chamatkaar aur avishvasaneeya ghatnaaon se poorn hain. at: inke aadhaar par koi yathaatathya vivran madhvaachaarya ke jeevan ke sambandh mein naheen upasthit kiya ja sakta.

darshan

shri madhvaachaarya ne prasthaanatrayi granthon se apne dvaitavaad siddhaant ka vikaas kiya. yeh `sadvaishnava´ bhi kaha jaata hai, kyonki yeh shri raamaanujaachaarya ke shri vaishnavatv se alag hai.

shri madhvaachaarya ne `'panch bhed' ka adhyayan kiya jo `atyant bhed darshanam´ bhi kaha jaata hai. usaki paanch visheshataayein hain :

  • (k) Bhagwan aur vyaktigat aatma ki pruthakata,
  • (kh) paramaatma aur padaarth ki pruthakata,
  • (g) jeevaatma evam padaarth ki pruthakata,
  • (gh) ek aatma aur doosari aatma mein pruthakata tatha
  • (ङ) ek bhautik vastu aur anya bhautik vastu mein pruthakata.

`atyant bhed darshanam´ ka vargeekaran padaarth roop mein is prakaar bhi kiya gaya hai :

  • (a) svatantr
  • (aa) aashrit

svatantr vah hai jo poorn roopen svatantr hai. jo Bhagwan ya sanaatan satya hai. lekin jeevaatma aur jagat Bhagwan par aashrit hain. isaliye Bhagwan unka niyantran karte hain. paramaatma svatantr hain. isliye unka vargeekaran asambhav hai. aashrit tattv sakaaraatmak evam nakaaraatmak roop mein vibhaajit kiye jaate hain. sakaaraatmak ko bhi chetan (jaise aatma) aur achetan (jaise ve padaarth) mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai.

achetan tattv ko paribhaashit karne ke pehle madhvaachaarya svatantr aur aashrit ke baare mein bataate hain jo sansaar se nitya mukt hain. is vichaaradhaara ke anusaar `vishnu` svatantr hain jo viveki aur sansaar ke niynta hain. unki shakti lakshmi hain jo nitya mukt hain. kai vyoohon evam avataaron ke roopon mein ham vishnu ko pa sakte hain (un tak pahuainch sakte hain). usi prakaar atyant aashrit lakshmi bhi vishnu ki shakti hain aur nitya bhautik shareer liye hi kai roop dhaaran kar sakti hain. vah dukh-dard se pare hain. unke putr brahma aur vaayu hain. `prakruti´ shabd pr = pare + kruti = srushti ka sangam hai.

madhvaachaarya ne srushti aur brahm ko alag maana hai. unke anusaar vishnu bhautik sansaar ke kaaran karta hain. Bhagwan prakruti ko lakshmi dvaara sashakt banaate hain aur use drushya jagat mein parivrtit karte hain. prakruti bhautik vastu, shareer evam angon ka bhautik kaaran hai. prakruti ke teen pahaluon se teen shaktiyaaain aavirbhoot hain : lakshmi, bhoo (sarasvati-dharati) aur durga. avidya (ajnyaaan) bhi prakruti ka hi ek roop hai jo paramaatma ko jeevaatma se chhipaati hai.

madhvaachaarya ji ka vishvaas hai ki prakruti se bani dharati maaya naheen, balki paramaatma se pruthak satya hai. yeh doodh mein chhipi dahi ke samaan parivartan naheen hai, na hi paramaatma ka roop hai. isliye yeh avishesh dvaitavaad hi hai.

madhvaachaarya ji ne raamaanujaachaarya ka aatmaaon ka vargeekaran ko sveekaar kiya. jaise :--

  • (k) nitya - sanaatan (lakshmi ke samaan)
  • (kh) mukt - devata, manushya, riashi, sant aur mahaan vyakti
  • (g) baddh - baindhe vyakti

madhvaachaarya ne inke saath aur do varg joda jo moksh ke yogya hai aur jo moksh ke yogya naheen hai :

  • 1. poorn samarpit log, baddh bhi moksh ke liye yogya hain.
  • 2. jo moksh ke liye yogya naheen hain. ve hain:
  • (k) nitya sansaari : saansaarik chakr mein baddh.
  • (kh) tamoyogya : jinhein narak jaana hai.

is vargeekaran ke anusaar jeevaatma ka ek alag astitv hai. is prakaar ek aatma doosari aatma se bhinn hoti hain. iska arthaaatma anek hain. jeevaatma paramaatma evam prakruti se bhinn hone se paramaatma ke nirdesh par aashrit hai. unke pichhle janmon ke aadhaar (karmo) par paramaatma unhein prerit karte hain. pichhle karmo ke anusaar jeevaatma kasht jhelate hain, jisse unki aatma pavitra ho jaati hai aur jeevan-maran se mukt hokar aanand ka anubhav karti hain jo aatma ki sahajata hai. aanandaanubhooti mein jeevaatma bhinn hoti hai. lekin unamein koi vaimanasya naheen hota aur ve pavitra hokar parabrahm ko praapt kar lete hain. lekin ve paramaatma ke baraabar naheen ho sakateen. ve paramaatma ki seva ke laayak ho jaati hain. navadha bhakti maarg se aatma paramaatma ki krupa se mukti praapt kar leti hai.

krutiyaaain

  • brahmasootrabhaashyam
  • anubhaashyam (sarvashaastraarthasaङagrah:)
  • anuvyaakhyaanam
  • nyaayavivranam
  • geetaabhaashyam
  • geetaataatparyam (geetaataatparyanirnay:)
  • dashopanishdbhaashyam
  • rigbhaashyam
  • mahaabhaaratataatparyanirnay:
  • bhaagavatataatparyanirnay:
  • yamakabhaaratam
  • upaadhikhndanam
  • maayaavaadakhandanam
  • prapanyachamithyaatvaanumaanakhandanam
  • tattvodyot:
  • vishnutattvavinirnay:
  • tattvavivek:
  • tattvasaaङakhyaanam
  • karmanirnay:
  • kathaalakshanam
  • pramaanalakshanam
  • tantrasaarasaङagrah:
  • dvaadashastotram
  • krushnaamrutamahaarnav:
  • sadaachaarasmruti:
  • jayanteenirnay:
  • yatipranavakalp:
  • nyaasapaddhati:
  • tithinirnay:
  • kandukastuti:
  • narasinhanakhastuti:

shishya

madhvaachaarya se prabhaavit shishya anekon hain.

  • padmanaabhateerth:
  • narahariteerth:
  • maadhavateerth:
  • akshobhyateerth:

udupeekshetr ke ashtamathon ke moolayatay:

  • hrusheekeshateerth:
  • narasinhateerth:
  • janaardanateerth:
  • upendrateerth:
  • vaamanateerth:
  • vishnuteerth:
  • shreeraamateerth:
  • adhokshajateerth:

baahari kadiyaaain