madhumakkhi

madhumakkhi
madhumakkhi ke chhaate

madhumakkhi keet varg ka praani hai. madhumakkhi se madhu praapt hota hai jo atyant paushtik bhojan hai. yeh sangh banaakar rahati hain. pratyek sangh mein ek raani, kai sau nar aur shesh shramik hote hain. madhumakkhiyaaain chhatte banaakar rahati hain. inka yeh ghosala (chhatta) mom se banta hai. iske vansh epis mein 7 jaatiyaan evam 44 upajaatiyaan hain.

anukram

prajaatiyaaain

jantu jagat mein madhumakkhi 'aarthopoda' sangh ka keet hai. vishv mein madhumakkhi ki mukhya paanch prajaatiyaan pai jaati hain. jinmein chaar prajaatiyaan Bhaarat mein pai jaati hain. madhumakkhi ki in prajaatiyon se hamaare yahaan ke log praacheen kaal se parichit rahe hain. iski pramukh paanch prajaatiyaan hain :

bhunaga ya dambhar (Apis melipona)

yeh aakaar mein sabse chhoti aur sabse kam shahad ekatr karne waali madhumakkhi hai. shahad ke maamale mein na sahi lekin paraagan ke maamale mein iska yogadaan anya madhumakkhiyon se kam naheen hai. iske shahad ka svaad kuchh khatta hota hai. ayurvedik drushti se iska shahad sarvottam hota hai kyonki yeh jadi bootiyon ke nanhein foolon, jahaan anya madhumakkhiyaan naheen pahunch paati hain, se bhi Parag ekatr kar leti hain.

bhanvar ya saarang (Apis dorsata)

ise desh ke alag-alag hisson mein alag-alag naam se jaana jaata hai. uttar Bhaarat mein 'bhanvar' ya 'bhaunreh' kehte hain. dakshin Bhaarat mein ise 'saarang' tatha Rajasthan mein 'mom maakhi' kehte hain. ye oonche vrukshon ki daaliyon, oonche makaanon, chattaanon aadi par vishaal chhatta banaati hain. chhatta kareeb dedh se paune do meter tak chauda hota hai. iska aakaar anya bhaarateeya madhumakkhiyon se bada hota hai. anya madhumakkhiyon ke mukaabale yeh shahad bhi adhik ekatr karti hain. ek chhatte se ek baar mein 30 se 50 kilogram tak shahad mil jaata hai. svabhaav se yeh atyant khatarnaak hoti hain. ise chhed dene par ya kisi pakshi dvaara ismein chot maar dene par yeh door-door tak daudaakar manushyon ya uske paalatoo pashuon ka peechha karti hain. atyant aakraamak hone ke kaaran hi yeh paali naheen ja sakti. jangalon mein praapt shahad isi madhumakkhi ki hoti hai.

potinga ya chhoti madhumakkhi (Apis florea)

yeh bhi bhanvar ki tarah hi khule mein keval ek chhatta banaati hai. lekin iska chhatta chhota hota hai aur daaliyon par latakata hua dekha ja sakta hai. iska chhatta adhik oonchaai par naheen hota. chhatta kareeb 20 seinteemeetar lamba aur kareeb itna hi chauda hota hai. isse ek baar mein 250 gram se lekar 500 gram tak shahad praapt ho sakta hai.

khaira ya bhaarateeya maun (Apis cerana indica)

ise graameen kshetron mein madhumakkhi ki prajaatiyaan 'satakochava' madhumakkhi kehte hain. kyonki ye deevaaron ya pedon ke khokhalon mein ek ke baad ek kareeb saat samaanaantar chhatte banaati hain. yeh anya madhumakkhiyon ki apeksha kam aakraamak hoti hain. isse ek baar mein ek-do kilogram shahad nikal sakta hai. yeh petiyon mein paali ja sakti hai. saal bhar mein isse 10 se 15 kilogram tak shahad praapt ho sakti hai.

yooropiyn madhumakkhi (Apis mellifera)

iska vistaar sampoorn Europe, America, Australia aur Africa tak hai. iski anek prajaatiyaan jinmein ek prajaati itailiyn madhumakkhi (Apis mellifera lingustica) hai. vartamaan mein apne desh mein isi itailiyn madhumakkhi ka paalan ho raha hai. sabse pehle ise apne desh mein san 1962 mein Himachal pradesh mein nagarauta naamak sthaan par Europe se laakar paala gaya tha. iske pashchaat 1966-67 mein ludhiyaana (Punjab) mein iska paalan shuroo hua. yahaan se failate-failate ab yeh poore desh mein pahunch gayi hai. iske poorv hamaare desh mein bhaarateeya maun paali jaati thi. jiska paalan ab lagbhag samaapt ho chuka hai.

krushi utpaadan mein madhumakkhiyon ka mahattv

paraaganakaari jeevon mein madhumakkhi ka vishesh mahattv hai. is sambandh mein anek adhyayan bhi hue hain. si.si. ghosh, jo san 1919 mein impeeriyl krushi anusandhaan sansthaan mein kaaryarat the, ne madhumakkhiyon ki mahatta ke sambandh mein kaha tha ki yeh ek rupae ki shahad va mom deti hai to das rupae ki keemat ke baraabar utpaadan badha deti hai. bhaarateeya krushi anusandhaan sansthaan, nai Delhi mein kuchh fasalon par paraagan sambandhi pareekshan kiye gaye. saunf mein dekha gaya ki jin foolon ka madhumakkhi dvaara paraageekaran hone diya gaya unamein 85 pratishat beej bane. iske vipreet jin foolon ko madhumakkhi dvaara paraagit karne se roka gaya unamein maatr 6.1 pratishat beej hi bane the. yaani madhumakkhi, saunf ke utpaadan ko kareeb 15 guna badha deti hai. baraseem mein to beej utpaadan ki yeh badhottri 112 guna tatha unke bhaar mein 179 guna adhik dekhi gayi. sarason ki paraparaagani 'poosa kalyaani' jaati to poornataya madhumakkhi ke paraageekaran par hi nirbhar hai. fasal ke jin foolon mein madhumakkhi ne paraageekrut kiya unke foolon se ausatan 82 pratishat fali bani tatha ek fali mein ausatan 14 beej aur beej ka ausat bhaar 3 miligraam paaya gaya. iske vipreet jin foolon ko madhumakkhi dvaara paraagan se roka gaya unamein sirf 5 pratishat faliyaan hi bani. ek fali mein ausat ek beej bana jiska bhaar ek miligraam se bhi kam paaya gaya. isi tarah tilhan ki svaparaagani kismon mein utpaadan 25-30 pratishat adhik paaya gaya. leechi, gobhi, ilaayachi, pyaaj, kapaas evam kai falon par kiye gaye prayogon mein aise parinaam paae gaye.

madhumakkhi parivaar

ek saath rahane waali sabhi madhumakkhiyaan ek maunavansh (colony) kahalaati hain. ek maunavansh mein teen tarah ki madhumakkhiyaan hoti hain : (1) raani, (2) nar tatha (3) kameri.

raani

ek maunavansh mein hajaaron madhumakkhiyaan hoti hain. inmein raani (queen) keval ek hoti hai. yahi vaastav mein poorn viksit maada hoti hai. poore maunavansh mein ande dene ka kaam akeli raani madhumakkhi hi karti hai. yeh aakaar mein anya madhumakkhiyon se badi aur chamakeeli hoti hai jisse ise jhund mein aasaani se pahachaana ja sakta hai.

nar madhumakkhi

mausam aur prajanan kaal ke anusaar nar madhumakkhi (drone) ki sankhya ghatati-badhti rahati hai. prajanan kaal mein ek maunavansh mein ye dhaai-teen sau tak ho jaate hain jabki vipreet paristhitiyon mein inki sankhya shoonya tak ho jaati hai. inka kaam keval raani madhumakkhi ka garbhaadhaan karna hai. garbhaadhaan ke liye yadyapi kai nar prayaas karte hain jinmein ek hi safal ho paata hai.

kameri madhumakkhi

kisi maunavansh mein sabse mahattvapoorn madhumakkhiyaan kameri (varkar) hi hoti hain. ye foolon se ras le aakar shahad to banaati hi hain saath-saath ande-bachchon ki dekhbhaal aur chhatte ke nirmaan ka kaarya bhi karti hain.

inhein bhi dekhein