madhubani chitrakala

madhubani chitrakala
chitr banaati kalaakaar

madhubani chitrakala mithilaanchal kshetr jaise Bihar ke darabhanga, madhubani evam Nepal ke kuchh kshetron ki pramukh chitrakala hai. praarambh mein rangoli ke rup mein rahane ke baad yeh kala dheere-dheere aadhunik roop mein kapado, deevaaron evam kaagaj par utar I hai. mithila ki auraton dvaara shuroo ki gayi is ghareloo chitrakala ko purushon ne bhi apna liya hai.

anukram

itihaas

maana jaata hai ye chitr raaja janak ne Ram-seeta ke vivaah ke dauraan mahila kalaakaaron se banavaae the. pehle to sirf oonchi jaati ki mahilaaon (jaise braahmanon) ko hi is kala ko banaane ki ijaajat thi lekin vakt ke saath ye seemaaeain bhi khatm ho gain. aaj mithilaanchal ke kai gaanvon ki mahilaaeain is kala mein daksh hain. apne asli roop mein to ye peinting gaanvon ki mitti se leepi gayi jhopadiyon mein dekhne ko milti thi, lekin ise ab kapde ya fir pepar ke kainavaas par khoob banaaya jaata hai. samay ke saath saath chitrakaar ki is vidha mein paasavaan jaati ke samudaaya ke logon dvaara raaja shailesh ke jeevan vrutaant ka chitran bhi kiya jaane laga. is samudaaya ke log raaja sailesh ko apne devata ke roop mein poojate bhi hain.

visheshata

is chitr mein khaastaur par kul devata ka bhi chitran hota hai. hindu Dave-devataaon ki tasveer, praakrutik najaare jaise- soorya va chandrama, dhaarmik ped-paudhe jaise- tulasi aur vivaah ke drushya dekhne ko mileinge. madhubani peinting do tarah ki hoteen hain- bhitti chitr aur aripn ya alpana.

vidhiyaaain

chatakh rangon ka istemaal khoob kiya jaata hai. jaise gahra laal rang, hara, neela aur kaala. kuchh halke rangon se bhi chitr mein nikhaar laaya jaata hai, jaise- peela, gulaabi aur neenboo rang. yeh jaanakar hairaani hogi ki in rangon ko ghareloo cheejon se hi banaaya jaata hai, jaise- haldi, kele ke patte, laal rang ke liye peepal ki chhaal prayog kiya jaata hai. aur doodh. bhitti chitron ke alaava alpana ka bhi Bihar mein kaafi chalan hai. ise baithak ya fir darvaaje ke baahar banaaya jaata hai. pehle ise isliye banaaya jaata tha taaki kheton mein fasal ki paidaavaar achhi ho lekin aajkal ise ghar ke shubh kaamon mein banaaya jaata hai. chitr banaane ke liye maachis ki teeli va baaains ki kalam ko prayog mein laaya jaata hai. rang ki pakad banaane ke liye babool ke vruksh ki gond ko milaaya jaata hai.

samay ke saath madhubani chitr ko banaane ke peechhe ke maayane bhi badal chuke hain, lekin ye kala apne aap mein itna kuchh samete hue hai ki yeh aaj bhi kala ke kadradaanon ki chuninda pasand mein se hai.

hast nirmit pepar

chitran se poorv hast narmit kaagaj ko taiyaar karne ke liye kaagaj par gaaya ke gobar ka ghol banaakar tatha ismein babool ka gond daala jaata hai. sooti kapde se gobar ke ghol ko kaagaj par lagaaya jaata hai aur dhoop mein sukhaane ke liye rakh diya jaata hai.

prakaar

madhubani chitrakala

madhubani chitrakala deevaar, kenvaas evam hast nirmit kaagaj par vartamaan samay mein chitrakaaron dvaara banaayi jaati hain.

bhitti chitr

madhubani bhitti chitr mein mitti (chikni) va gaaya ke gobar ke mishran mein babool ki gond milaakar deevaaron par lipaai ki jaati hai. gaaya ke gobar mein ek khaas tarah ka rasaayan padaarth hone ke kaaran deevaar par vishesh chamak aa jaati hai. ise ghar ki teen khaas jagahon par hi banaane ki parampara hai, jaise- poojaasthaan, kohabar kaksh (vivaahiton ke kamre mein) aur shaadi ya kisi khaas utsav par ghar ki baahari deevaaron par. madhubani peinting mein jin devi-devataaon ka chitran kiya jaata hai, ve hain- maan durga, kaali, seeta-Ram, raadha-Krishna, Shiv-paarvati, Gauri-ganesh aur vishnu ke das avataar ityaadi. in tasveeron ke alaava kai praakrutik aur ramya najaaron ki bhi peinting banaai jaati hai. pashu-pakshi, vruksh, fool-patti aadi ko svastik ki nishaani ke saath sajaaya-sanvaara jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein