madhubani

madhubani
jila
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya Bihar
jila madhubani
jilaadhikaari
saansad [shri hukumadev Narayan Yadav]]
janasankhya
ghanatv
66,285 (2001 tak )
• 1,020 /kimi2 (2,642 /varg meal)
kshetrafal 3,501.0 km² (1,352 sq mi)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: [http://[4] [5]]

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 26°a22′aN 86°a05′aE / 26.37°aN 86.08°aE / 26.37; 86.08 madhubani Bhaarat ke Bihar praant mein darabhanga pramandal antargat ek pramukh shahar evam jila hai. darabhanga evam madhubani ko mithila sanskruti ka dvidhruv maana jaata hai. maithili tatha hindi yahaaain ki pramukh bhaasha hai. vishvaprasiddh mithila peinting evam makhaana ke paidaavaar ki vajah se madhubani ko vishvabhar mein jaana jaata hai. is jila ka gathan 1972 mein darabhanga jile ke vibhaajan ke uparaant hua tha.

anukram

naamaakaran

madhubani ki mukhya bhaasha maithili hai jo sunane mein madhur evam saras hai. praacheen kaal mein yahaaain ke vanon mein madhu (shahad) adhik paae jaate the isliye jagah ka naam madhu + vani se madhubani ho gaya.[1] kuchh logon ka maanana hai madhubani shabd madhur + vaani se viksit hua hai.


madhubani jile ke praacheenatam gyaat nivaasiyon mein kiraat, bhaar, thaaru jaisi janajaatiyaaain shaamil hai. vaidik sroton ke mutaabik aaryon ki videh shaakha ne agni ke sanrakshan mein sarasvati tat se poorab mein sadaaneera (gandak) ki or kooch kiya aur is kshetr mein videh raajya ki sthaapana ki. videh ke raaja mithi ke naam par yeh pradesh mithila kahalaane laga. raamaayanakaal mein mithila ke raaja sirdhvaj janak ki putri seeta ka janm madhubani ki seema par sthit seetaamadhi mein hua tha. videh ki rajdhani janakapur, jo aadhunik Nepal mein padta hai, madhubani ke uttar-pashchimi seema ke paas hai. beneepatti ke paas sthit fulahar ke baare mein aisi maanyata hai ki yahaaain fulon ka baag tha jahaaain se seeta ful lekar girija devi mandir mein pooja kiya karti thi. pandaul ke baare mein yeh prasiddh hai ki yahaaain paandavon ne apne ajnyaaatavaash ke kuchh din bitaae the. videh raajya ka ant hone par yeh pradesh vaishaali ganaraajya ka ang bana. iske pashchaat yeh magadh ke maurya, shung, kanv aur gupt shaasakon ke mahaan saamraajya ka hissa raha. 13 veen sadi mein pashchim Bengal ke musalmaan shaasak haaji shamsuddeen iliyaas ke samay mithila evam tirhut kshetron ka baintavaara ho gaya. uttari bhaag jiske antargat madhubani, darabhanga evam samasteepur ka uttari hissa aata tha, oinavaar raaja kaameshvar Singh ke adheen raha. oinavaar raajaaon ne madhubani ke nikat sugauna ko apni pehli rajdhani banaayi. 16 veen sadi mein unhonne darabhanga ko apni rajdhani bana li. oinavaar shaasakon ko is kshetr mein kala, sanskruti aur saahitya ka badhaava dene ke liye jaana jaata hai. 1846 isvi mein britis sarkaar ne madhubani ko tirhut ke adheen anumandal banaaya. 1875 mein darabhanga ke svatantr jila banane par yeh iska anumandal bana. svatantrata sangraam mein mahaatma gaaaindhi ke khaadi aandolan mein madhubani ne apna vishesh pehchaan kaayam ki aur 1942 mein Bhaarat chhodo aandolan mein jile ke senaaniyon ne ji jaan se shirkat ki. svatantrata ke pashchaat 1972 mein madhubani ko svatantr jila bana diya gaya.

bhaugolik sthiti

madhubani ke uttar mein Nepal, dakshin mein darabhanga, purab mein supaul tatha pashchim mein seetaamadhi jila hai. kul kshetrafal 3501 varg kilometer hai jo bhookamp kshetr 5 mein padata hai. nadiyon ka yahaaain jaal bichha hai jo barasaat ke dinon mein har saal logon ke tabaahi ka kaaran banti hai. varsh 2007 mein aae bheeshan baadh mein 331 panchaayat (110 poorn roop se tatha 221 aanshik rup se) tatha 836 gaaainvon ke 372599 parivaar buri tarah se prabhaavit hue the.[2] samoocha jila ek samatal evam upajaaoo kshetr hai. ausat saalaana 1273 mimi varsha ka adhikaansh maunasoon se praapt hota hai.

nadiyaaain: kamala, kareh, balaan, bhootahi balaan, gehunaa, supen, trishula, jeevachh, koshi aur adhavaara samooh. adhikaansh nadiyaaain barasaat ke dinon mein ugr rup dhaaran kar leti hai. koshi nadi jile ki poorvi seema tatha adhavaara ya chhoti baagamati pashchimi seema banaati hai.

prashaasanik vibhaajan

yeh jila 5 anumandal, 21 prakhandon, 399 panchaayaton tatha 1111 gaaainvon mein bainta hai. vidhi vyavastha sanchaalan ke liye 18 thaane evam 2 jail hai. poorn evam aanshik rup se madhubani jila 2 sansadeeya kshetr evam 11 vidhaan sabha kshetr mein vibhaajit hai.

  • anumandal- madhubani, beneepatti, jhanjhaarapur, jayanagar evam fulaparaas
  • prakhand- madhubani sadar (rahika), pandaul, bisfi, jayanagar, ladaniya, laukaha, jhanjhaarapur, beneepatti, baasopatti, raajanagar, madhepur, andharaathaadhi, baaboobarahi, khutauna, khajauli, ghogharadeeha, madhavaapur, haralaakhi, laukahi, lakhanaur, fulaparaas, kaluaahi

krushi evam udyog

madhubani moolat: ek krushi pradhaan jila hai. yahaaain ki mukhya fasalein dhaan, gehoon, makka, makhaana aadi hai. Bhaarat mein makhaana ke kul utpaadan ka 80% madhubani mein hota hai.[3] aadhaarbhoot sanrachana ka abhaav evam nimn shahareekaran (maatr 3.65%) udyogon ke vikaash mein baadha hai. abhi madhubani peinting ki 76 panjeekrut ikaaiyaaain, furniture udyog ki 13 panjeekrut ikaaiyaaain, 3 steel udyog, 03 printing press, 03 choora mil, 01 chaaval mil tatha 3000 ke aaspaas laghu udyog ikaaiyaaain jile mein kaaryarat hai. pashupaalan evam dairy ko aadhaar banaakar inapar aadhaarit udyog lagaaya ja sakta hai lekin abhi tak maatr 30 dugdh sameetiyaaain hi kaaryarat hai. machhali, makhaana, aam, leechi tatha ganna jaise krushi utpaad ke alaave madhubani se peetal ki baratan evam haindaloom kapde ka raajya mein tatha baahar niryaat kiya jaata hai.

shaikshanik sansthaan

shiksha ke prasaar ke maamale mein madhubani ek pichhda jila hai. saaksharata maatr 41.97% hai jismein striyon ki saaksharata dar mahaj 26.54% hai. aadhaarbhoot sanrachana ke abhaav ko shiksha kshetr mein pichhdepan ka mukhya kaaran maana jaata hai. jile mein shikshan sansthaanon ki kul sankhya is prakaar hai:

  • praathamik vidyaalay: 901
  • madhya vidyaalay: 382
  • maadhyamik vidyaalay: 119
  • degree kaulej: 27

sthiti mein sudhaar hetu Bihar shiksha pariyojana ke adheen abhi 98 praathamik vidyaalaya khole gaye hain tatha 83 praathamik vidyaalayon ko madhya vidyaalaya mein utkramit kiya ja raha hai. madhubani jile ke tamaam college lalit Narayan mithila vishvavidyaalaya darabhanga se sanvaddh hain jabki aabaadi ko dekhte hue jile mein ek vishvavidyaalaya ki sakht aavashyakta hai. iske alaava yahaan medical college aur anya engineering college bhi naheen hai. madhubani ke log padhaai likhaai mein kaafi jaheen maane jaate hain aur unhonne raajya aur desh ke andar apni pratibha ka loha manavaaya hai. kam saaksharata ke baavajood yahaan ke log badi sankhya mein aaiees, IPS aur anya sevaaon mein chunakar jaate rahe hain. lekin padh vaheen paate hain jo aarthik rup se sampann hain aur junooni hai saath hi jinka jaagaruk samaajik parivesh hai. madhubani mein vaise to ek navodaya vidyaalaya hai lekin usaki gunavatta prabhaavit hui hai. madhubani ko kam se kam 5 degree college, ek medical college aur paanch injinyareeng collegeon ki sakht aavashyakta hai. yahaan ke bachche jameen bechakar Karnataka, Maharashtra aur anya soobon mein degree paane jaate hain jiski gunavatta bhi sandigdh hoti hai saath hi raajya ka raajasv bhi doosare raajya mein chala jaata hai. lekin durbhaagya ki baat yeh hai ki is jile se itne kaddaavar netaaon ke sansad aur vidhaanasabha pahunchane ke baad bhi janta ko thagane ka silsila jaari hai aur shiksha abhi tak raajaneetik agende par naheen aa pai hai. shaayad desh ke anya hisson ka bhi kamovesh yaheen haal hai.

kala evam sanskruti

madhubani mithila sanskruti ka ang evam kendra vindu raha hai. raaja janak aur seeta ka vaas sthal hone se hinduon ke liye yeh kshetr ati pavitra evam mahatvapoorn hai. mithila peinting ke alaave maithili aur sanskrut ke vidvaanon ne ise duniya bhar mein khaas pehchaan di hai. prasiddh lokakalaaon mein sujani (kapade ki kai tahon par rangeen dhaagon se dijaain banaana), sikki-mauni (khar evam ghaas se banaai gayi kalaatmak dijaain waali upayogi vastu) tatha lakdi par nakkaashi ka kaam shaamil hai. saama chakeva evam jhijhiya madhubani ka lok nrutya hai. maithili, hindi tatha urdoo yahaaain ki mukh‍aaya bhaasha hai. yeh jila mahaakavi kaaleedaas, maithili kavi vidyaapati tatha vaachaspati jaise vidvaanon ki janmabhoomi rahi hai.

madhubani peinting:

parv tyohaaron ya vishesh utsav par yahaaain ghar mein poojaagruh evam bhitti chitr ka prachalan puraana hai. 17veen shataabdi ke aas-paas aadhunik madhubani kala shaili ka vikaas maana jaata hai. madhubani shaili mukh‍aaya rup se jitvaarapur (braahman bahul) aur ratani (kaayas‍aath bahul) gaaainv mein sarvapratham ek v‍aayavasaaya ke roop mein viksit hua tha. yahaaain viksit hue peinting ko is jagah ke naam par hi madhubani shaili ka peintig kaha jaata hai. is peintig mein paudhon ki pattiyon, falon tatha foolon se rang nikaalkar kapde ya kaagaj ke kainavas par bhara jaata hai. madhubani peinting shaili ki mukh‍aaya khaasiyat iske nirmaan mein mahila kalaakaaron ki mukh‍aaya bhoomika hai. in lok kalaakaaron ke dvaara taiyaar kiya hua kohabar, Shiv-paarvati vivaah, Ram-jaanki svayanvar, Krishna leela jaise vishyon par banaayi gayi peinting mein mithila sans‍aakruti ki pehchaan chhipi hai. paryatakon ke liye yahaaain ki kala aur sans‍aakruti khaaskar peinting kautuhal ka mukh‍aaya vishay rahata hai. maithili kala ka v‍aayaavasaayik dohan sahi maayane mein 1962 mein shuroo hua jab ek kalaakaar ne in gaaainvon ka daura kiya. is kalaakaar ne yahaan ki mahila kalaakaaron ko apni peinting kaagaj par utaarane ke liye prerit kiya. yeh prayog v‍aayaavasaayik roop se kaafi kaaragar saabit hui. aaj madhubani kala shaili mein anekon ut‍aapaad banaae ja rahe hain jinka baajaar failata hi ja raha hai. vartamaan mein in peintig‍aas ka upayog bag aur paridhaanon par kiya ja raha hai. is kala ki maang na keval Bhaarat ke ghareloo baajaar mein badh rahi hai varan videshon mein bhi iski lokapriyta badhti ja rahi hai. anya utpaadon mein card, paridhaan, bag, dari aadi shaamil hai.

chitrakala

madhubani chitrakala ke liye prakhyaat hai. 2003 i॰ mein landan mein aayojit kala pradarshani mein madhubani peintings ko bahut prashansa mili thi.

paryatan sthal

*raajanagar- raajanagar madhubani jile ka ek etihaasik mahatva jagah hai. yeh ek jamaane mein mahaaraaj darabhanga ki up-rajdhani hua karta tha. yeh maraaraaja raameshvar Singh ke dvaara basaaya gaya tha. unhonne yahaan ek bhavya naulakha mahal ka nirmaan karavaaya lekin 1934 ke bhookamp mein us mahal ko kaafi kshati pahunchi aur abhi bhi yeh bhagnaavashesh ke rup mein hi hai. is mahal mein ek prasiddh aur jaagrat devi kaali ka mandir hai jiske baare mein ilaake ke logon mein kaafi maanyata aur shraddha hai. jab is nagar ko raameshvar Singh basa rahe the us vakt ve mahaaraaja naheen, balki paragane ke maalik the. raaja ke chhote bhaai aur sanbandhiyon ko paragana de diya jaata tha jiske maalik ko baaboosaahab kaha jaata tha. baad mein apne bhaai mahaaraaja lakshmeeshvar Singh ki mrutyu ke baad, raameshvar Singh, darabhanga ki gaddi par baithe. lekin 1934 ke bhookamp ne raajanagar ke gaurav ko dhvast kar diya. halaanki yahaan ka bhagnaavashesh avastha mein maujood raajamahal aur parisar abhi bhi dekhne laayak hai. raajanagar, madhubani jila mukhyaalaya s kareeb 7 kilometer uttar mein hai aur madhubani-jayanagar railway laain yahaan se hokar gujarati hai. yeh madhubani-laukaha road par hi sthiti hai aur yaataayaat ke saadhanon se achhi tarah juda hua hai. yahaan prakhand mukhyaalaya, college, haaiskool, police station, cinema hall aadi hai. ek jamaane mein nadi kamala iske poorav se hokar bahti thi. ab usane apni dhaara kareeb 7 kilometer poorav khiska li hai aur bhatagaama-pipraaghaat se hokar bahti hai. raajanagar se uttar khajauli, dakshin madhubani, poorav baaboobarahi aur pashchim rahika block hai. yahaan se baliraajagadh ki doori 20 kilometer hai, jo mauryakaal se bhi puraana aitihaasik kila maana jaata hai.

  • sauraath: madhubani-jayanagar road par sthit is gaaainv mein somanaath mahaadev mandir ka mandir hai. yahaaain maithil braahmanon ki prativrsh honevaali sabha mein vivaah tay kiye jaate hain. is gaaainv mein tatha anyatr rahane vaale panjeekaar is kshetr ke braahmanon ki vanshaavali rakhate hain aur vivaah tay karne mein inki aham bhoomika hoti hai.
  • kapileshvaranaath: madhubani se 9 kilometer door is sthaan par ati poojya kapileshvar Shiv mandir hai. pratyek somvaar tatha saavan ke maheene mein shraddhaaluon ki bhaari bheed jama hoti hai. mahaashivraatri ko yahaaain mela bhi lagta hai.
  • Baba mukteshvaranaath sthaan: Bhagwan Shiv ko samarpit shri shri 108 Baba mukteshvaranaath (mukteshvar sthaan) Shiv mandir ek hindu dharm - sthal hai jo Bihar raajya ke madhubani jila antargatt andharaathaadhi prakhand ke devahaar gram mein sthit hai.
  • uchaitha: beneepatti prakhand mein thumane nadi ke pashchimi kinaare par devi bhagavati ka mandir hai. janashrutiyon ke anusaar yahaaain sanskrut kavi evam vidvaan kaaleedaas ko devi ka aasheervaad praapt hua tha.
  • bhavaaneepur: pandaul prakhand mukhyaalaya se 5 kilometer door sthit is gaaainv mein ugranaath mahaadev (ugana) Shiv mandir hai. bisfi mein janmein maithili ke mahaan kavi vidyaapati se yeh mandir juda hai. maanyataaon ke anusaar vidyaapati Shiv ke itne ananya bhakt the ki swayam Shiv ne hi ugana bankar unki seva karne lage.
  • koilakh'mote akshar'- koilakh ek pramukh gaaainv hai jo maaain kaali ke liye prasiddh hai yahaaain jo manokaamana maangi jaati hai vo jarur poori hoti hai .

* baliraaj gadh : yahaan pracheen kila ka ek bhagnaavashesh hai jo kareeb 365 beeghe mein faila hua hai. yeh sthaan jila mukhyaalaya se kareeb 34 kilometer uttar-poorv mein madhubani-laukaha sadke ke kinaare sthit hai. yeh najadeeki gaanv khojapur se sadak maarg se juda hai jahaan se iski doori 1. 5 kilometer ke kareeb hai. iske uttar mein khojapur, dakshin mein bagaul, poorab mein fulabariya aur pashchim mein ramaneepatti gaanv hai. is kile ki deevaar kaafi moti hai aur aisa lagta hai ki ispar se hokar kai rath aasaani se gujar jaate honge. yeh sthaan bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ke adheen hai aur yahaan uske kuchh karmachaari iski dekhbhaal karte hain. puraatatv vibhaag ne do baar iski sankshipt khudaai ki hai aur iski khudaai karavaane mein madhubani ke poorv CPI saansad bhogeindr jha aur sthaaneeya kudaal sena ke sanyojak seetaaraam jha ka naam aham hai. yahaan salaana raamanavami ke avsar par chaiti durga ka bhavya aayojan hota hai jismein bhaari bheed umadti hai. iski khudaai mein mauryakaaleen sikke, mrudabhaand aur kai vastuen baraamad hui hain. lekin poori khudaai na ho sakane ke kaaran ismein itihaas ka vahumoolya khajaana aur aitihaasik dharohar chhupi hui hai. kai logon ka maanana hai ki baliraaj gadh mithila ki praacheen rajdhani bhi ho sakti hai kyonki vartamaan janakapur ke baare mein koi logon ko isliye sandeh hai kyonki vahaan ki imaarate kaafi nai hain. doosari baat ye ki raamaayan anya videshi yaatriyon ke vivran se sanket milta hai ki mithila ki praacheen rajdhani hone ke par baliraajagadh ka daava kaafi majaboot hai. iske bagal se darabhanga-laukaha rel laain bhi gujarati hai aur najadeeki railway haalt bahahada yahaan se maatr 3 kilometer ki doori par hai. iske agal-bagal ke gaanv bhi aitihaasik naam liye hue hain. ramaneepatti ke baare mein logon ki maanyata hai ki yahaan raaja ka ranivaas raha hoga. fulabariya, jaisa ki naam se hi spasht hai foolo ka baag raha hoga. bagaul bhi bigul se bana hai jabki kuchh hi doori par navanagar naamaka gaanv hai. jo garahi gaaainv iske najadeek mein hai. baliraaj gadh mein haal tak kareeb 50 saal pehle tak ghana jungle hua karta tha aur puraane sthaaneeya log abhi bhi ise van kehte hain jahaan pehle kabhi khoonkhaar jaanavar vichrate the. vahaan ek sant bhi rahate the jinke shishya se dheereindr brahmachaari ne deeksha li thi. kul milaakar, baliraajagadh abhi bhi ek vyaapak khudaai ka intajaar kar raha hai aur itihaas ki kai sachchaaiyon ko duniya ke saamane kholne ke liye bekaraar hai. is ke najadeek ek uchch vidyaalaya navanagar mein hai jo is dash kilo mitr ke antargat ek uchch vidyaalaya hai jo navanagar mein shiksha ke liye jaana jaata hai.

aavaagaman

sadak maarg

madhubani Bihar ke sabhi mukhya shaharon se raajamaargon dvaara juda hua hai. yahaaain se vartamaan mein teen raashtreeya raajamaarg tatha do raajakeeya raajamaarg gujarati hain. mujaffarapur se faarabisganj hote hue poorniya jaanevaala raashtreeya raajamaarg 57 madhubani jila hote hue jaati hai. yeh sadak svarnim chaturbhuj yojana ka agal charan hai jise East-vest kaureedor kaha jaata hai. iski yojana Vajpayee sarkaar ke vakt bani thi. is sadak ke ban jaane se madhubani, darabhanga balki poore mithila kshetr ki hi takadeer badal jaaegi. is sadak ke tahat kosi par banane vaale pul ki lanbaai (sambhavat:iske saath rel pul bhi banaai jaaegi) kareeb 22 kilometer hone ki sambhaavana hai jismein kosi ke paat ke alaava uske poorav aur pashchim mein nichli jameen ke oopar kai-kai kilometer tak vo pul faili hui hogi. yeh sadak chaar len ki ban rahi hai aur iske banane se madhubani ka sampark saharasa, supaul, poorniya aur mithila ke poorvi ilaake se ek baar fir jud jaaega jo san 1934 ke bhoonkanp se pehle kaayam tha. poora ilaaka samaajik aur aarthik rup se ek ikaai mein badal jaaega. is pul ke mahaj banane maatr se is ilaake ki raajaneetik chetna kis mod legi iska andaaj lagaana mushkil hai. kuchh logon ki rai mein is pul ke banane se ek akhil mithila raajya ki maang jod pakad sakti hai jiska aandolan abhi khandit avastha mein hai.

madhubani se gujarane waali doosari sadak 55 kilometer lambi raashtreeya raajamaarg 105 hai jo darabhanga ko madhubani ke jayanagar se jodta hai. rajdhani Patna se sadak maarg ke maadh‍aayam se ach‍aachhi tarah se juda hua hai.

rel maarg

madhubani bhaarateeya rel ke poorv madhya railway kshetr ke samasteepur mandal mein padta hai. Delhi-Guwahati root par sthit samasteepur jankshan se badi gej ki ek laain madhubani hote hue Nepal seema par jhanjhaarapur ko jaati hai. madhubani se gujarane waali ek anya rel laain sakari se ghogharadiha hote hue faurabisganj ko jodti hai. 1996 ke baad rel amaan parivartan hone se darabhanga hote hue Delhi, mumbai, Kolkata, amrutasar, Guwahati tatha anya mahatvapoorn shaharon ke liye yahaaain se seedhi trainein upalabdh hai. iske alaava ek relalaain darabhanga se sakari aur jhanjhaarapur hote hue laukaha tak Nepal ki seema ko jodti hai. jile mein sakari aur jhanjhaarapur do rel ke jankshan hain. laukara railway laain ke nirmaan mein Congress ke varisht neta lalit Narayan mishr ka aham yogadaan hai jinka kaaryakshetr madhubani hi tha. ve jhanjhaarapur se saansad hua karte the.

havaai maarg

yahaaain se sabse najadeeki naagrik havaai adda 146 ki॰mee॰ door rajdhani Patna mein sthit hai. lokanaayak jayaprakaash havaai kshetr Patna (IATA code- PAT) se antardesheeya tatha seemit antarraashtreeya udaane upalabdh hai. Indian, Kingfisher, jet air, spaais jet tatha indigo ki udaanein Delhi, Kolkata aur raaainchi ke liye upalabdh hain.

sandarbh

  1. [1] britainika insaaklopeediya par madhubani
  2. [2] vijn patra 2020 mein madhubani ki praakrutik aapada
  3. [3] madhubani jile ka vijn 2020

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain