madhu

botal mein chhatte ke saath rakhi madhu
agar aap 'madhu' shabd ke baare mein lekh dhoondh rahe hain to madhu (shabd) dekhiye

madhu ya shahad (angreji:Honey Honey) ek meetha, chipchipaahat wala ardh taral padaarth hota hai jo madhumakkhiyon dvaara paudhon ke pushpon mein sthit makarandakoshon se sraavit madhuras se taiyaar kiya jaata hai aur aahaar ke roop mein maunagruh mein sangrah kiya jaata hai.[1]

shahad mein jo meethaapan hota hai vo mukhyat: glookoj aur ekalasharkara fraktoj ke kaaran hota hai. shahad ka prayog aushadhi roop mein bhi hota hai. shahad mein glookoj va anya sharkaraaen tatha vitaamin, khanij aur ameeno aml bhi hota hai jisse kai paushtik tatv milte hain jo ghaav ko theek karne aur utakon ke badhne ke upachaar mein madad karte hain. praacheen kaal se hi shahad ko ek jeevaanu-rodhi ke roop mein jaana jaata raha hai. shahad ek haaiparasmautik agent hota hai jo ghaav se taral padaarth nikaal deta hai aur sheegra usaki bharpaai bhi karta hai aur us jagah haanikaarak jeevaanu bhi mar jaate hain. jab isko seedhe ghaav mein lagaaya jaata hai to yeh seelaint ki tarah kaarya karta hai aur aise mein ghaav sankraman se bacha rahata hai.[2]

anukram

poshan

ek madhumakkhi goldanaraud pushp ke kailiks par Parag sevan karte hue.
madhu
poshak moolya prati 100 gra.(3.5 ons)
urja 300 kilo kailori 1270 kJ
carbohydrate 82.4 g
- sharkara 82.12 g
- aahaareeya resha 0.2 g
vasa 0 g
proteen 0.3 g
paani 17.10 g
raaiboflevin (vit. B2) 0.038 mg 3%
naayasin (vit. B3) 0.121 mg 1%
paintothainik aml (B5) 0.068 mg 1%
vitaamin B6 0.024 mg 2%
folet (Vit. B9) 2 μaag 1%
vitaamin C 0.5 mg 1%
kailshiym 6 mg 1%
lohatatv 0.42 mg 3%
maiganeeshiym 2 mg 1%
fausforas 4 mg 1%
poteshiym 52 mg 1%
sodiym 4 mg 0%
jasta 0.22 mg 2%
uparokt aankade 100 gra., lagbhag 5 bade chammach ke liye hain.
pratishat ek vayask hetu ameriki
sifaarishon ke saapeksh hain.
srot: USDA Nutrient database

madhu sharkaraaon evam anya yaugikon ka mishran hota hai. kaarbohaaidret ke sandarbh mein madhu mein mukhyat: fraktoj (lagbhag 38.5%) evam glookoj (lagbhag 31.0%) hota hai,[3] jo ise krutrim roop se utpaadit invarted shugar seerap ke samaan rakhata hai, jismein 48% fraktoj, 47% glookoj evam 5% sakaroj hote hain. madhu ke shesh kaarbohaaidret mein maaltoj, sakaroj evam anya jatil kaarbohaaidret hote hain.[3] madhu mein naamamaatr ko vibhinn vitaamin evam khanij hote hain.[4] anya sabhi poshak sveetanaron ki bhaanti hi, madhu mein adhikaansh sharkara hi hoti hai aur ye vitaamin ya khanijon ka vishesh srot naheen hai.[5] madhu mein ati laghu maatra mein vibhinn anya yaugik bhi hote hain jo enteeokseedeints ka kaarya karte hain, saath hi kraaisin, paainobainkasin, vitaamin si, kaitaalej, evam paainoseinbrin bhi hote hain.[6][7] fir bhi madhu ke vishisht sanyojan use banaane waali madhumakkhiyon par va unhein upalabdh pushpon par nirbhar karte hain.[5]shahad ek praakrutik s‍aavaas‍aath‍aayavardhak aahaar hai jise t‍aavacha ko sundar banaane aur motaapa kam karne ke liye prayog kiya ja sakta hai. agar aap apne badhte hue vajan se pareshaan ho chuke hain aur jim jaane ka samay naheen hai to shahad ka prayog kar ke aap bil‍aakul s‍aalim-trim ban sakte hain.[8]

ek madhu ke namoone ka vishleshan[9]

  • fraktoj: 38.2%
  • glookoj: 31.3%
  • sakaroj: 1.3%
  • maaltoj: 7.1%
  • jal: 17.2%
  • uchch sharkaraaen: 1.5%
  • bhasm: 0.2%
  • anya/agyaat: 3.2%

madhu ka ghanatv lagbhag 1.36 ki.gra./liter (jal se 36% ghana) hota hai.[10] madhu mein kaurn seerap ya ikshu sharkara mishran ki milaavat ki jaanch aaisotop reshyo maas spektromeetri dvaara ki ja sakti hai. is vidhi dvaara 7% tak ki nimn maatra bhi jaanchi ja sakti hai.[11]

prakaar

Texas ke ek mel mein shahad ki vibhinn kismein evam flevar

madhu ke kai prakaar hote hain. in prakaaron ka vargeekaran praay: un madhumakkhiyon dvaara madhuras ekatrit kiye jaane vaale pramukh sroton ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. udaaharanaarth alfa-alfa madhu, baraseem madhu, chhichhdi ya shain madhu, leechi madhu aadi. iske alaava shahad ke sansaadhan aur shodhan ki prakriya ke aadhaar par kiya ja sakta hai[1]:

nishkaasit madhu

nishkaasit madhu ko chhaana hua shahad bhi kehte hain. yeh madhu nishkaasan machine dvaara nikaala jaata hai tatha shahad ka shuddhatam prakaar hota hai. yeh maunagruhon se paali gayi madhumakkhiyon jaise epis maileefara aur epis siraana se praapt hota hai. nishkaasit madhu nimn prakaar ka ho sakta hai.

taral madhu

taral madhu vah hota hai jo shahad drushya ravon (kristal) se mukt ho yaani jo ekdam ravedaar na ho.

ravedaar madhu

ismein madhu poorn roop se ravedaar ya thos ban jaata hai. yeh kristaleekaran praakrutik roop se ya bhinn kristaleekaran kriyaaon dvaara ho sakta hai.

nichodne se praapt shahad

yeh shahad madhumakkhiyon ko nirdayi dhang se maarane ke baad praapt kiya jaata hai kyonki shahad praapt karne ke liye unke chhatte ko nichoda jaata hai. is prakaar ka shahad praakrutik roop se bane chhatton se praapt hota hai jaise jangali maun (epis dauraseta) ya bhaarateeya maun (epis siraana) jo praakrutik roop se jangalon, chattaanon, puraani imaaraton aadi mein chhatte banaati hain. nichodne se praapt shahad na keval ashuddh hota hai parantu jaldi hi kharaab bhi ho jaata hai.

koshth madhu

koshth madhu ya Honey kaumb

koshth ya kaumb madhu chhatton ke koshthon mein hota hai jahaan par yeh sangrah kiya jaata hai. kaumb madhu bhinn prakaar ka hota hai:

khand kaumb madhu

yeh bhinn maap ke vargaakaar ya aayaataakaar momi chhatton ke khandon mein paida kiya jaata hai.

vyaktigat khamd kaumb madhu

ise chhote-chhote momi chhatton ke khandon mein paida kiya jaata hai. pratyek khand saadhaaran khand ke maap ka ek chauthaai bhaag hota hai.

ambaar kaumb madhu

yeh madhu chhichhli nishkaasan ki jaani waali fremon se, jinmein patali super chhattaadhaar lagi hoti hai, se paida kiya jaata hai. ye chhatte jab poori tarah madhu se bhar jaate hain tatha koshthak seal kar diye jaate hain to ise maun gruh se nikaal kar aise hi paik kar bech diya jaata hai.

kaat kaumb madhu

ismein ambaar kaumb madhu ko bhinn maap ke tukadon mein kaata jaata hai, iske kinaaron ko nishkaasit kiya jaata hai tatha vyaktigat tukadon ko poleetheen ke thailon mein lapeta jaata hain.

chank madhu

ismein kat kaumb madhu ko ek dibbe mein, jismein taral nishkaasit madhu bhara hota hai, paik kar diya jaata hai.

bhautik gun

ek madhu ka jaar jismein Honey dips hai.

shahad ke bhautik gun iski shuddhata maanak gyaat karne ke liye prayog kiye jaate hain.

aadrata bahi gun

shahad aardr hota hai tatha hava se nami sokh leta hai. jin kshetron mein bahut adhik nami hoti hai vahaan madhu ke kharaab hone ki adhik sambhaavana hoti hai. shahad mein aardrata sokhane ki gunavatta ismein upasthit sharkara ki saandhrata tatha nami par nirbhar karti hai. shahad mein upasthit nami ka vishesh aapekshik aardrata ke saath santulan mein hoti hai. madhu ko nami sokhane tatha sadne se bachaane ke liye theek sangrahan karna chaahiye.

gaadhaapan

shahad gaadha dravya hota hai tatha gaadhepan ka maap iske bahaav/pravaah ko darshaata hai. garm karne se iska gaadhaapan kam ho jaata hai. gaadhaapan proteen maatra par bhi nirbhar karta hai jo antat: madhuras srot par nirbhar karta hai. jis madhu mein proteen ki adhik maatra hoti hai vah adhik gaadha hota hai.


aapekshik gurootv

taalika : bhinn sroton se praapt madhu mein rang vibhinnata
madhu srot rang[1]
kapaas safed
safeda safed
rabad, sarason, leechi sunahara ya halka peela
baraseem, jaamun ambar (trunamani)
karvi tatha taamaaringad mishrit gahra
sheesham gahra ambar

aapekshik gurutv ya vishisht ghanatv tatha aparvatanaank

shuddhamadhu ka vishisht ghanatv 1.35 se 1.44 hona chaahiye. apavartan maapi (rifraiktarameetar) prayog karke madhu mein nami/aardrata ko maapa ja sakta hai. in dono gunon ko maapane se shahad mein nami ki maatra ka pata chalta hai.

sugandh aur rang

madhu ka rang tatha iski gandh pushpan srot par nirbhar karti hai jahaan se ise ekatr kiya jaata hai. bhinn foolon se praapt madhuras ka rang tatha gandh bhinn hoti hai aur yeh madhuras ki mool rachana par nirbhar karta hai. bhinn madhu ka rang halke se gahre ambar (trunamani) ka tatha gandh madhyam sukhad hoti hai.

aushadheeya gun

shahad ko jeevaanu nivaaran roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai. is prakriya mein shahad ke utpaadan mein kaam karne waali madhumakkhiyaan enjaaim glookoj okseedej ko nektar mein badal deti hain. jab shahad ko ghaav par lagaaya jaata hai to is enjaaim ke saath hava ki okseejan ke sampark mein aate hi baikteereesaaid haaidrojan par aaksaaid banti hai. manuka (medihni) aushadheeya madhu hota hai jiske jeevaanu-rodhi kai tarah ke sroton se Australia aur New Zealand aadi sthaanon se praapt kiye jaate hain. varsh 2007 mein helth Canada or yooes food end drag edaministreshan (efadeee) ne kramash: pehli baar is medisinl Honey ko ghaav aur jalne mein prayog ki anushansa ki hai. inke alaava shahad ke prayog se soojan aur dard bhi door ho jaate hain. ghaavon ya soojan se aane waali durgandh bhi door hoti hai. shahad ki patti baandhane se mare hue ootakon ki koshikaaon ke sthaan par nai koshikaaen panap aati hain. is prakaar madhu se ghaav to bharate hi hain aur unke nishaan bhi naheen rahate.

ahaar-roop mein upayog

madhu ek ooshma va oorja daayak aahaar hai tatha doodh ke saath milaakar yeh sampoorn aahaar ban jaata hai. ismein mukhyat: avakaarak sharkaraaen, kuchh proteen, vitaamin tatha lavan upasthit hote hain. shahad sabhi aayu ke logon ke liye shreshth aahaar maana jaata hai aur rakt mein heemoglobin nirmaan mein sahaayak hota hai. ek kilogram shahad se lagbhag 5500 kailori oorja milti hai. ek kilogram shahad se praapt oorja ke tulya doosare prakaar ke khaadya padaartho mein 65 andon, 13 ki.gra. doodh, 8 ki.gra. plam, 19 ki.gra. hare matar, 13 ki.gra. seb va 20 ki.gra. gaajar ke baraabar ho sakta hai.


vibhinn dharmon mein

shahad ko praacheen kaal se hi vibhinn dharmon mein uchch maanyata mili hui hai. hindu dharm ke praacheen granth, rigaved mein bhi shahad tatha madhumakkhiyon ke baare mein bahut se sandarbh milte hain. shahad hindu dharm ke bahut se dhaarmik krutyon tatha samaarohon mein prayog hota hai. praacheen yoonaani sabhyata mein bhi shahad ko bahut moolyavaan aahaar tatha Bhagwan ki den maana jaata tha. yoonaani devataaon ko amaratv praapt tha jiska kaaran unke dvaara kiya gaya aimbrosiaa sevan bataaya gaya tha, jismein shahad ek pramukh bhaag hota tha. arastu ki pustak nechural histari mein bhi shahad par bahut se pratyaksh prekshan upalabdh hain. usaka vishvaas tha ki shahad mein jeevan vruddhi tatha shareer hrusht-pusht rakhane ke liye aasaadhaaran gun hote hain. islaam ke pavitra granth Quraan ke soora-16 an-nahl ke anusaar shahad sabhi beemaariyon ko nidaan karta hai. yahoodi dharm mein bhi shahad ko aahaar ya Honey banaane mein prayog kiya jaata hai. sansaar ke lagbhag sabhi dharmo ne shahad ki anoothi gunavatta ki prashansa ki hai.[1] jain dharm mein madhu sevan ko anaitik maana jaata hain. jain granth, purushaarth siddhayupaaya mein likha hain[12]-

lok mein madhu ka ek chhota sa khand bhi bahudha madhumakkhiyon ki hinsa ka svarup hota hai. jo moodh buddhi rakhane wala madhu ka sevan karta hai vah atyant hinsak hota hai.
—apurushaarth siddhayupaaya (69)

vishv mein utpaadan va prayog

2005 mein madhu utpaadan
cheen vishv mein madhu ka sarvochch utpaadak desh hai[13]

Bhaarat mein prati vyakti prativrsh shahad ki khapat lagbhag 25 gram hoti hai jabki anya deshon mein iski khapat bahut adhik hai. Switzerland aur Germany mein 1.5 ki.gra. se adhik, America mein ek ki.gra. tatha France, England, Japan, Italy mein 250 gram prati vyakti prati varsh hoti hai. Bhaarat mein ise abhi bhi aushadhi ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai tatha oorja daayak aahaar ke roop mein iska prachalan naheen hain. varsh 2005 mein cheen, Argentina, Turkey evam sanyukt raajya ef.A.O ke aankadon ke anusaar vishv ke sarvochch praakrutik madhu utpaadak desh rahe the.[14] Europe mein madhu ki sarvaadhik maatra Turkey mein (vishv mein truteeya sthaan) evam Ukraine (vishv mein paanchavaan) mein utpaadit hui.[15]

madhu mein lauh, taanba aur mainganeej sookshm maatra mein hote hai.

baajaar mein upalabdh shahad

shahad ka sevan karne ke kai faayde hain jinmein shareer mein oorja badhaane se lekar damakati tvacha aur vajan ghataane tak ke faayde shaamil hain. shahad ke inheen faayadon ke chalte aaj iske vyapaar mein teji se badhotri dekhne ko mil rahi hai. aaj baajaar mein vibhinn companiyon ke shahad mil rahe hain, jinmein Dabur, himaalaya, patanjali aur khaadi ke naam shaamil hain. [16]

madhu utpaadan prakriya ki deergha

sandarbh

  1. a aa i E ke prakaar, avayav evam aushadheeya gun madhu ke prakaar, avayav evam aushadheeya gun. uttaraakrushiprabha
  2. shahad ke faayde. Hindustan laaiv. 11 April 2010
  3. a aa national Honey board "kaarbohaaidrets end the sveetanes of Honey". abhigman tithi: 5 May 2008
  4. USDA nyootriyeint data laiboretari "Honey.". abhigman tithi:24 August 2007
  5. a aa kveshchans most freekventli aaskd abaaut shugar. American shugar alaayans. http://www.sugaralliance.org/desktopdefault.aspx?page_id=97.
  6. maartos I, faireres ef, taumas-baarberan ef (2000). "aaidentifikeshan of flaivonaued maarkars for the botainikl orijin of yookailiptas Honey". J egarik food kem 48 (5): 1498-502. doi:10.1021/jf991166q. PMID 10820049.
  7. gheldof N, vaing ex, enjeseth N (2002). "aaidentifikeshan end kvaantifikeshan of enteeokseedeint kanponeints of Honey fraum veiys floral sorsej". J egarik foodakem 50 (21): 5870-7. doi:10.1021/jf0256135. PMID 12358452.
  8. http://www.amarujala.com/photo-gallery/lifestyle/health-fitness/healthy-food/health-benefits-of-honey-and-lemon/?page=3
  9. antim abhigman:23 December 2009 url = http://www.beesource.com/resources/usda/honey-composition-and-properties/
  10. renar krail, (1996). vailyu-aided prodakts fraum beekeeping (ef.A.O krushi seva buletin). khaadya evam krushi sangathan, san.raashtra. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 92-5-103819-8.
  11. "kanaidiyaai madhu parishad - the ditekshan of C4 shugars in Honey". http://www.honeycouncil.ca/users/folder.asp@FolderID=4846.HTM.
  12. Jain, Vijay K. (2012). aachaarya amrutchandr purushaarth siddhayupaaya. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788190363945. http://books.google.com/?id=4iyUu4Fc2-YC&pg=PR14.
  13. China kantinyooj too dauminet the varlds Honey production (abhigman: 17 April 2009)
  14. FAO.org
  15. Ukraine Honey - world Congress trimfar, (23 September 2009)
  16. deccan herald

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