madanamohan maalaveeya

mahaamana madanamohan maalaveeya
मदनमोहन मालवीय

sansad mein lage mahaamana madanamohan maalaveeya ka tailachitr jiska vimochan 19 December 1957 ko Rajendra prasaad ne kiya tha


kaaryakaal
1909–10; 1918–19; 1932-1933

janm 25 December 1861
prayaag, british Bhaarat
mrutyu 12 November 1946 (aayu: 85varsh)
banaaras, british Bhaarat
raashtreeyata bhaarateeya
raajanaitik party bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress
vidya arjan prayaag vishvavidyaalaya
Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya
dharm hindu

mahaamana madan mohan maalaveeya (25 December 1861 - 1946) kaashi hindu vishvavidyaalaya ke praneta to the hi is yug ke aadarsh purush bhi the. ve Bhaarat ke pehle aur antim vyakti the jinhein mahaamana ki sammaanajanak upaadhi se vibhooshit kiya gaya. patrakaarita, vakaalat, samaaj sudhaar, maatru bhaasha tatha bhaaratamaata ki seva mein apna jeevan arpan karne vaale is mahaamaanav ne jis vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki usamein unki parikalpana aise vidyaarthiyon ko shikshit karke desh seva ke liye taiyaar karne ki thi jo desh ka mastak gaurav se ooaincha kar sakein. maalaveeyaji satya, brahmacharya, vyaayaam, deshbhakti tatha aatmatyaag mein adviteeya the. in samast aacharanon par ve keval upadesh hi naheen diya karte the apitu swayam unka paalan bhi kiya karte the. ve apne vyavahaar mein sadaiv mrudubhaashi rahe.

karm hi unka jeevan tha. anek sansthaaon ke janak evam safal sanchaalak ke roop mein unki apni vidhi vyavastha ka suchaaru sampaadan karte hue unhonne kabhi bhi rosh athva kadi bhaasha ka prayog naheen kiya.

Bhaarat sarkaar ne 24 December 2014 ko unhein Bhaarat ratn se alankrut kiya.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan evam shiksha

maalaveeyaji ka janm prayaag mein, jise svatantr Bhaarat mein Allahabad kaha jaata hai, 25 December 1861 ko pan0 brajanaath va moonaadevi ke yahaaain hua tha. ve apne maata-pita se utpann kul saat bhaai bahanon mein paaainchavein putr the. madhya Bhaarat ke maalava praant se prayaag aa base unke poorvaj maalaveeya kahalaate the. aage chalakar yahi jaatisoochak naam unhonne bhi apna liya. unke pita pandit brajanaathaji sanskrut bhaasha ke prakaand vidvaan the. ve shreemadbhaagavat ki katha sunaakar apni aajeevika arjit karte the.[1][2]

paaainch varsh ki aayu mein unhein unke maaain-baap ne sanskrut bhaasha mein praarambhik shiksha lene hetu pandit haradev dharm jnyaaanopadesh paathashaala mein bharti kara diya jahaaain se unhonne primary pareeksha utteern ki. uske pashchaat ve ek anya vidyaalaya mein bhej diye gaye jise prayaag ki vidyaavardhini sabha sanchaalit karti thi. yahaaain se shiksha poorn kar ve Allahabad ke jila school padhane gaye. yaheen unhonne makarand ke upanaam se kavitaayein likhni praarambh keen. unki kavitaayein patra-patrikaaon mein khoob chhapati theen. logabaag unhein chaav se padhate the. 1879 mein unhonne myor sentral college se, jo aajkal Allahabad vishvavidyaalaya ke naam se jaana jaata hai, maitreekuleshan (dasveen ki pareeksha) utteern ki. hairisn school ke prinsapal ne unhein chhaatravrutti dekar Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya bheja jahaaain se unhonne 1884 i0 mein bee0e0 ki upaadhi praapt ki.

poorn parichay

apne hrudaya ki mahaanata ke kaaran sampoorn bhaaratavarsh mein 'mahaamana' ke naam se poojya maalaveeyaji ko sansaar mein satya, daya aur nyaaya par aadhaarit sanaatan dharm sarvaadhik priya tha. karunaamaya hrudaya, bhootaanukampa, manushyamaatr mein advesh, shareer, man aur vaani ke sanyam, dharm aur desh ke liye sarvasv tyaag, utsaah aur dhairya, nairaashyapoorn paristhitiyon mein bhi aatmavishvaasapoorvak doosaron ko asambhav prateet hone vaale karmon ka sanpaadan, veshabhoosha aur aachaar vichaar mein maalaveeyaji bhaarateeya sanskruti ke prateek tatha rishiyon ke praanavaan smaarak the.

"sir jaaya to jaaya prabhu! mero dharm na jaaya" maalaveeyaji ka jeevan vrat tha jisse unka vaiyaktik aur saarvajanik jeevan samaan roop se prabhaavit tha. yeh aadarsh unhein bachapan mein hi apan pitaamah premadhar chaturvedi, jinhonne 108 din nirntar 108 baar shreemadbhaagavat ka paaraayan kiya tha, se raadha-Krishna ki ananya bhakti, pita brajanaathaji ki Bhagwat-katha se dharm-prachaar evam maata moonaadevi se dukhiyon ki seva karne ka svabhaav praapt hua tha. dhanaheen kintu nirlobhi parivaar mein palate hue bhi desh ki daridrata tatha arthaarthi chhaatron ke kasht nivaaran ke svabhaav se unka jeevan otaprot tha. bachapan mein jin aachaar vichaaron ka nirmaan hua usase rel mein, jail mein tatha jalayaan mein kaheen par bhi praat:saayan sandhyopaasana tatha shreemadbhaagavat aur mahaabhaarat ka svaadhyaaya unke jeevan ka abhinn ang bana raha.

maalaveeya ji ne prayaag ki dharm jnyaaanopadesh tatha vidyaadharm pravarddhini paathashaalaaon mein sanskrut ka adhyayan samaapt karne ke pashchaat myor central kaalej se 1884 i0 mein Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya ki bee0 e0 ki upaadhi li. is beech akhaade mein vyaayaam aur sitaar par shaastreeya sangeet ki shiksha ve baraabar dete rahe. unka vyaayaam karne ka niyam itna adbhut tha ki saath varsh ki avastha tak ve niyamit vyaayaam karte hi rahe.

saat varsh ke madanamohan ko dharmajnyaaanopadesh paathashaala ke devakeenandan maalaveeya maagh mele mein le jaakar moodhe par khada karke vyaakhyaan dilvaate the. shaayad iska hi parinaam tha ki Congress ke dviteeya adhiveshan mein angreji ke pratham bhaashan se hi pratinidhiyon ko mantramugdh kar dene vaale mrudubhaashi (silvar tangd) maalaveeyaji us samay vidyamaan Bhaarat desh ke sarvashreshth hindi, sanskrut aur angreji ke vyaakhyaan vaachaspatiyon mein itne adhik prasiddh hue. hindu dharmopadesh, mantradeeksha aur sanaatan dharm pradeep grathon mein unke dhaarmik vichaar aj bhi upalabdh hain jo paratantr Bhaarat desh ki vibhinn samasyaaon par badi kaunsil se lekar asankhya sabha sammelanon mein diye gaye hajaaron vyaakhyaanon ke roop mein bhaavi peedhiyon ke upayogaarth prerana aur gyaan ke amit bhandaar hain. unke badi kaunsil mein raulat bill ke virodh mein nirntar saadhe chaar ghante aur aparaadh nirmochan (angreji: Indemnity) bill par paaainch ghante ke bhaashan nirbhayata aur gambheerataapoorn deerghavaktruta ke liye aaj bhi smaraneeya hain. unke udgharanon mein hrudaya ko sparsh karke rula dene ki kshamata thi, parantu ve avivekapoorn kaarya ke liye shrotaaon ko kabhi ukasaate naheen the.

myor kaalej ke maanasaguru mahaamahopaadhyaaya pan0 aadityaraam Bhattacharya ke saath 1880 i0 mein sthaapit hindu samaaj mein maalaveeyaji bhaag le hi rahe the ki unheen dinon prayaag mein vaaisaraaya laard ripn ka aagaman hua. ripn jo sthaaneeya svaayatt shaasan sthaapit karne ke kaaran bhaaratavaasiyon mein jitne lokapriya the utane hi angrejon ke kopabhaajan bhi. isi kaaran prisipl hairisn ke kehne par unka svaagat sangathit karke maalaveeyaji ne prayaag vaasiyon ke hrudaya mein apna vishisht sthaan bana liya.

anya ullekhaneeya kaarya

kaalaakaaainkar ke deshbhakt raaja Rampal Singh ke anurodh par maalaveeyaji ne unke hindi angreji samaachaar patra Hindustan ka 1887 se sampaadan karke do dhaai saal tak janta ko jagaaya. unhonne Congress ke hi ek anya neta pan0 ayodhyaanaath ka unke indiyn opeeniyn ke sampaadan mein bhi haath baintaaya aur 1907 i0 mein saaptaahik abhyudaya ko nikaalkar kuchh samay tak use bhi sampaadit kiya. yahi naheen sarkaar samarthak samaachaar patra paayoniyr ke samakaksh 1909 mein dainik 'leedar' akhbaar nikaalkar lokamat nirmaan ka mahaan kaarya sampann kiya tatha doosare varsh maryaada patrika bhi prakaashit ki. iske baad unhonne 1924 i0 mein Delhi aakar Hindustan times ko suvyavasthit kiya tatha sanaatan dharm ko gati pradaan karne hetu Lahore se vishvabandya jaise agrani patra ko prakaashit karavaaya.

hindi ke utthaan mein maalaveeya ji ki bhoomika aitihaasik hai. bhaarateindu harishchandr ke netrutv mein hindi gadya ke nirmaan mein sanlagn maneeshiyon mein 'makarand' tatha 'jhakkadsinh' ke upanaam se vidyaarthi jeevan mein rasaatmak kaavya rachana ke liye khyaatilbdh maalaveeyaji ne devanaagari lipi aur hindi bhaasha ko pashchimottar pradesh va avadh ke Governor sar entoni maikadonel ke sammukh 1898 i0 mein vividh pramaan prastut karke kachahariyon mein pravesh dilaaya. hindi saahitya sammelan ke pratham adhiveshan (kaashi-1910) ke adhyaksheeya abhibhaashan mein hindi ke svaroop niroopan mein unhonne kaha ki "use faarasi arabi ke bade bade shabdon se laadana jaise bura hai, vaise hi akaaran sanskrut shabdon se gooainthana bhi achha naheen aur bhavishyavaani ki ki ek din yahi bhaasha raashtrabhaasha hogi." sammelan ke ek anya vaarshik adhiveshan (Mumbai-1919) ke sabhaapati pad se unhonne hindi urdoo ke prashn ko, dharm ka naheen apitu raashtreeyata ka prashn batalaate hue udghosh kiya ki saahitya aur desh ki unnati apne desh ki bhaasha dvaara hi ho sakti hai. samast desh ki praanteeya bhaashaaon ke vikaas ke saath-saath hindi ko apnaane ke aagrah ke saath yeh bhavishyavaani bhi ki ki koi din aisa bhi aayega ki jis bhaaainti angreji vishvabhaasha ho rahi hai usi bhaaainti hindi ka bhi sarvatr prachaar hoga. is prakaar unhonne hindi ko antarraashtreeya roop ka lakshya bhi diya.

Congress ke nirmaataaon mein vikhyaat maalaveeyaji ne uske dviteeya adhiveshan (Calcutta-1886) se lekar apni antim saaains tak svaraajya ke liye kathor tap kiya. uske pratham utthaan mein naram aur garam dalon ke beech ki kadi maalaveeyaji hi the jo gaandhi-yug ki Congress mein hindu musalmaanon evam uske vibhinn maton mein saamanjasya sthaapit karne mein prayatnasheel rahe. eni beseint ne theek kaha tha ki "main daave ke saath kah sakti hooain ki vibhinn maton ke beech, keval maalaveeyaji bhaarateeya ekta ki moorti bane khade hue hain." asahayog aandolan ke aarambh tak naram dal ke netaaon ke Congress ko chhod dene par maalaveeyaji usamein date rahe aur Congress ne unhein chaar baar sabhaapati nirvaachit karke sammaanit kiya- Lahore (1909 mein), Delhi (1918 aur 1931 mein) tatha Calcutta (1933 mein). yadyapi antim donon baar ve satyaagrah ke kaaran pehle hi giraftaar kar liye gaye. svatantrata ke liye unki tadp aur prayaason ke parichaayak faijapur Congress (1936) mein raashtreeya sarkaar aur chunaav prastaav ke samarthan mein maalaveeyaji ke ye shabd smaraneeya hain ki main pachaas varsh se Congress ke saath hooain. sambhav hai main bahut din na jiyooain aur apne ji mein yeh kasak lekar marooain ki Bhaarat ab bhi paraadheen hai. kintu fir bhi main yeh aasha karta hooain ki main is Bhaarat ko svatantr dekh sakooainga.

svaatantrya sangraam mein bhoomika

asahayog aandolan ke chatursootri kaaryakram mein shiksha sansthaaon ke bahishkaar ka maalaveeyaji ne khulkar virodh kiya jiske kaaran unke vyaktitv ke prabhaav se hindu vishvavidyaalaya par usaka adhik prabhaav naheen pada. 1921 i0 mein Congress ke netaaon tatha svayansevakon se jail bhar jaane par kinkartavyavimoodh vaaisaraaya Lord reeding ko praanton mein svashaasan dekar gaandheeji se sandhi kar lene ko maalaveeyaji ne bhi sahamat kar liya tha parantu 4 fravari 1922 ke chaureechaura kaand ne itihaas ko palat diya. gaandheeji ne baaradauli ki kaaryakaarini mein bina kisi se paraamarsh kiye satyaagrah ko achaanak rok diya. isse Congress janon mein asantosh fail gaya aur yeh khusurapusur hone lagi ki bada bhaai ke kehne mein aakar gaandheeji ne yeh bhayankar bhool ki hai. gaandheeji swayam bhi paaainch saal ke liye jail bhej diye gaye. iske parinaamasvaroop chilchilaati dhoop mein ikasath varsh ke boodhe maalaveeya ne peshaavar se dibroogadh tak toofaani daura karke raashtreeya chetna ko jeevit rakha. is bhraman mein unhonne bahut baar kukhyaat dhaara 144 ka ullanghan bhi kiya jise sarkaar khoon ka ghooaint samajhakar pi gayi. parantu 1930 ke savinya avajnyaa aandolan mein usi british sarkaar ne unhein Mumbai mein giraftaar kar liya jis par shreeyut Bhagwan das (bhaarataratn) ne kaha tha ki maalaveeyaji ka pakada jaana raashtreeya yagya ki poornaahuti samajhi jaani chaahiye. usi saal Delhi mein avaidh ghoshit kaaryasamiti ki baithak mein maalaveeyaji ko pun: bandi banaakar naini jail bhej diya gaya. yeh unki jeevanacharya tatha vruddhaavastha ke kaaran yathaarth mein ek prakaar ki tapasya thi. parantu saiddhaantik matabhed ke kaaran hindu vishvavidyaalaya mein prince ov vels ka svaagat aur Congress Swaraj party ke samakaksh Congress svatantr dal va raimaje maikadaunald ke saampradaayik nirnaya par, jiski sveekruti ko maalaveeyaji ne raashtreeya aatmahatya maana. is prakaar Congress ki asveekaar neeti ke kaaran nirnaya virodhi sammelan aur raashtreeya Congress dal ka pun: sangathan karne jaise unke Congress virodh ke udaaharan bhi itihaas ullekhaneeya hain.

dharm sanskruti raksha

sanaatan dharm va hindu sanskruti ki raksha aur sanvardhan mein maalaveeyaji ka yogadaan ananya hai. janabal tatha manobal mein nityash: kshayasheel hindu jaati ko vinaash se bachaane ke liye unhonne hindu sangathan ka shaktishaali aandolan chalaaya aur swayam anudaar sahadharmiyon ke teevr prativaad jhelate hue bhi Calcutta, kaashi, prayaag aur Nasik mein bhangiyon ko dharmopadesh aur mantradeeksha di. ullekhaneeya hai ki raashtraneta maalaveeyaji ne, jaisa swayam pan0 javaaharalaal Nehru ne likha hai, apne netrutvakaal mein hindu mahaasabha ko raajaneetik pratikriyaavaadita se mukt rakha aur anek baar dharmo ke sahaastitv mein apni aastha ko abhivyakt kiya.

prayaag ke bhaarati bhavan pustakaalaya, maikadonel university hindu chhaatraalaya aur minto park ke janmadaata, baadh, bhookamp, saampradaayik dangon va maarshal la se trust du:khiyon ke aaainsoo ponchhane vaale maalaveeyaji ko rishikul haridvaar, goraksha aur aayurved sammelan tatha seva samiti, bvauya skaaut tatha anya kai sansthaaon ko sthaapit athva protsaahit karne ka shreya praapt hua, kintu unka Akshay-rkeeti-stambh to kaashi hindu vishvavidyaalaya hi hai jismein unki vishaal buddhi, sankalp, deshaprem, kriyaashakti tatha tap aur tyaag saakshaat moortimaan hain. vishvavidyaalaya ke uddeshyon mein hindu samaaj aur sansaar ke hit ke liye Bhaarat ki praacheen sabhyata aur mahatta ki raksha, sanskrut vidya ke vikaas evam paashchaatya vigyaan ke saath Bhaarat ki vividh vidyaaon aur kalaaon ki shiksha ko praathamikta di gayi. uske vishaal tatha bhavya bhavanon evam vishvanaath mandir mein bhaarateeya sthaapatya kala ke alankaran bhi maalaveeya ji ke aadarsh ke hi pratifl hain.

sandarbh

sandarbh granth soochi

  • mahaamana pan0 madanamohan maalaveeya : jeevanacharit (75 veen varshagaaainth ka abhinndan granth 1936) prakaashak: maalaveeya jeevan charit samiti, kaashi,
  • javaaharalaal Nehru : ain aatobaayograifi (ribaudale head landan)
  • mahaamana pandit madanamohan maalaveeya (sansmaran) 1957, sampaadan: chandrabali tripaathi, prakaashak: durgaavati tripaathi, madan mohan maalaveeya maarg, basti,
  • India vins freedom : maulaana abul kalaam aajaad, 1959, oriyent laugamains limited Calcutta,
  • Nehru ji apni hi bhaasha mein, 1962, raamanaaraayan chaudhari, navajeevan prakaashan mandir Ahmedabad-14

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain