maapan pranaaliyaaain

maapan pranaali ek ikaaiyon ka samooh hai, jo ki pratyek us vastu ke parimaan ko darshaane hetu prayog hota hai, jise maapa ja sakta hai. kyonki yeh vyaapaar aur aantarik vaanijya hetu mahatvapoorn theen, isaliye, inhein inhein sanshodhit, niyamit kar maanakeekrut kiya gaya tha. vaigyaanik drushti se, jab shodh kiye gaye, to pata chala, ki kuchh ikaaiyaan maanak hoteen hain, jinse ki anya sabhi ko vyutpann kiya ja sakta hai. poorv mein yeh raajyon ke shaasakon dvaara nirdhaarit kar laagoo kiye jaati theen. isaliye ye aavashyak roop se sarvaanukool, ya aapas mein saamanjasya rakhane waali naheen hoti theen.

chaahe ham yeh rai banaayein, ki misr nivaasiyon ne maapan kala ki khoj ki thi; parantu ve yoonaani hi the, jinhonne maapan kala khoji thi. yoonaaniyon ki jyaamiti ka gyaan aur unke aarambhik bhaar evam maapon ke prayog, jaldi hi vaigyaanik star par unki maapan pranaali ko sthaan dene lage. iski tulana mein roman pranaali, jo ki bahut baad mein aayi, utani samruddh naheen thi. [1]

fraanseesi kraanti ne ek vaigyaanik pranaali ko janm diya aur isse paramparaagat pranaaliyon ko ek vaigyaanik star ki pranaali mein badane par jor diya jaane laga. adhikaansh pranaaliyon mein lambaai, [bhaar]] aur samay maulik maatraaen hoteen hain. ya jaisa ab vigyaan mein mana jaata hai, ki bhaar ke sthan par dravyamaan adhik maulik hota hai. pranaaliyon mein antarsambandh sudhaarane hetu, badlaav kiye jaate rahe hain.


baad mein vigyaan ke vikaason se pata chala, ki vidyut aavesh ya vidyut dhaara ko bhi mool ikaaiyon mein sammilit kiya jaana chaahiye, jinse anya sabhi maapan vidya ki ikaaiyaaain paribhaashit ho sakti hain. anya ikaaiyaan, jaise shakti, gati, ityaadi ko mool ikaaiyon ke samooh se vyutpann kiya ja sakta hai. udaa0 gati=doori/samay. itihaas mein, ek maatra ko kai ikaaiyon se maapa jaata raha hai, jaise ki lambaai ke liye inch, gaj, meal, nautikl meal, foot, ityaadi. inke antaran kaarak das ki saadhaaran ghaat bhi naheen hain, naahi saadhaaran fraikshan hain. samaan saanskrutik prushthabhoomi ke sadasyon ki bhi samaan ikaaiyaan naheen thi, na british raaj mein ab sanyukt raajya hi raha tha. jahaan tak british vyutpann sosaaitiyon theen, lagbhag aadhi ne british raaj se inkaar kar diya, jaise ki sanyukt raajya.


meetrik aur anya haal ki pranaaliyon mein, ek mool maatra hetu ek hi ikaai prayog ki jaati hai. praay: dviteeyak ikaaiyaan (gunak aur up-gunak) prayog hote hain, jo ki mool ikaai ko das ki ghaat se duna kar dete hain. jaise lambaai ki mool ikaai hai meter; ek 1.234 m ki lambaai 1234.0 milimeetar hogi, ya 0.001234 kilometer.

anukram

meetrik pranaali

ek shishu botal, jo teen maapan pranaaliyon mein maap deti hai—aaimpeeriyl, U.S. paramparaagat aur meetrik


impeeriym aur U.S. paramparaagat ikaaiyaan

praakrutik ikaaiyaan

gair-maanak ikaaiyaan

asaamaanya maapan ikaaiyaan, jo kabhi kabhi pustakon, samaachaar patron ityaadi mein mil jaateen hain, inmein se kuchh hain:

kshetrafl

oorja

dravyamaan

urdhvaadhar lambaai

aayatan

mudra ki ikaaiyaan

aitihaasik maapan pranaaliyaan

madhya-poorveeya maapan pranaaliyaan

  • arabi[2]
  • misri
  • yahoodi
  • mesopotaamiyaai
  • faarasi

dakshin Asiaee maapan pranaaliyaaain

poorv Asiaee maapan pranaaliyaaain

  • cheeni
  • Japani
  • tamil
  • malayalam

yoonaani-roman maapan pranaaliyaaain

  • yoonaani
  • roman

madhya kaaleen Europeeya maapan pranaaliyaaain

madhya kaaleen yooropiyaai maapan pranaaliyaaain, madhya kaal (ya yooropiyaai daarl ejej ke kaal mein), kheti baahulya jeevan yaapan ke kaaran bane. inhein angreji mein fyoodal maapan pranaaliyaaain bhi kaha jaata hai. maap asthir aur lagbhag the.

poorvi yooropiyaai

poorvi Europe mein paramparaagat bhaar evam maap, adhikaanshat: yoonaani mool ke hi the:

  • polish pranaali
  • romaaniyaai pranaali
  • roosi pranaali
  • taataar pranaali

pashchim aur uttari yooropiyaai

pashchimi aur uttari Europe mein paramparaagat bhaar evam maap, adhikaanshat: roman mool ke hi the:

  • denish pranaali
  • dach pranaali
  • angreji pranaali
  • feenish pranaali
  • French pranaali
  • jarman pranaali
  • naurvejiyaai pranaali
  • skautish pranaali
  • Spanish pranaali
  • sveedish pranaali

anya aitihaasik maapan pranaaliyaaain

  • pegoo

inhein bhi dekhein

antaran kaarak

  • ikaaiyon ka antaran
  • ikaaiyon ka lagbhag antaran

sandarbh

  1. Quoted from the Canada Science and Technology Museum website
  2. M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Measures and Weights in the Islamic World. An English Translation of Professor Walther Hinz's Handbook “aIslamische Maßae und Gewichte“, with a foreword by Professor Bosworth, F.B.A. Kuala Lumpur, ISTAC, 2002, ISBN 983-9379-27-5. This work is an annotated translation of a work in German by the late German orientalist Walther Hinz, published in the Handbuch der Orientalistik, erste Abteilung, Ergäanzungsband I, Heft 1, Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1970.
  • Tavernor, Robert (2007), Smoot's Ear: The Measure of Humanity, ISBN 0-300-12492-9

baahari kadiyaaain