maanavendranaath rai

maanaveindranaath rai

maanaveindranaath rai (1887–1954) Bhaarat ke svatantrata-sangraam ke raashtravaadi kraantikaari tatha vishvaprasiddh raajaneetik siddhaantakaar the. unka mool naam 'narendranaath Bhattacharya' tha. ve Mexico aur Bhaarat dono ke hi communist paartiyon ke sansthaapak the. ve communist international ki Congress ke pratinidhimndal mein bhi sammilit the.

anukram

parichay

shri maanavendranaath ka janm Kolkata ke nikat ek gaanv mein hua tha.. aapka mool naam narendranaath Bhattacharya tha, jise baad mein badalkar aapne maanaveindr rai rakha. tatkaaleen Bengal mein raashtreeya svatantrata aandolan ki lahar chal rahi thi, aise samay mein raajaneetik bodh hona svaabhaavik hai. is prakaar praarambhik avastha mein hi ve raashtravaadi vichaaron ke sampark mein aae. rai ke jeevani lekhak ' munshi aur Dixit' ke anusaar, ''rai ka jeevan svaami vivekaanand, svaami raamateerth aur svaami dayaanand se prabhaavit raha.'' in santon aur sudhaarakon ke atirikt unke jeevan par vipin chandr paal aur vinaayak Damodar saavarakar ka amit prabhaav pada. shikshan ke aaranbhik kaal mein hi aap kraantikaari aandolan mein ruchi lene lage the. yahi kaaran hai ki aap maitrik pareeksha utteern karne ke poorv hi kraantikaari aandolan mein kood pade.

police aapki talaash kar hi rahi thi ki aap dakshin-poorvi Asia ki or nikal gaye. jaava sumaatra se amareeka pahuainch gaye aur vahaaain aatankvaadi gatividhi ka tyaag kar maarksavaadi vichaaradhaara ke samarthak ban gaye. unke vichaaron ki yaatra ka aarambh amareeka mein maarksavaadi vichaaradhaara se hua kyonki us samay ve lenin ke vichaaron se prabhaavit the. maiksikon ki kraanti mein aapne aitihaasik yogadaan kiya, jisse aapki prasiddhi antararraashtreeya star par ho gayi. aapke kaaryon se prabhaavit hokar thard international mein aapko aamantrit kiya gaya tha aur unhein uske adhyakshamandal mein sthaan diya gaya. 1921 mein ve Moscow ke praachya vishvavidyaalaya ke adhyaksh niyukt kiye gaye. 1922 se 1928 ke beech unhonne kai patron ka sanpaadan kiya, jinmein 'vaanagaard' aur 'maasej' mukhya the. san 1927 E. mein cheeni kraanti ke samay aapko vahaaain bheja gaya kintu aapke svatantr vichaaron se vahaaain ke neta sahamat na ho sake aur matabhed utpann ho gaya. roosi neta ispar aapse kruddh ho gaye aur staalin ke raajaneetik kop ka aapko shikaar banana pada. videshon mein aapki hatya ka kuchakr chala. Germany mein aapko vish dene ki cheshta ki gayi par saubhaagya se aap bach gaye.

idhar desh mein aapki kraantikaari gatividhi ke kaaran aapki anupasthiti mein Kanpur shadyantr ka mukadama chalaaya gaya. british sarkaar ke guptachar aapapar kadi najar rakhe hue the, fir bhi 1930 mein aap gupt roop se Bhaarat lautane mein safal ho gaye. Mumbai aakar aap daaktar Mehmood ke naam se raajaneetik gatividhi mein bhaag lene lage. 1931 mein aap giraftaar kar liye gaye. chhah varshon tak kaaraavaas jeevan bitaane par 20 November 1936 ko aap jail se mukt kiye gaye. Congress ki neetiyon se aapka matabhed ho gaya tha. aapne redikl dimokretik party ki sthaapana ki thi. sakriya raajaneeti se avakaash grahan kar aap jeevan ke antim dinon mein deharaadoon mein rahane lage aur yaheen 25 January 1954, ka aapka nidhan hua.

darshan evam chintan

maanavendr naath rai ka aadhunik bhaarateeya raajaneetik chintan mein vishisht sthaan hai. rai ka raajaneetik chintan lambi vaichaarik yaatra ka parinaam hai. ve kisi vichaaradhaara se bandhe hue naheen rahe. unhonne vichaaron ki bhautikvaadi aadhaarabhoomi aur maanav ke astitv ke naitik prayojanon ke madhya samanvaya karna aavashyak samjha. jahaaain unhonne pooainjeevaadi vyavastha ki katu aalochna ki, vaheen maarksavaad ki aalochna mein bhi peechhe naheen rahe. rai ne sampoorn maanaveeya darshan ki khoj ke prayatn ke kram mein yeh nishkarsh nikaala ki vishv ki prachalit aarthik aur raajaneetik pranaaliyaaain maanav ke samagr kalyaan ko sunishchit naheen karateen. pooainjeevaad, maarksavaad, gaaaindheevaad tatha anya vichaaradhaaon mein unhonne aise tatvon ko dhooaindh nikaala jo kisi na kisi roop mein maanav ki satta, svatantrata, tatha svaayattata par pratibndh lagaate hain.

rai ne apne naveen maanavavaadi darshan se maanav ko swayam apna kendra bataakar maanav ki svatantrata evam uske vyaktitv ki garima ka prabal samarthan kiya hai. vastut: beesaveen sadi mein faaseevaadi tatha saamyavaadi samagrataavaadi raajya-vyavasthaaon ne vyakti ki svatantrata evam vyaktitv ka daman kiya aur udaaravaadi lokatantr mein maanav-kalyaan ke naam par nirntar badhti kendreekaran ki pravrutti se saavdhaan kiya. rai ne vyakti ki svatantrata evam vyaktitv ki garima ke paksh mein jo ugr bauddhik vichaar diye hain, unka aadhunik yug ke liye vishisht mahattv hai.

krutiyaaain

aapne maarksavaadi raajaneeti vishyak lagbhag 80 pustakon ka pranayan kiya hai jinmein 'reejan, romaantisijm aind rivaulyooshan, history ov western maitoriylijm, rashan rivaulyooshan, rivaalyooshan aind kaauntar rivaalyooshan in China tatha raidikl hyoomainijm. unki pramukh rachanaaeain nimnalikhit hain-

(1) di ve too dayoorebil pees

(2) van iyar of naun-koopareshan

(3) di rivolyooshan end kaauntar rivolyooshan in China

(4) reejn, romaantisijm end rivolyooshan

(5) indiyaan in traanjeeshan

(6) Indian praubalams end deyar solyooshans

(7) di future of indiyn paulitiks

(8) historikl rol of islaam

(9) faasijm : its filausafi, profeshans endapraiktis

(10) maitiriylijm

(11) new oriynteshan

(12) biyond kamyoonism too hyoomenijm

(13) new hyoomenijm end paulitiks

(14) paulitiks, power end paarteej

(15) di prinsipls of redikl demokresi

(16) kaunsteetyooshan of free indiya

(17) redikl hyoomenijm

(18) avar difrensej

(19) saains end filausafi

(20) tventi too theesis

inhein bhi dekhein

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