maanavashaastr

bainkaak ke foreinsik vigyaan sangrahaalaya mein maanavashaastreeya vastueain

maanavashaastr ya nruvijnyaaan (en:Anthropology) maanav, uske jenetiks, sanskruti aur samaaj ki vaigyaanik aur samaajashaastreeya drushtikon se adhyayan hai.

anukram

shaakhaaeain

enthropolaaji yaani nrutatv vigyaan ki kai shaakhaaen hain. inmein se kuchh hain:

  • saamaajik saanskrutik nrutatv vigyaan,
  • praagaitihaasik nrutatv vigyaan ya aarkiyolaaji,
  • bhautik aur jaiv nrutatv vigyaan,
  • bhaashik nrutattav vigyaan aur
  • anuprayukt nrutatv vigyaan

saamaajik-saanskrutik nrutatv vigyaan

iska sambandh saamaajik-saanskrutik vyavahaar ke vibhinn pahaluon, jaise samooh aur samudaayon ke gathan aur sanskrutiyon ke vikaas se hai. ismein saamaajik-aarthik badlaavon, jaise vibhinn samudaayon aur ke beech saanskrutik bhinnataaon aur is tarah ki bhinnataaon ke kaaranon; vibhinn sanskrutiyon ke beech samvaad; bhaashaaon ke vikaas, teknolaaji ke vikaas aur vibhinn sanskrutiyon k beech parivartan ki pravruttiyon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

praagaitihaasik nrutatv vigyaan ya puraatatv vigyaan

ismein pratimaaon, haddiyon, sikkon aur anya aitihaasik puraavasheshon ke aadhaar par itihaas ka punarnirdhaaran kiya jaata hai. is tarah ke avasheshon ki khoj se praacheen kaal ke logon ke itihaas ka lekhan kiya jaata hai aur saamaajik reeti rivaajon tatha paramparaaon ka pata lagaaya jaata hai. puraatatv vaigyaanik is tarah ki khojon se us kaal ki saamaajik gatividhiyon ka bhi vishleshan karte hain. ve apni khoj ke Milan samasaamayik abhilekhon ya aitihaasik dastaavejon se karke praacheen maanav itihaas ka punarnirmaan karte hain.

bhautik ya jaiv nrutatv vigyaan

is shaakha ka sambandh aadi maanavon aur maanav ke poorvajon ki bhautik ya jaiv visheshataaon tatha maanav jaise anya jeevon, jaise chimpainji, gorilla aur bandaron se samaanataaon se hai. yeh shaakha vikaas shrrunkhala ke jariye saamaajik reeti rivaajon ko samajhne ka prayaas karti hai. yeh jaatiyon ke beech bhautik antaron ki pehchaan karti hai aur is baat ka bhi pata lagaati hai ki vibhinn prajaatiyon ne kis tarah apne aap ko shaareerik roop se parivesh ke anuroop dhaala. ismein yeh bhi adhyayan kiya jaata hai ki vibhinn pariveshon ka unapar kya asar pada. jaiv ya bhautik nrutatv vigyaan ki anya up shaakhaaen aur vibhaag bhi hain jinmein aur bhi adhik visheshajnyaata haasil ki ja sakti hai. inmein aadi maanav jeev vigyaan, ostiyolaaji (haddiyon aur kankaal ka adhyayan), paileeoenthropolaaji yaani pura nrutatv vigyaan aur foreinsik enthropolaaji.

anuprayukt nrutatv vigyaan

ismein nrutatv vigyaan ki anya shaakhaaon se praapt soochanaaon ka upayog kiya jaata hai aur in soochanaaon ke aadhaar par santati nirodh, svaasthya chikitsa, kuposhan ki rokathaam, baal aparaadhon ki rokathaam, shram samasya ke samaadhaan, kaarkhaanon mein majadooron ki samasyaaon ke samaadhaan, kheti ke taur tareekon mein sudhaar, janajaateeya kalyaan aur unke jabaran visthaapan bhoomi adhigrahan ki sthiti mein janajaateeya logon ke punarvaas ke kaam mein sahaayata li jaati hai.

bhaashik nrutatv vigyaan

ismein maukhik aur likhit bhaasha ki utpatti aur vikaas ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. ismein bhaashaaon aur boliyon ke tulanaatmak adhyayan ki bhi gunjaaish hai. iske jariye yeh pata lagaaya jaata hai ki kis tarah saanskrutik aadaan pradaan se vibhinn sanskrutiyon bhaashaaon par asar pada hai aur kis tarah bhaasha vibhinn saanskrutik reeti rivaajon aur prathaaon ki soochak hai. bhaashaayi nrutatv vigyaan saanskrutik nrutatv vigyaan se ghanishth roop se sambaddh hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

  • maanavashaastr (Google pustak ; lekhak - raamanaath sharma, raajeindr Kumar sharma)