maanav sansaadhan

maanav sansaadhan (hyooman risorses) vah avadhaarana hai jo janasankhya ko arthavyavastha par daayitv se adhik parisanpatti ke roop mein dekhti hai. shiksha prashikshan aur chikitsa sevaaon mein nivesh ke parinaam svaroop janasankhya maanav sansaadhan ke roop mein badal jaati hai. maanav sansaadhan utpaadan mein prayukt ho sakane waali pooainji hai. yeh maanav pooainji kaushal aur unmein nihit utpaadan ke gyaan ka bhandaar hai. yeh pratibhaashaali aur kaam par lage hue logon aur sangathanaatmak safalta ke beech ki kadi ko pahachaanane ka sootr hai. yeh udyog/sangathanaatmak manovijnyaaan aur siddhaant pranaali sambandhit avadhaaranaaon se sambaddh hai. maanav sansaadhan ki sandarbh ke aadhaar par do vyaakhyaaen milti hain.

iska mool arth raajaneetik arthavyavastha aur arthashaastr se liya gaya hai, jahaan par ise paaramparik roop se utpaadan ke chaar kaarakon mein se ek shramik kaha jaata tha, yaddhapi yeh drushtikon raashtreeya star par nae aur yojanaabaddh tareekon mein anusandhaan ke chalte badal raha hai.[1] pehla tareeka adhiktar 'maanav sansaadhan vikaas' shabd ke roop mein prayukt hota hai aur yeh sirf sangathanon se shuroo ho kar raashtreeya star tak ho sakta hai. paaramparik roop se yeh Corporation va vyaapaar ke kshetr mein vyakti vishesh (jo us farm ya ejensi mein kaarya karta hai) ke liye, tatha company ke us hisse ko jo niyukti karne, nikaalne, prashikshan dene tatha doosare vyaktigat muddon se sambandhit hai va jise saadhaaranatayaa: "maanav sansaadhan prabandhan" ke naam se jaana jaata hai, ke liye hota prayukt hota hai. yeh lekh donon paribhaashaaon se sambandhit hai.

anukram

vikaas

maanav sansaadhanon ke vikaas ka uddeshya maanav sansaadhan sampannta ko prabuddh aur ekajut neetiyon ke maadhyam se shiksha, prashikshan, svaasthya aur rojagaar ke sabhi staron ko kaurporet se le kar raashtreeya star tak badhaava dena hai.

prabandhan

maanav sansaadhan prabandhan ka mukhya uddeshya company ke karmachaariyon par hue nivesh se adhikaadhik laabh sunishchit karna tatha vitteeya jokhim ko kam karna hai. ek company ke sandarbh mein maanav sansaadhan prabandhakon ki yeh jimmedaari hai ki ve in gatividhiyon ka sanchaalan ek prabhaavashaali, vaidhaanik, nyaayik tatha tarkapoorn dhang se karein .

mukhya kaarya

maanav sansaadhan prabandhan nimn mahatvapoorn kaarya karta hai:

  1. niyukti va chayan
  2. prashikshan aur vikaas (log athva sangathan)
  3. pradarshan ka moolyaankan tatha prabandhan
  4. padonnati / sthaanaantaran
  5. faalatoo karmachaariyon ko hataana
  6. audyogik aur karmachaari sambandh
  7. sabhi vyaktigat aankadon ka rikaard rakhana.
  8. vetan tatha us se sambandhit muaavaja, peinshan, bonas ityaadi
  9. kaarya se sambandhit samasyaaon ke baare mein 'aantarik karmachaariyon' ko gopaneeya salaah dena.
  10. kairiyr ka vikaas
  11. yogyata parakhana
  12. maanav sansaadhan kriyaaon se sambandhit samay ki gati ka adhyayan karna.
  13. pradarshan moolyaankan

aadhunik vishleshan

aadhunik vishleshan is baat par jor deta hai ki manushya "vastu athva "sansaadhan" nahi hain, balki ek utpaadan sanstha mein rachanaatmak aur saamaajik praani hain. ISO 9001 ke 2000 sanskaran ka uddeshya prakriyaaon ke kram tatha unke beech ke sambandhon ko pehchaanana aur uttaradaayitvon tatha adhikaaron ko paribhaashit karna aur bataana hai. saamaanyataya, adhiktar sangheeya deshon jaise FranceGermany aur Germany ne ise apnaaya aur aise kaarya vivranon ko vishesh roop se trade yoonianon mein badhaava diya. antarraashtreeya shram sangathan ne bhi 2001 mein fir se milna aur maanav sansaadhan vikaas par 1975 mein dhaara 150 ko sanshodhit karna tay kiya[2] in pravruttiyon ka ek najriya raajaneetik arthavyavastha par ek majaboot saamaajik aam sahamati kaayam karna hai aur ek achhi saamaajik kalyaan pranaali, shramikon ki gatisheelata ko suvidhaajanak banaati hai aur poori arthavyavastha ko aur adhik faladaayak bana deti hai kyonki iski sahaayata se shramik kaushal aur anubhav ko vibhinn roopon mein viksit kar sakte hain aur unhein ek ikaai se doosari ikaai mein jaane athva khud ko maahaul ke anukool dhaalane mein kam dikkat ya pareshaani ka saamana karna padta hai. ek aur najriya hai ki sarkaaron ko sabhi kshetron mein maanav sansaadhan vikaas ko suvidhaajanak banaane mein apni raashtreeya bhoomika ke prati adhik jaagruk hona chaahiye.

vivaad

shram gatisheelata

shram gatisheelata ke baare mein ek mahatvapoorn vivaad vaakyaansh "maanav sansaadhan" se jude ek vyaapak daarshanik mudde ko darshaata hai : vikaasasheel deshon ki sarkaarein aksar viksit deshon par aarop lagaati hain ve "atithi shramikon" ke apravaas ko badhaava dete hain jo vaastav mein vikaasasheel deshon ka hissa hain aur unki sabhyata ke vikaas ke liye aavashyak hain. unka tark hai ki yeh samaayojan aupaniveshik vastu fiyet ke samaan hai jis mein upaniveshavaadi Europeeya shaktiyaan praakrutik sansaadhanon ke liye ek manamaana moolya tay karti hain, jo us raashtra ke praakrutik sroton se praapt kiye gaye hote hain.

is tarah kai maayanon mein "maanav sansaadhan banaam maanav poonji" ki bahas praakrutik sansaadhanon banaam praakrutik sroton se milti julati hai. samay ke saath sanyukt raashtra ne aam taur par vikaasasheel deshon ke drushtikon ka samarthan kiya hai aur unhonein paryaapt "videshi sahaayata" ka anurodh kiya hai taaki vikaasasheel desh maanav pooainji ki kami ke chalte prashikshan, vyaapar tatha kala mein nae logon ko prashikshan dene ki kshamata na kho dein.

is drushtikon ke ek charam pahaloo ke anusaar vartamaan viksit desh, jo apne vikaas ke dauraan "maanav sansaadhanon" ki chori se laabhaanvit huye hain unhein aitihaasik anyaayon jaise afreeki gulaami ke liye muaavaja dena chaahiye. yeh ek bahut hi vivaadaaspad pahaloo hai, lekin yeh maanav sansaadhan ko maanav poonji mein badalne ke saamaanya vishay ki vyaakhya karta hai aur is prakaar mejabaan samaaj mein iska moolya kam hota ja raha hai, jaise ki - "Africa ", jiske logon ko samaaj dvaara krutrim tangi dikha "shramikon" ke roop mein inka prayog kiya jaata hai.

sanyukt raashtra ke sekretari general ki general assembly [e.g. A/56/162 (2001)], ko di gayi riporton ke anusaar [dekhein - sanyukt raashtra visheshajnyaaon ki maanav sansaadhan vikaas par baithak] maanav sansaadhanon ke vikaas mein ek vyaapak antar kshetreeya tareeka maanav sansaadhan vikaas ke drushtikon mein badlaav la raha hai. ST/TCD/SER.E/25. June 1994[3] ko saamaajik aarthik vikaas aur vishesh roop se gareebi hataane jaisi yojanaaon ko praathamikta dene ke liye chuna gaya. yeh yojanaabaddh aur ekeekrut saarvajanik neetiyaan banaane ke liye uthaaya gaya kadam hai, udaaharan ke liye shiksha, svaasthya aur rojagaar ke kshetr jo ki vyaavasaayik kaushal, gyaan aur pradarshan mein vruddhi ko badhaava dete hain. (Lawrence, J.E.S.)[4].

jaagrukta

"maanav sansaadhan" aur "maanav poonji" jaise shabd logon ko apamaanajanak lag sakte hain. in shabdon ke prayog se aisa lagta hai ki log office ki masheenon athva vaahan ki tarah ek vastu maatr hain, chaahe unhein aisa na samajhne ke liye aashvaasan hi kyon na diya jaae.

kaurporet prabandhan

kaurporet prabandhan ke bahut hi chhote paridrushya mein, kaaryasthal par pratibinbit tatha aavashyak vividhtaaon mein gahra virodhaabhaas hai jo vaishvik graahak aadhaar ke anusaar vividh prakaar ki hain. videshi bhaasha aur saanskrutik kaushal, pratibha, haasya aur dhyaan se sunana aadi vyavhaar ke aise udaaharan hain jo aise kaaryasthalon ki vishesh aavashyakataaen hain. maanav poonji ke drushtikon se in tathyon ko dekhne ke baad aisa prateet hota hai ki manushya ek utpaadan ikaai mein "kaarya" se bahut adhik yogadaan dete hain : ve apne charitra, apni naitikta, apni rachanaatmakata, apne saamaajik sambandh aur kuchh maamalon mein apne jaanavar tatha bachchon ko bhi laate hain aur kaaryasthal ka maahaul badal dete hain. ek sangathanaatmak star par kaurporet sanskruti shabd ka prayog aisi prakriyaaon ki visheshataaon ko bataane ke liye kiya jaata hai.

naukri par rakhane, nikaalne tatha kaarya vivran jaisi paaramparik kintu behad sankeern vichaaradhaara ko 20 veen sadi ka itihaas maana jaata hai. jyaadaatar kaurporet companiyon ne aadhunik vaishvik arthavyavastha mein pratispardha ke chalte maanav pooainji ka drushtikon apnaaya hai jo aadhunik bahumat praapt vichaaradhaara ko darshaata hai. inmein se kuchh "maanav sansaadhan" shabd ko bekaar maan kar iska virodh karte hain. tathaapi yeh abhi prachalan mein hai tatha yadi ise saadhan sampannata se joda jaae to saarvajanik neeti se iska ubharata hua va lagaataar sambandh hai.

saamaanyatay: vruhad-arthashaastr ke anusaar iska saaraansh yeh hai - ki yeh pasand athva pratibha ko prardashit karne ke tantr ke abhaav ka pratinidhitv karta hai. isliye ek vyaakhya yeh hai ki "farm-vishesh maanav pooainji" jo ki vruhad arthashaastr ke anusaar "maanav sansaadhan" ki sahi tatha aadhunik paribhaasha hai aur yeh raajaneetik arthavyavastha ke kisi bhi aadhunik siddhaant mein "maanav sansaadhan" ke yogadaan ko darshaane mein asamarth hai.

maanav sansaadhan prabandhan ki pravruttiyaan aur prabhaav

sangathanon mein pramukh karmachaariyon aur aakasmik kaaryabal, donon ki kushalata/takaneeki yogyata, kshamata, lacheelaapan ityaadi ke vishleshan ke liye vartamaan aur bhavishya ki sangathanaatmak aavashyakataaon ka nirdhaaran mahatvapoorn hai.

is vishleshan mein aantarik tatha baahya kaarakon, jinka sansaadhanon ki khoj, vikaas, prerana tatha karmachaariyon tatha anya varkaron ke sanrakshan par prabhaav padh sakta hai, ki aavashkata padti hai. baahya kaarakon mein sangathan ke niyantran se baahar ke kaarak aur doosare mudde jaise aarthik vaataavaran, shramik baajaar ke vartamaan tatha bhavishya ke treind jaise ki kushalata, shiksha ka star, udyogon mein sarkaari nivesh ityaadi aate hain. doosari or aantarik prabhaav mukhyat: sangathan ke niyantran mein hote hain taaki lakshya ke nirdhaaran ki bhavishyavaani tatha usaka avlokan kiya ja sake. udaaharan ke liye - sangathan ki sanskruti ka pata prabandhan vyavahaar (ya shaili), paryaavaran aur jalavaayu, tatha corporate ki naitik aur saamaajik jimmedaari ke prati drushtikon se chalta hai.

pramukh pravrutiyaaain

vyaapaarik maahaul mein koi sangathan kaise sanchaalit hota hai, jaanane ke liye teen pramukh pravruttiyon par vichaar kiya jaana chaahiye:

  • janasaankhyiki - ek janasankhya ki visheshataaen / karmachaariyon, udaaharan ke liye, umr, ling ya saamaajik varg. is prakaar ki pravruti ka prabhaav painshan dene tatha beema yojanaaon aadi par pad sakta hai.
  • vividhta - janasainkhya/kaaryasthal mein antar. samaaj mein parivrtanon se abhipraaya hai ki aaj se tees saal pehle ki tulana mein sangathanon ka ek bada hissa puraani peedhi ya puraane karmachaariyon se mil kar bana hai. "kaaryasthal ki vividhta" se paaramparik adhivakta

ek karmachaari ki tarah kaarya karta hai jo ki samaaj ke dhaanche jaise ki jaat paat, ling, laingik jhukaav aadi ki seema ka pratibimb hai.

  • kaushal aur yogyata - choonki udyog haath se kaam karne ke bajaae adhik prabandhakeeya vyavasaayon ki or jhuk rahe hain isliye atyadhik kushal snaatakon ki aavashkata bhi badh rahi hai. agar baajaar "tang" hai (athaart naukariyon ke liye paryaapt staaf naheen hai), to niyoktaaon mein karmachaariyon ko lubhaane ke liye vitteeya inaam, saamudaayik nivesh aadi dene ke liye mukaabala hoga.

vyaktigat pratikriyaaen

shramik baajaar mein badlaavon ke baad kya vyaktigat pratikriya hoti hai, ise jaanane ke liye nimnalikhit ko samajhne ka prayaas karna chaahiye:

  • bhaugolik vistaar - kaam vyakti vishesh se kitni doori par hai? vetan ki peshakash kiye jaane ke samay kaam ke liye tay ki jaane waali doori ka dhyaan rakha jaana chaahiye tatha iske alaava parivhan ke saadhan tatha kshetr ka dhaancha bhi yeh nirnaya lene mein ek prabhaavi kaarak hoga ki is pad ke liye kise aavedan karna chaahiye.
  • vyaavasaayik sanrachana - ek sangathan ke bheetar vibhinn kaaryon ke liye nirdhaarit maanak tatha moolya mahoni ne 1989 mein vyaavasaayik sanrachana ke 3 vibhinn prakaar viksit kiye jo the kraaft (vyavasaaya ke prati vafaadaari), sangathan kairiyr (farm ke maadhyam se promotion) tatha bina sanrachana ke (jaroorat ke anusaar kam/akushal shramikon ko kaam ke liye rakhana).
  • peedheegat antar - vibhinn aayu varg ke karmachaariyon ki kuchh visheshataaen hain, udahaaran ke liye sangathan mein unka vyavahaar aur unki apekshaaen.

dhaancha

maanav sansaadhan vikaas ek sangathan ke bheetar (nae taur tareekon se), ek nagar paalika, kshetr ya raashtra mein maanav poonji ke vistaar ke liye ek dhaancha hai. maanav sansaadhan vikaas paryaapt svaasthya aur rojagaar neetiyon ke saath prashikshan aur shiksha ka ek sanyojan hai, jo vyakti vishesh, sangathan tatha raashtra ki saadhan sampannata mein lagaataar sudhaar tatha vikaas sunishchit karta hai. Adam smith ke shabdon mein "vyaktiyon ki kshamataaen unki dvaara li gayi shiksha ke upayog par nirbhar karti hai."[5] maanav sansaadhan vikaas mote taur par prashikshan tatha seekhane ki prakriya ko badhaava dene vaale maahaul ko niyantrit karne ka maadhyam hai. maanav sansaadhan vikaas ek paribhaashit vastu naheen hai apitu vyavasthit prakriyaaon ki ek shrrunkhala hai, "jiska vishesh uddeshya seekhana hai" (nedalar,1984)[6]. ek raashtra ke sandarbh mein, yeh svaasthya, shiksha tatha rojgaar ke beech ek yojanaabaddh drushtikon ban jaata hai. [7]

sanrachana

maanav sansaadhan vikaas ek sanrachana hai jo sangathan ke, ya raashtra ke lakshyon ko santoshajanak dhang se poora karne ke saath vyakti vishesh ke vikaas ki anumati deta hai. vyakti ke vikaas se vyakti vishesh tatha sangathan donon, ya raashtra aur uske naagrikon ko laabh hoga. kaurporet drushtikon ke anusaar, maanav sansaadhan dhaancha karmachaari ko udyog ki sampatti (esset) ki tarah dekhta hai jiski keemat vikaas ke saath badhti hai. "iska praathamik dhyaan vistaar tatha karmachaari ka vikaas hai...yeh vyakti ki kshamata aur kaushal viksit karne par jor deta hai" (elvud, olton va trot 1996)[8]. is prakriya mein maanav sansaadhan vikaas ka arth vaaainchhit parinaam paane ke uddeshya se samooh prashikshan, vyavasaayik paathyakram ya vyakti vishesh ke pradarshan ke vikaas ke liye varishth karmachaariyon dvaara prashikshan ya salaah ho sakta hai. ek raashtreeya neeti ke star par, raashtreeya utpaadakata ko badhaava dene ke liye yeh ek vyaapak rachanaatmak yogadaan ho sakta hai.[9]

prashikshan

sangathanaatmak star par, ek safal maanav sansaadhan vikaas kaaryakram vyakti vishesh ko kaam ke ek uchch star par le jaane ke liye taiyaar karega, "pradarshan mein parivartan ki sambhaavana se ek nishchit avadhi mein vyavasthit dhang se sikhaaya jaata hai." (nedalar 1984). in sthitiyon mein, maanav sansaadhan vikaas ek dhaaainche ke roop mein pehle charan mein sangathanon ki dakshata, prashikshan tatha uske baad sangathanon ki lambi avadhi ki aavashyakataaon ke anusaar shiksha ke maadhyam se karmachaari, uske vyavasaayik lakshyon ka vikaas, karmachaari ke apne vartamaan tatha bhavishya ke niyoktaaon ke prati moolyon par dhyaan kendrit karta hai. maanav sansaadhan vikaas ko saamaanya roop se kisi bhi vyavasaaya ke sabse mahatvapoorn bhaag ko viksit karne ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai "udyog ki prabhaavasheelata ko adhiktam karne ke liye sabhi staron par karmachaariyon ke kaushal aur vyavahaar mein sudhaar karke ise praapt kiya ja sakta hai" (Kelly 2001)[5] ek sangathan mein kaarya karne vaale log iske maanav sansaadhan hain. ek vyaapaar ke najariye se maanav sansaadhan poori tarah se vyaktigat vistaar aur vikaas par keindrit naheen hai. "sangathan ka moolya badhaane ke liye vikaas hota hai, na ki keval vyaktigat sudhaar ke liye. vyaktigat shiksha aur vikaas upakaran hain aur ek ant tak jaane ka maadhyam hai na ki apne aap mein ek antim lakshya." (elavud ef holtan dviteeya, James dablyoo trot junior)[8]. maanav sansaadhan ke vikaas ke liye raashtreeya star par aur yojanaabaddh dhang se chintan aur adhik ubhar raha hai kyonki nae svatantr hue desh apne kushal peshevaron ke liye majaboot pratispardha aur buddhijeeviyon ke videshon mein basane ki samasya se joojh rahe hain.

niyukti

karmachaari ki niyukti ek sangathan ki samagr sansaadhan jutaane ki yojanaaon ka ek pramukh hissa hai jiska uddeshya sangathan ko banaaye rakhane ke liye logon ki pehchaan karna tatha laghu avadhi se le kar maadhyam avadhi tak unhein sanrakshan dena hai. niyukti ki gatividhiyon ko hamesha badhte hue pratiyogi baajaar ke prati uttaradaayi hona chaahiye taaki sabhi staron par suyogya aur saksham log aasaani se mil sakein. in prayaason ko prabhaavi banaane ke liye yeh jaanana zaroori hai ki aantarik ya baahya sroton se yogya log kaise aur kab dhooaindhane hain.

safalta ke sootr hain - ek achhi naukri ki roop rekha ke saath sahi dhang se paribhaashit sangathan ka dhaancha, kaarya ki sahi paribhaasha tatha vyakti tatha vividh chayan prakriyaaon ka vivran, inaam, rojgaar sambandh tatha maanav sansaadhan neetiyaan, majaboot braanding niyokta ki pratibaddhata tatha karmachaari ki vachanabaddhata.

aantarik bharti niyuktiyon ka sabse sasta strot hai yadi maujooda karmachaariyon ki kshamata prashikshan, vikaas tatha anya pradarshan badhaane waali kriyaaon se badhaai gayi hai - jaise pradarshan moolyaankan, uttaraadhikaar yojana banaana tatha vikaas kendron dvaara pradarshan ki jaanch taaki karmachaari ke vikaas ki aavashkataaon ko tatha padonnati kshamata ko samjha ja sake.

aane vaale samay mein, sabhi sangathan achhi gunavatta ke ummeedavaaron ko praapt karne ke liye kaafi had tak baahari rojgaar saadhanon par nirbhar honge. teji se badalate vyaavasaayik tareeke anubhavi kaushal ki chaah rakhate hain jise maujooda karmachaariyon se poora naheen kiya ja sakta. aaj ki taareekh mein ek sangathan ke liye niyukti prakriya ke sabhi pahaluon ko kisi teesari party (rojgaar kendron) ki sahaayata ke bina poora karna asamaanya hai. is mein samarthan sevaaon ki ek shrrunkhala shaamil ho sakti hai, jaise ki CVs ya baayodaata ki vyavastha, niyukti ke liye aavashyak media ki pehchaan, vigyaapan ka design aur naukri ke rikt pad ka vigyaapan, ummeedavaar ki pratikriya jaanana, chunana, vyavahaar ka pareekshan karna, praarambhik saakshaatkaar ya sandarbh aur yogyata ka satyaapan. aamtaur par chhote sangathanon, jin mein bade sangathanon ki tarah aantarik suvidhaayein naheen hoti, niyukti prakriya ke liye ek vishesh tareeka naheen apna sakte. jrurat padne par is prakriya ke liye sarkaari rojgaar kendra ya vyavasaayik rojgaar agencyon ka sahaara liya jaata hai.

un kshetron ko chhodkar, jahaan badi maatra mein niyukti saamaanya baat hai, apratyaashit aavashyakta padne par ek sangathan ko asaamaanya roop se kam samay mein badi sankhya mein nae karmachaariyon ko niyukt karne ke liye ek baahya visheshagya ki aavashyakta padti hai jo shuroo se ant tak is kaaryakram ka prabandhan kar sake. ekjeekyootiv star tatha senior management dhooaindhane ke saath vilkshan ya uchch stareeya pratibhaaon ko saath jodna, ek lambe samay se sthaapit baajaar hai jin mein badi maatr mein 'khoj va chayan' tatha naukri dilaane vaale paraamarsh kendra hain jo apne graahak sangathanon ke saath lambe samay tak sambandh banaae rakhate hain. ant mein, parishkrut maanav sansaadhan prakiyaaon se yukt kuchh sangathanon ne samajh liya hai ki sabhi karmachaarion ki niyukti ke liye poori tarah se rojgaar agencyon athva paraamarsh kendron par nirbhar rahane ke neetigat laabh hain. aadhunik rojgaar seva pradaata keval dhooaindhane ya bhejane ka kaarya naheen karta apitu usaki team graahak sangathan ke office mein varishth maanav sansaadhan prabandhan team ke saath milkar lambi avadhi ke liye maanav sansaadhan neeti aur yojana banaati hai.

maanav sansaadhan ki aadhunik avadhaarana

haalaanki maanav sansaadhan krushi shuroo hone ke pehle din se hi vyavasaaya tatha sangathanon ka hissa raha hai, san 1900 ke praarambh se hi utpaadan ki kshamata badhaane ke tareekon ki aur dhyaan dene se maanav sansaadhan ki aadhunik avadhaarana shuroo hui.1920 tak, sanyukt raajya America mein manovaijnyaaanikon aur rojagaar visheshagyon ne maanav sambandhon par aadhaarit aandolan kiya, jinhonein karmachaariyon ko badle jaane vaale purjon ke bajaae unke manovijnyaaan tatha company ke saath saamanjasya ki kasautiyon par parakha. is aandolan mein 20 veen shataabdi ke madhya mein vruddhi hui, jismein is baat par jor diya gaya ki netrutv, ekta tatha nishtha ka ek sangathanaatmak safalta mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan hota hai. yadyapi is drushtikon ko 1960 ke dashak aur uske baad mein atyadhik kathor tatha kam namr prabandhan takaneekon dvaara joradaar chunauti di gayi, tathaapi maanav sansaadhan vikaas ko sangathanon, agencyon tatha raashtron mein ek sthaai bhoomika mil gayi hai jo keval anushaasan banaaye rakhane ke liye hi naheen hai apitu vikaas neeti ka kendra bindu bhi hai.

sandarbh

  1. maanav sansaadhan ko viksit karne mein agrani Vol 6 (# 3) August 2004 aur Vol 8, # 3, 2006
  2. http://www-ilo-mirror.cornell.edu/public/english/employment/skills/recomm/quest/qr_1b.htm
  3. unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UN/UNPAN000116.pdf
  4. http://ann.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/520/1/42
  5. a aa Kelly di, 2001, maanav sansaadhan vikaas ki dohari dhaaranaaen : neeti ke mudde: SME, anya kshetr aur maanav sansaadhan vikaas ki vivaadit paribhaashaaen, http://ro.uow.edu.au/artspapers/26
  6. nedalar L ED., 1984, maanav sansaadhanon ke vikaas ki pustika, John vile aur sons, New York.
  7. maikleen, G.N., usmaan-gani, A.M., & Cho, (Eds.).raashtreeya neeti ke roop mein maanav sansaadhan vikaas. maanav sansaadhan ke vikaas mein agrani, August (2004) 6(3).
  8. a aa elavud ef holton dviteeya, James dablyoo trot junior, 1996, ek vyaavasaayik shiksha aur maanav sansaadhan vikaas ki aur badhta rujhaan, vyaavasaayik aur takaneeki shiksha patrika Vol 12, No. 2, naheen, p7
  9. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/skills/hrdr/init/cze_8.htm

baahari kadiyaaain