maanav bhoogol

deshon ke anusaar janasankhya ka ghanatv, 2006

maanav bhoogol, bhoogol ki pramukh shaakha hain jiske antargat maanav ki utpatti se lekar vartamaan samay tak uske paryaavaran ke saath sambandhon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hain. maanav bhoogol ki ek atyant lokapriya aur bahu anumodit paribhaasha hai, maanav evam usaka praakrutik paryaavaran ke saath samaayojan ka adhyayan.[1] maanav bhoogol mein pruthvi tal par maanaveeya tathyon ke sthaanik vitranon ka arthaat vibhinn pradeshon ke maanav-vargon dvaara kiye gaye vaataavaran samaayojanon aur sthaanik sangathanon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. maanav bhoogol mein maanav-vargo aur unke vaataavaranon ki shaktiyon, prabhaavon tatha pratikriyaaon ke paarasparik kaaryaatmak samvandhon ka adhyayan, praadeshik aadhaar par kiya jaata hai.[2]

maanav bhoogol ka mahatva din-pratidin badhta ja raha hai. Europeeya deshon, poorvavarti soviyt sangh, sanyukt raajya America tatha Bhaarat ke vishvavidyaalayon mein iske adhyayan mein adhikaadhik roochi li ja rahi hai. pichhle lagbhag 40 varshon mein maanav bhoogol ke adhyayan kshetr ka vaigyaanik vikaas hua hai aur sansaar ke vibhinn deshon mein vahaaain ki janasankhya ki aarthik, saamaajik, saanskrutik unnati ke liye sansaadhan-yojana mein iske gyaan ka prayog kiya ja raha hai.

parichay

maanav bhoogol pruthvi ki satahon aur maanav samudaayon ke beech sambandhon ka sanshleshit adhyayan hai. yeh teen sanghatakon se niktatam roop mein juda hai:

  • maanaveeya janasankhya ka sthaanik vishleshan
  • maanaveeya janasankhya aur paryaavaran ke beech ke sambandhon ka paaristhitik bhoogol
  • vishleshan aur praadeshik sashleshan, jo ki dharaatal ke kshetreeya vibhedeekaran mein pehli donon vishyavastuon ko jodta hai.

maanav bhoogol ki kai up-shaakhaayein hai :

maanavavijnyaaan bhoogol : yeh bade paimaane par sthaanik sandarbh mein vividh prajaatiyon ka adhyayan karta hai.

saanskrutik bhoogol : yeh maanaveeya sanskrutiyon ki utpatti, sanghatakon aur prabhaavon ki charcha karta hai.

aarthik bhoogol : yeh sthaaneeya, praadeshik, raashtreeya aur vishv star par aarthik gatividhiyon ki avasthiti va vitran ka adhyayan karta hai. aarthik bhoogol ka adhyayan nimn binduon ke antargat kiya ja sakta hai: sansaadhan bhoogol, krushi bhoogol, audyogik va parivhan bhoogol.

raajaneetik bhoogol : yeh sthaanik sandarbh mein raajaneetik parightanaaon ka adhyayan karta hai. iska mukhya uddeshya raajaneetik va prashaasanik pradeshon ke udbhav va roopaantaran ki vyaakhya karna hai.

aitihaasik bhoogol : bhaugolik parightanaaon ka sthaanik va kaalik adhyayan aitihaasik bhoogol ke antargat kiya jaata hai.

saamaajik bhoogol : yeh sthaan ki saamaajik parightanaaon ka vishleshan karta hai. nirdhanata, svaasthya, shiksha, jeevanayaapan saamaajik bhoogol ke kuchh mukhya kshetr hain.

janasankhya bhoogol : yeh janasankhya ke vividh pakshon jaise janasankhya vitran, ghanatv, sanghatan, prajanan kshamata, martyata, pravaas aadi ka adhyayan karta hai.

adhivaas bhoogol : yeh graameen/nagareeya adhivaason ke aakaar, vitran, prakaarya, padaanukram aur adhivaas vyavastha se sambandhit anya aadhaaron ka adhyayan karta hai.

maanav bhoogol ke vishay

sandarbh

  1. husain, maajid (1997). maanav bhoogol. Jaipur: raavat pabvikeshans. pa॰ 9.
  2. S di, kaushik (2008). maanav bhoogol. Meerut: rastogi pabvikeshans. pa॰ 1.