maanak hindi vartani

Manak hindi vartani.png

hindi ki vartani ke vividh pahaluon ko lekar 19veen shataabdi ke antim charan se hi vividh prayaas hote rahe hain. isi taaratamya mein keindreeya hindi nideshaalaya dvaara varsh 2003 mein devanaagari lipi tatha hindi vartani ke maanakeekaran ke liye akhil bhaarateeya sangoshthi ka aayojan kiya tha. is sangoshthi mein maanak hindi vartani ke liye nimnalikhit niyam nirdhaarit kiye gaye the jinhein san 2012 mein IS/IS 16500 : 2012 ke roop mein laagoo kiya gaya hai.

anukram

hindi vartani ke maanakeekaran ka itihaas

vartamaan samay mein maanak hindi vartani ka kaaryakshetr kendreeya hindi nideshaalaya ka hai.

hindi vartani ke maanakeekaran ki disha mein kai diggajon ne apna yogadaan diya, jinmein se aachaarya kishoreedaas Vajpayee tatha aachaarya raamachandr varma ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. hindi bhaasha ke sangh aur kuchh raajyon ki raajabhaasha sveekrut ho jaane ke falasvaroop desh ke bheetar aur baahar hindi seekhane vaalon ki sankhya mein paryaapt vruddhi ho jaane se hindi vartani ki maanak paddhati nirdhaarit karna aavashyak aur kaalochit laga, taaki hindi shabdon ki vartaniyon mein adhikaadhik ekaroopata laai ja sake. tadanusaar, shiksha mantraalaya, Bhaarat sarkaar ne 1961 mein hindi vartani ki maanak paddhati nirdhaarit karne ke liye ek visheshagya samiti niyukt ki. is samiti ne April 1962 mein antim report di. samiti ki chaar baithakein huin jinmein gambhir vichaar-vimarsh ke baad vartani ke sambandh mein ek niymaavali nirdhaarit ki gayi. samiti ne tadanusaar, 1962 mein apni antim sifaarishein prastut keen jo sarkaar dvaara anumodit ki gain aur antat: hindi bhaasha ke maanakeekaran ki sarkaari prakriya ka shreeganesh hua.

keindreeya hindi nideshaalaya ne prathamat: 1968 mein “ahindi vartani ka maanakeekaran” naam se laghu pustika prakaashit ki. varsh 1983 mein is pustika ka ni:shulk sanshodhit evam parivrdhit sanskaran “adevanaagari lipi tatha hindi vartani ka maanakeekaran” prakaashit kiya gaya . is pustika ki lagaataar badhti maaaing ko dekhte hue varsh 1989 mein iska punarmudran karaaya gaya tatha vibhin‍aan hindi sevi sansthaaon, kaaryaalayon, shikshan sansthaanon mein ni:shulk vitran karaaya gaya taaki adhik-se-adhik sansthaaon mein hindi ke maanak roop ka prayog badhe . raajabhaasha hindi ke sandarbh mein sabhi mantraalayon, raajyon, sarkaaron, shaikshik sansthaaon N.si.E.aar.ti aadi, samaachaar patron, patrikaaon aadi ne bhaasha mein ekaroopata laane ke liye is maanakeekaran ko aadhikaarik roop se apnaaya.[1]

varsh 1968 ke maanakeekaran ka mukhya aadhaar prayok‍aata aur tankan yantr raha tha . soochana ke aaj ke yug mein hindi bhaasha ke maanakeekaran ko pun: sanshodhit evam parivrtit karne tatha devanaagari lipi ke liye kanpyootareekrut yooneekod ke nirmaan karne ki aavashyakta anubhav ki gayi. isi taaratamya mein keindreeya hindi nideshaalaya dvaara varsh 2003 mein devanaagari lipi tatha hindi vartani ke maanakeekaran ke liye akhil bhaarateeya sangoshthi ka aayojan kiya tha. is sangoshthi mein maanak hindi vartani ke liye jo niyam nirdhaarit kiye gaye the unka vivran neeche diya gaya hai.“adevanaagari lipi aur hindi vartani ka maanakeekaran” pustika mein maanak hindi varnamaala, maanak hindi vartani, viraamaadi chinh, koshon mein akaaraadikram, parivrdhit devanaagari lipi aadi vishay tatha pairaagraafon ke vibhaajan tatha upavibhaajan se sambandhit maanak di gayi hai .

IS/IS 16500 : 2012 ki pramukh baatein neeche di gayeen hain:

2. sanyuk‍aat varn

2.1.1 khadi pai vaale vyanjan

khadi pai vaale vyanjanon ke sanyuk‍aat roop paramparaagat tareeke se khadi pai ko hataakar hi banaae jaaeain. yatha:–

  • khyaati, lagn, vighn
  • kachcha, chhajja
  • naganya
  • kut‍aata, pathya, dhvani, nyaas
  • pyaas, dibba, sabhya, ramya
  • shayya
  • ullekh
  • vyaas
  • sh‍aalok
  • raashtreeya
  • sveekruti
  • yakshma
  • tryanbak

2.1.2 anya vyanjan

2.1.2.1 k aur f/f ke sanyuk‍aataakshar

sanyuk‍aat, pakka, daftar aadi ki tarah banaae jaaeain, na ki sanyukt, (pakka likhne mein k ke neeche k naheen) ki tarah.

2.1.2.2 ङ, chh, t, d, dh, the aur h ke sanyuk‍aataakshar hal chih‍aan lagaakar hi banaae jaaeain. yatha:–

  • vaaङa‍aamaya, lattoo, buddha, vid‍aaya, chih‍aan, brah‍aama aadi. (vaaङamaya, buddha, vidya, chinh, brahma naheen)

2.1.2.3 sanyuk‍aat 'r' ke prachalit teenon roop yathaavat raheinge. yatha:– prakaar, dharm, raashtra.

2.1.2.4 shr ka prachalit roop hi maanya hoga. ise ... (ise main type naheen kar pa raha hooain. kr mein k ke badle sh likha maan lein) ke roop mein naheen likha jaaega. t+r ke sanyuk‍at roop ke liye pehle tr aur ... (ise main type naheen kar pa raha hooain. kr mein k ke badle t likha maan lein) donon roopon mein se kisi ek ke prayog ki chhoot di gayi thi. parantu ab iska paramparaagat roop tr hi maanak maana jaae. shr aur tr ke atirik‍at anya vyanjan+r ke sanyuk‍aataakshar 2.1.2.3 ke niymaanusaar baneinge. jaise :– kr, pr, br, sr, hr aadi.

2.1.2.5 hal chih‍aan yuk‍aat varn se banane vaale sanyuk‍aataakshar ke d‍aa‌aaviteeya vyanjan ke saath i ki maatra ka prayog sambandhit vyanjan ke tatkaal poorv hi kiya jaaega, na ki poore yugm se poorv. yatha:– kut‌aatim, chit‌aathiyaaain, d‌aaviteeya, bud‌aadhimaan, chih‌aanit aadi (kuttim, chitthiyaaain, d‍aa‌aaviteeya, bud‍aadhimaan, chih‍aanit naheen).

tippani : sanskrut bhaasha ke mool sh‍aalokon ko ud‍aadhrut karte samay sanyuk‍aataakshar puraani shaili se bhi likhe ja sakeinge. jaise:– sanyukt, chinh, vidya, vidvaan, vruddh, dviteeya, buddhi aadi. kintu yadi inhein bhi uparyuk‍aat niyamon ke anusaar hi likha jaae to koi aapat‍aati naheen hogi.

2.2 kaarak chih‍aan

2.2.1 hindi ke kaarak chih‍aan sabhi prakaar ke sanjnyaa shabdon mein praatipdik se pruthak likhe jaaeain. jaise :– Ram ne, Ram ko, Ram se, stri ka, stri se, seva mein aadi. sarvanaam shabdon mein ye chih‍aan praatipaadik ke saath milaakar likhe jaaeain. jaise :– toone, aapne, tumase, usane, usako, usase, usapar aadi (mereko, merese aadi roop vyaakaran sammat naheen hain).

2.2.2 sarvanaam ke saath yadi do kaarak chih‍aan hon to unamein se pehla milaakar aur doosra pruthak likha jaae. jaise :– uske liye, ismein se.

2.2.3 sarvanaam aur kaarak chih‍aan ke beech 'hi', 'tak' aadi ka nipaat ho to kaarak chih‍aan ko pruthak likha jaae. jaise :– aap hi ke liye, mujh tak ko.

2.3 kriya pad

sanyuk‍aat kriya padon mein sabhi angeebhoot kriyaaeain pruthak-pruthak likhi jaaeain. jaise :– padha karta hai, aa sakta hai, jaaya karta hai, khaaya karta hai, ja sakta hai, kar sakta hai, kiya karta tha, padha karta tha, khela karega, ghoomta rahega, badhte chale ja rahe hain aadi.

2.4 haaifn (yojak chih‍aan)

2.4.0 haaifn ka vidhaan spashtata ke liye kiya gaya hai.

2.4.1 d‍aavand‍aav samaas mein padon ke beech haaifn rakha jaae. jaise :– Ram-Lakshman, Shiv-paarvati samvaad, dekh-rekh, chaal-chalan, hainsi-majaak, len-den, padhna-likhna, khaana-peena, khelna-koodana aadi.

2.4.2 sa, jaisa aadi se poorv haaifn rakha jaae. jaise :– tum-sa, Ram-jaisa, chaakoo-se teekhe.

2.4.3 tatpurush samaas mein haaifn ka prayog keval vaheen kiya jaae jahaaain uske bina bhram hone ki sambhaavana ho, anyatha naheen. jaise :– bhoo-tatv. saamaanyat: tatpurush samaas mein haaifn lagaane ki aavashyakta naheen hai. jaise :– raamaraajya, Rajkumar, gangaajal, graamavaasi, aatmahatya aadi.

2.4.3.1 isi tarah yadi 'a-nikh' (bina nakh ka) samast pad mein haaifn na lagaaya jaae to use 'anakh' padhe jaane se 'krodh' ka arth bhi nikal sakta hai. a-nati (namrata ka abhaav) : anati (thoda), a-paras (jise kisi ne na chhuaa ho) : aparas (ek charm rog), bhoo-tatv (pruthvi-tatv) : bhootatv (bhoot hone ka bhaav) aadi samast padon ki bhi yahi sthiti hai. ye sabhi yugm vartani aur arth donon drushtiyon se bhinn-bhinn shabd hain.

2.4.4 kathin sandhiyon se bachane ke liye bhi haaifn ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai. jaise :– d‍aa‌aavi-akshar (dvyakshar), d‍aa‌aavi-arthak (dvyarthak) aadi.

2.5 avyaya

2.5.1 'tak', 'saath' aadi avyaya sada pruthak likhe jaaeain. jaise :– yahaaain tak, aapke saath.

2.5.2 aah, oh, aha, ai, hi, to, so, bhi, na, jab, tab, kab, yahaaain, vahaaain, kahaaain, sada, kya, shri, ji, tak, bhar, maatr, saath, ki, kintu, magar, lekin, chaahe, ya, athva, tatha, yatha aur aadi anek prakaar ke bhaavon ka bodh karaane vaale avyaya hain. kuchh avyayon ke aage kaarak chih‍ana bhi aate hain. jaise :– ab se, tab se, yahaaain se, vahaaain se, sada se aadi. niyam ke anusaar avyaya sada pruthak likhe jaane chaahiye. jaise :– aap hi ke liye, mujh tak ko, aapke saath, gaj bhar kapda, desh bhar, raat bhar, din bhar, vah itna bhar kar de, mujhe jaane to do, kaam bhi naheen bana, pachaas rupae maatr aadi.

2.5.3 sammaanaarthak 'shri' aur 'ji' avyaya bhi pruthak likhe jaaeain. jaise shri shreeraam, kanhaiyaalaal ji, mahaatma ji aadi (yadi shri, ji aadi vyak‍aativaachi sanjnyaa ke hi bhaag hon to milaakar likhe jaaeain. jaise :– shreeraam, raamaji laal, somayaaji aadi).

2.5.4 samast padon mein prati, maatr, yatha aadi avyaya jodkar likhe jaaeain (yaani pruthak naheen likhe jaaeain). jaise - pratidin, pratishat, maanavamaatr, nimit‍aatamaatr, yathaasamaya, yathochit aadi. yeh sarvavidit niyam hai ki samaas na hone par samast pad ek maana jaata hai. at use vyast roop mein na likhkar ek saath likhna hi sangat hai. 'das rupae maatr', 'maatr do vyak‍aati' mein padabandh ki rachana hai. yahaaain maatr alag se likha jaae (yaani milaakar naheen likhein).

2.6 anusvaar (shirobindu/bindi) tatha anunaasikta chih‍aan (chandrabindu)

2.6.0 anusvaar vyanjan hai aur anunaasikta svar ka naasik‍aaya vikaar. hindi mein ye donon arthabhedak bhi hain. at hindi mein anusvaar (n) aur anunaasikta chih‍aan (ain) donon hi prachalit raheinge.

2.6.1 anusvaar

2.6.1.1 sanskrut shabdon ka anusvaar anyavargeeya varnon se pehle yathaavat rahega. jaise - sanyog, sanrakshan, sanlagn, samvaad, kans, hinsr aadi.

2.6.1.2 sanyuk‍aat vyanjan ke roop mein jahaaain pancham varn (panchamaakshar) ke baad savargeeya shesh chaar varnon mein se koi varn ho to ekaroopata aur mudran/lekhan ki suvidha ke liye anusvaar ka hi prayog karna chaahiye. jaise - pankaj, ganga, chanchal, kanjoos, kanth, thanda, sant, sandhya, mandir, sampaadak, sambandh aadi (paङakaj, gaङaga, chanyachal, kanyajoos, kanth, thanda, sant, mandir, sandhya, sampaadak, sambandh vaale roop naheen). bandhani mein rakhe hue roop sanskrut ke ud‍aadharanon mein hi maanya honge. hindi mein bindi (anusvaar) ka prayog karna hi uchit hoga.

2.6.1.3 yadi panchamaakshar ke baad kisi anya varg ka koi varn aae to panchamaakshar anusvaar ke roop mein parivrtit naheen hoga. jaise :– vaaङa‍aamaya, anya, chinmaya, unmukh aadi (vaanmaya, anya, chinmaya, unmukh aadi roop graah‍aaya naheen honge).

2.6.1.4 pancham varn yadi d‍aa‌aavitv roop mein (dubaara) aae to pancham varn anusvaar mein parivrtit naheen hoga. jaise - ann, sammelan, sammati aadi (ann, sanmelan, sanmati roop graah‍aaya naheen honge).

2.6.1.5 angreji, urdoo se gruheet shabdon mein aadhe varn ya anusvaar ke bhram ko door karne ke liye naasik‍aaya vyanjan ko poora likhna achha rahega. jaise :– limka, tanakhaah, tinka, tamaga, kamasin aadi.

2.6.1.6 sanskrut ke kuchh tatsam shabdon ke ant mein anusvaar ka prayog m ka soochak hai. jaise - ahan (aham), evam (evam), paran (param), shivan (shivm).

2.6.2 anunaasikta (chandrabindu)

2.6.2.1 hindi ke shabdon mein uchit dhang se chandrabindu ka prayog anivaarya hoga.

2.6.2.2 anunaasikta vyanjan naheen hai, svaron ka dhvanigun hai. anunaasik svaron ke uchchaaran mein naak se bhi hava niklati hai. jaise :– aaain, ooain, eain, maaain, hooain, aaeain.

2.6.2.3 chandrabindu ke bina praaya: arth mein bhram ki gunjaaish rahati hai. jaise :– hans : hains, angana : aaingana, svaang (sv+ang): svaaaing aadi mein. ataev aise bhram ko door karne ke liye chandrabindu ka prayog avashya kiya jaana chaahiye. kintu jahaaain (visheshakar shirorekha ke oopar judne waali maatra ke saath) chandrabindu ke prayog se chhapaai aadi mein bahut kathinaai ho aur chandrabindu ke sthaan par bindu ka (anusvaar chihn ka) prayog kisi prakaar ka bhram utpann na kare, vahaaain chandrabindu ke sthaan par bindu ke prayog ki chhoot rahegi. jaise :– naheen, mein, main aadi. kavita aadi ke prasang mein chhand ki drushti se chandrabindu ka yathaasthaan avash‍aaya prayog kiya jaae. isi prakaar chhote bachchon ki praveshikaaon mein jahaaain chandrabindu ka uchchaaran abheesht ho, vahaaain mote aksharon mein usaka yathaasthaan sarvatr prayog kiya jaae. jaise :– kahaaain, hainsana, aaaingan, sainvaarana, meain, maiain, naheeain aadi.

2.7 visrg (:)

2.7.1 sanskrut ke jin shabdon mein visrg ka prayog hota hai, ve yadi tatsam roop mein prayuk‍aat hon to visrg ka prayog avashya kiya jaae. jaise :– 'du:khaanubhooti' mein. yadi us shabd ke tad‍aabhav roop mein visrg ka lop ho chuka ho to us roop mein visrg ke bina bhi kaam chal jaaega. jaise :– 'dukh-sukh ke saathi'.

2.7.2 tatsam shabdon ke ant mein prayuk‍aat visrg ka prayog anivaarya hai. yatha :– at:, pun:, svat:, praaya:, poornat:, moolat:, antat:, vastut:, kramash: aadi.

2.7.3 'h' ka aghosh uchcharit roop visrg hai, at: uske sthaan par (s) ghosh 'h' ka lekhan kisi haalat mein na kiya jaae (at:, pun: aadi ke sthaan par atah, punah aadi likhna ashud‍aadh vartani ka udaaharan maana jaaega).

2.7.4 du:saahas/dussaahas, ni:shabd/nishshabd ke ubhaya roop maanya honge. inmein d‍aa‌aavitv vaale roop ko praathamikta di jaae.

2.7.4.1 nistej, nirvachan, nish‍aachal aadi shabdon mein visrg wala roop (ni:tej, ni:vachan, ni:chal) na likha jaae.

2.7.4.2 ant:karan, ant:pur, praat:kaal aadi shabd visrg ke saath hi likhe jaaeain.

2.7.5 tad‍aabhav/deshi shabdon mein visrg ka prayog na kiya jaae. is aadhaar par chh: likhna galat hoga. chhah likhna hi theek hoga.

2.7.6 praayad‍aaveep, samaaptapraaya aadi shabdon mein tatsam roop mein bhi visrg naheen hai.

2.7.7 visrg ko varn ke saath milaakar likha jaae, jabki kolan chih‍aan (upaviraam :) shabd se kuchh doori par ho. jaise :– at:, yon hai :–

2.8 hal chih‍aan ()

2.8.1 () ko hal chih‍aan kaha jaae na ki halant. vyanjan ke neeche laga hal chih‍aan us vyanjan ke svar rahit hone ki soochana deta hai, yaani vah vyanjan vishud‍aadh roop se vyanjan hai. is tarah se 'jagat' halant shabd kaha jaaega kyonki yeh shabd vyanjanaant hai, svaraant naheen.

2.8.2 sanyuk‍aataakshar banaane ke niyam 2.1.2.2 ke anusaar d h t th d dh d h mein hal chih‍aan ka hi prayog hoga. jaise : chih‌aan, buddha, vid‍aavaan aadi mein.

2.8.3 tat‍aasam shabdon ka prayog vaanchhaneeya ho tab halant roopon ka hi prayog kiya jaae; vishesh roop se tab jab unase samast pad ya vyutpann shabd bante hon. yatha praak :– (praagaitihaasik), vaak-(vaagdevi), sat-(satsaahitya), bhagavan-(bhagavad‍aabhak‍aati), saakshaat-(saakshaatkaar), jagat-(jagannaath), tejas-(tejasvi), vid‍aayut-(vid‍aayullata) aadi. tatsam sambodhan mein he raajan, he bhagavan roop hi sveekrut honge. hindi shaili mein he raaja, he Bhagwan likhe jaaeain. jin shabdon mein hal chih‌aan lup‍aat ho chuka ho, unamein use fir se lagaane ka prayat‍aan na kiya jaae. jaise - mahaan, vid‍aavaan aadi; kyonki hindi mein ab 'mahaan' se 'mahaanata' aur 'vid‍aavaanon' jaise roop prachalit ho chuke hain.

2.8.4 vyaakaran granthon mein vyanjan sandhi samajhaate hue keval utane hi shabd diye jaaeain, jo shabd rachana ko samajhne ke liye aavash‍aayak hon (ut + nayan = unnayan, ut + loss = ullaas) ya arth ki drushti se upayogi hon (jagadeesh, jaganmaata, jagajjanani).

2.8.5 hindi mein hradayangam (hradayam + gam), ud‍aadharan (ut/ud + haran), sanchit (sam + chit) aadi shabdon ka sandhi-vichhed samajhaane ki aavash‍aayakata prateet naheen hoti. isi tarah 'saakshaatkaar', 'jagadeesh', 'shatkosh' jaise shabdon ke arth ko samajhaane ki aavash‍aayakata ho tabhi unki sandhi ka havaala diya jaae. hindi mein inhein svatantr shabdon ke roop mein grahan karna hi achha hoga.

2.9 svan parivartan

2.9.1 sanskrutamoolak tatsam shabdon ki vartani ko jyon-ka-tyon grahan kiya jaae. at: 'brah‍aama' ko 'bramha', 'chih‍aan' ko 'chinh', 'urin' ko 'urin' mein badalna uchit naheen hoga. isi prakaar graheet, drushtavya, pradarshini, atyaadhik, anaadhikaar aadi ashud‍aadh prayog graah‍aaya naheen hain. inke sthaan par kramash: gruheet, drashtavya, pradarshini, atyadhik, anadhikaar hi likhna chaahiye.

2.9.2 jin tatsam shabdon mein teen vyanjanon ke sanyog ki sthiti mein ek d‍aa‌aavitvamoolak vyanjan lupt ho gaya hai use na likhne ki chhoot hai. jaise :– ard‌aadh > ardh, tat‍aatv > tatv aadi.

2.10 'ai', 'au' ka prayog

2.10.1 hindi mein ai (ai), au (au) ka prayog do prakaar ke uchchaaran ko vyak‍aat karne ke liye hota hai. pehle prakaar ka uchchaaran 'hai', 'aur' aadi mein mool svaron ki tarah hone laga hai; jabki doosare prakaar ka uchchaaran 'gavaiya', 'kauva' aadi shabdon mein sandhyaksharon ke roop mein aaj bhi surakshit hai. donon hi prakaar ke uchchaaranon ko vyak‍aat karne ke liye inheen chih‍aanon (ai, ai, au, au) ka prayog kiya jaae. 'gavayya', 'kavva' aadi sanshodhanon ki aavash‍aayakata naheen hai. anya udaaharan hain :– bhaiya, Sayyed, taiyaar, hauva aadi.

2.10.2 dakshin ke ayyar, nayyar, raamayya aadi vyak‍aatinaamon ko hindi uchchaaran ke anusaar aiyar, naiyar, raamaiya aadi na likha jaae, kyonki moolabhaasha mein iska uchchaaran bhinn hai.

2.10.3 avval, kavvaal, kavvaali jaise shabd prachalit hain. inhein lekhan mein yathaavat rakha jaae.

2.10.4 sanskrut ke tatsam shabd 'shayya' ko 'shaiya' na likha jaae.

2.11 poorvakaalik krudant prat‍aayaya 'kar'

2.11.1 poorvakaalik krudant pratyaya 'kar' kriya se milaakar likha jaae. jaise :– milaakar, kha-peekar, ro-rokar aadi.

2.11.2 kar + kar se 'karke' aur kara + kar se 'karaake' banega.

2.12 wala

2.12.1 kriya roopon mein 'karne wala', 'aane wala', 'bolne wala' aadi ko alag likha jaae. jaise :– main ghar jaane wala hooain, jaane vaale log.

2.12.2 yojak prat‍aayaya ke roop mein 'gharavaala', 'topeevaala' (topi bechne wala), dilvaala, doodhavaala aadi ek shabd ke samaan hi likhe jaaeainge.

2.12.3 'wala' jab pratyaya ke roop mein aaega tab to 2.12.2 ke anusaar milaakar likha jaaega; anyatha alag se. yeh wala, yeh waali, pehle wala, achha wala, laal wala, kal waali baat aadi mein wala nirdeshak shabd hai. at ise alag hi likha jaae. isi tarah lambe baalon waali ladki, daadhi wala aadmi aadi shabdon mein bhi wala alag likha jaaega. isse ham rachana ke star par antar kar sakte hain. jaise :– gaaainvavaala - villager gaaainv wala makaan - village house

2.13 shrutimoolak 'ya', 'va'

2.13.1 jahaaain shrutimoolak ya, va ka prayog vikalp se hota hai vahaaain na kiya jaae, arthaat kiye : kiye, nai : nayi, hua : huva aadi mein se pehle (svaraatmak) roopon ka prayog kiya jaae. yeh niyam kriya, visheshan, avyaya aadi sabhi roopon aur sthitiyon mein laagoo maana jaae. jaise :– dikhaae gaye, Ram ke liye, pustak liye hue, nai Delhi aadi.

2.13.2 jahaaain 'ya' shrutimoolak vyaakaranik parivartan na hokar shabd ka hi mool tatv ho vahaaain vaikalpik shrutimoolak svaraatmak parivartan karne ki aavash‍aayakata naheen hai. jaise :– sthaayi, avyayeebhaav, daayitv aadi (arthaat yahaaain sthaai, avyaibhaav, daaitv naheen likha jaaega).

2.14 videshi dhvaniyaaain

2.14.1 urdoo shabd

urdoo se aae arabi-faarasi moolak ve shabd jo hindi ke ang ban chuke hain aur jinki videshi dhvaniyon ka hindi dhvaniyon mein roopaantar ho chuka hai, hindi roop mein hi sveekaar kiye ja sakte hain. jaise :– kalam, kila, daag aadi (klam, kila, daag naheen). par jahaaain unka shud‍aadh videshi roop mein prayog abheesht ho athva uchchaaranagat bhed bataana aavash‍aayak ho, vahaaain unke hindi mein prachalit roopon mein yathaasthaan nuk‍aate lagaae jaaeain. jaise :– khaana : khaana, raaj : raaj, fan : haaifn aadi.

2.14.2 angreji shabd

angreji ke jin shabdon mein ardhavivrut 'O' dhvani ka prayog hota hai, unke shud‍aadh roop ka hindi mein prayog abheesht hone par 'aa' ki maatra ke oopar ardhachandr ka prayog kiya jaae (o, au). jahaaain tak angreji aur anya videshi bhaashaaon se nae shabd grahan karne aur unke devanaagari lipyantaran ka sambandh hai, August-September, 1962 mein vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog d‍aavaara vaigyaanik shabdaavali par aayojit bhaashaavidon ki sangoshthi mein antararaashtreeya shabdaavali ke devanaagari lipyantaran ke sambandh mein ki gayi sifaarish ullekhaneeya hai. usamein yeh kaha gaya hai ki angreji shabdon ka devanaagari lipyantaran itna klisht naheen hona chaahiye ki uske vartamaan devanaagari varnon mein anek nae sanket-chih‍aan lagaane padein. angreji shabdon ka devanaagari lipyantaran maanak angreji uchchaaran ke adhik-se-adhik nikat hona chaahiye.

2.14.3 d‍aa‌aavidha roop vartani

hindi mein kuchh prachalit shabd aise hain jinki vartani ke do-do roop baraabar chal rahe hain. vid‍aavatsamaaj mein donon roopon ki ek-si maanyata hai. kuchh udaaharan hain :– garadan/gardan, garami/garmi, baraf/barf, bilkul/bilkul, saradi/sardi, kurasi/kursi, bharati/bharti, furasat/fursat, baradaasht/bardaasht, vaapas/vaapis, aakhirkaar/aakheerakaar, baratan/bartan, dubaara/dobaara, dukaan/dookaan, beemaari/bimaari aadi. in vaikalpik roopon mein se pehle vaale roop ko praathamikta di jaae. vistaar ke liye dekhiye - parishisht 4 (prushth 32-35)

2.15 anya niyam

2.15.1 shirorekha ka prayog prachalit rahega.

2.15.2 fulastaup (poorn viraam) ko chhodkar shesh viraamaadi chih‍aan vahi grahan kar liye gaye hain jo angreji mein prachalit hain. yatha :– - (haaifn/yojak chih‍aan), – (daish/nirdeshak chih‍aan), :– (kolan end desh/vivran chih‍aan), (coma/alpaviraam), ; (semeekolan/ardhaviraam), : (kolan/upaviraam), ? (kvash‍aachanamaark/prash‍aan chih‍aan), ! (sign of interogeshan/vismayasoochak chih‍aan), ' (apostraafi/oordhv alp viraam), " " (double invarted komaaj/ud‍aadharan chih‍aan), ' ' (singal invarted coma/shabd chih‍aan). (), { }, [ ] (teenon koshthak), ... (lop chih‍aan), (sankshepasoochak chih‍aan)/(hansapad). vistrut niyamon ke liye dekhiye- parishisht - 5 (prushth 36-47)

2.15.3 visrg ke chih‍aan ko hi kolan ka chih‍aan maan liya gaya hai. par donon mein yeh antar rakha gaya hai ki visrg varn se sataakar aur kolan shabd se kuchh doori par rahe. (poorv sandarbh 2.7.7 aur 2.7.7.1)

2.15.4 poorn viraam ke liye khadi pai (.) ka hi prayog kiya jaae. vaakya ke ant mein bindu (angreji fulastaup .) ka naheen.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain