maanak hindi

maanak hindi hindi ka maanak svaroop hai jiska shiksha, kaaryaalayeen kaaryon aadi mein prayog kiya jaata hai. bhaasha ka kshetr desh, kaal aur paatr ki drushti se vyaapak hai. isaliye sabhi bhaashaaon ke vividh roop milte hain. in vividh roopon mein ekta ki koshish ki jaati hai aur use maanak bhaasha kaha jaata hai.

hindi mein 'maanak bhaasha' ke arth mein pehle 'saadhu bhaasha', 'takasaali bhaasha', 'shuddh bhaasha', 'aadarsh bhaasha' tatha 'parinishthit bhaasha' aadi ka prayog hota tha. angreji shabd 'standard' ke pratishbd ke roop mein 'maan' shabd ke sthireekaran ke baad 'standard laingvij' ke anuvaad ke roop mein 'maanak bhaasha' shabd chal pada. angreji ke 'standard' shabd ki vyutpatti vivaadaaspad hai. kuchh log ise 'stand' (khada hona) se jodte hain to kuchh log eksataind 'badhaana' se. mere vichaar mein yeh 'stand' se sambaddh hai. vah jo kada hokar, spashtat: auron se alag pratimaan ka kaam kare. 'maanak bhaasha' bhi amaanak bhaasha-roopon se alag ek pratimaan ka kaam karti hai. usi ke aadhaar par kisi ke dvaara prayukt bhaasha ki maanakata amaanakata ka nirnaya kiya jaata hai.

anukram

paribhaasha

'maanak bhaasha' ko logon ne tarah-tarah se spasht karne ka yatn kiya hai. raubins (1966) ke anusaar saamaajik drushti se mahattvapoorn logon ki boli ko maanak bhaasha ka naam diya jaata hai. stivrt (1968) ne prakruti, aantarik vyavastha tatha saamaajik prayog aadi ke aadhaar par bhaasha ke vibhinn prakaaron mein antar dikhaane ke liye chaar aadhaar maane hain.

aitihaasikta

'aitihaasikta' ka arth hai, bhaasha ki praacheen parampara aur kaal ki drushti se usaka vikaas. adhikaansh bhaashaaeain ek peedhi se doosari peedhi tak fir doosari se teesari tak aur aise hi aage peedhi-dar-peedhi chalti rahati hain. yahi unki aitihaasikta hai. yeh ullekh hai ki espirainto, ido, launglan jaisi krutim bhaashaaon mein is aitihaasikta ka abhaav hota hai.

maanakeekaran

arthaat bhaasha ko ek maanak roop dena. aisa roop jismein praapt sabhi vikalpon mein ek ko maanak maan liya gaya ho tatha jis bhaasha roop ko us bhaasha ke saare bolne vaale maanak sveekaar karte hon. yeh baat dhyaan dene ki hai ki saare vishv ki adhikaansh samunnat bhaashaaon ka maanak roop hota hai, jabki avabhaasha (varnaakyoolar), boli kriyol aadi ka maanak roop naheen hota. maanakeekaran ke kaaran hi koi bhaasha apne poore kshetr mein shabdaavali tatha vyaakaran ki drushti se samarup hoti hai, iseeliye vah sabhi logon ke liye bodhagamya bhi hoti hai. saath hi vah sabhi logon dvaara maanya hoti hai at: anya bhaasha roopon ki tulana mein vah adhik pratishthit bhi hoti hai.

jeevantata

arthaat bhaasha ka prayokta koi samaaj ho jismein bolachaal tatha lekhan aadi mein us bhaasha ka prayog hota ho. jeevant bhaasha mein nirantar vikaas hota rahata hai. vishv mein boli jaane waali sabhi bhaashaaon aur boliyon mein jeevantata milti hai. haaain, sanskrut, laitin, paali, praakrut, apabhransh jaisi puraani ya classic bhaashaaeain aaj saamaanya prayog mein naheen hain, iseeliye unamein jeevantata naheen maani ja sakti.

svaayattata

svaayattata se aashya hai apne astitv ke liye kisi bhaasha ka kisi anya bhaasha par nirbhar na hona. saamaanyat: bhaashaaeain svaayatt hoti hain, kintu boliyaaain svaayatt naheen hoteen; ve apne astitv ke liye bhaasha par nirbhar karti hain. iseeliye hamein pratyek boli ke liye yeh kehna padta hai ki vah boli amuk bhaasha ki hai kintu bhaasha ke sambandh mein aisi koi baadhyata naheen hai.

in aadhaaron ko lekar ham vichaar karein to classic bhaasha mein aitihaasikta hoti hai, maanakata hoti hai, kintu jeevantata naheen hoti, boli mein maanakata tatha svaayattata naheen hoti, avabhaasha (varnaakyoolar) mein maanakata naheen hoti kratim bhaasha mein keval maanakata hoti hai, pijin mein maatr aitihaasikta hoti hai, kriyol mein anya sabhi hoti hai, kintu maanakata naheen hoti. maanak bhaasha mein ye chaaro hi visheshataaeain hoti hain. vastut: stivrt ki ye baatein yeh to batalaati hain ki maanak bhaasha mein uparyukt chaar visheshataaeain hoti hain, 'kintu maanak bhaasha mein maanakata bhi hoti hai' ka tab tak koi arth naheen, jab tak ki ham yeh na bataaeain ki maanakata kya hai.

maanakata mein nimnaankit baatein aati hain—

  • (1) maanakata ka aadhaar koi vyaakaranik ya bhaashaavaijnyaaanik tathya athva niyam naheen hote. iska aadhaar moolat: saamaajik sveekruti hai. samaaj vishesh ke log bhaasha ke jis roop ko apni maanak bhaasha maan lein, unke liye vahi maanak ho jaati hai.
  • (2) is tarah bhaasha ki maanakata ka prashn tattvat: bhaashaavijnyaaan ka na hokar samaaj-bhaashaavijnyaaan ka hai. bhaashaavijnyaaan bhaasha ki sanrachana ka adhyayan karta hai aur sanrachana maanak bhaasha ki bhi hoti hai aur amaanak bhaasha ki bhi. usaka isse koi sambandh naheen ki samaaj kise shuddh maanata hai aur kise naheen. is tarah maanak bhaasha ki sankalpana ko sanrachanaatmak na kehkar saamaajik kehna upayukt hoga.
  • (3) jab ham samaaj vishesh se kisi bhaasha-roop ke maanak maane jaane ki baat karte hain, to samaaj se aashay hota hai sushikshit aur shisht logon ka vah samaaj jo poore bhaasha-bhaashi kshetr mein prabhaavashaali evam mahattvapoorn maana jaata hai. vastut: us bhaasha-roop ki pratishtha uske un mahattvapoorn prayoktaaon par hi aadhaarit hoti hai. doosare shabdon mein us bhaasha ke bolanevaalon mein yahi varg ek prakaar se maanak varg hota hai.
  • (4) samaaj dvaara maanya hone ke kaaran bhaasha ke anya prakaaron ki tulana mein maanak bhaasha ki pratishtha hoti hai. is tarah maanak bhaasha saamaajik pratishtha ka prateek hai.
  • (5) saamaanyat- maanak bhaasha moolat: kisi desh ki rajdhani ya anya drushtiyon se kisi mahattvapoorn kendra ki boli hoti hai, jise raajaneetik athva dhaarmik athva saamaajik kaaranon se pratishtha aur sveekruti praapt ho jaati hai.
  • (6) boli ka prayog apne kshetr tak seemit rahata hai, kintu maanak bhaasha ka kshetr apne mool kshetr ke bhi baahar anya boli-kshetron mein hota hai.
  • (7) yadi kisi bhaasha ka maanak roop hai to saahitya mein, shiksha ke maadhyam ke roop mein, ant:kshetreeya prayog mein tatha sabhi auparachaarik paristhitiyon mein us maanak roop ka hi prayog hota hai, amaanak roop ya boli aadi ka naheen.
  • (8) kisi bhaasha ke bolne vaale anya bhaasha-bhaashiyon ke saath praay: us bhaasha ke maanak roop ka hi prayog karte hain, kisi boli ka athva amaanak roop ka naheen.

sankshep mein

'maanak bhaasha' kisi bhaasha ke us roop ko kehte hain jo us bhaasha ke poore kshetr mein shuddh maana jaata hai tatha jise us pradesh ka shikshit aur shisht samaaj apni bhaasha ka aadarsh roop maanata hai aur praay: sabhi aupachaarik paristhitiyon mein, lekhan mein, prashaasan aur shiksha, ke maadhyam ke rup mein yathaasaadhya usi ka prayog karne ka prayatn karta hai.

bhaashaaon ko maanak roop dene ki bhaavana jin anek kaaranon se vishv mein jagi, unamein saamaajik aavaashyakata, press ka prachaar, vaigyaanik drushtikon ke vikaas se ekaroopata ke prati roojhaan tatha sv ki asmita aadi mukhya hain. yahaaain inmein ek-do ko thode vistaar se dekh lena anyatha na hoga. udaaharan ke liye maanak bhaasha ki saamaajik aavashyakta se inkaar naheen kiya ja sakta. kisi bhi kshetr ko lein, sabhi boliyon mein prashaasan saahitya-rachana, shiksha dena ya aapas mein baatcheet kathin bhi hai, avyaavahaarik bhi. hindi ki hi baat lein to usaki bees-pachchees boliyon mein aisa karna bahut sambhav naheen hai. aaj to kumaayoonni bhaashi naamak hindi ke jariye maithili bhaashi se baatcheet karta hai kintu yadi maanak hindi na hoti to donon ek doosare ki baat samajh na paate. sabhi boliyon mein anya boliyon ke saahitya ka anuvaad bhi saadhanon ki kami se bahut sanbhanv naheen hai, aisi sthiti mein shailesh matiyaani (kumaayooainni bhaasha) ke saahitya ka aanand maithili bhaashi naheen le sakta tha, na naagaarjun (maithili bhaashi) ke saahitya ka aanand kumaayooainni, gadhvaali ya hariyaani bhaashi. is tarah sabhi boliyon ke oopar ek maanak bhaasha ko isliye aaropit karna, achha ya bura jo bhi ho, usaki saamaajik anivaaryata hai aur isliye vibhinn kshetron mein kuchh maanak bhaashaaeain swayam viksit hui hain, kuchh ki gayi hain aur unhonne un kshetron ko kaafee door-door tak samajhe jaanevaale maadhyam ke roop mein anant suvidhaaen pradaan ki hain. aise hi press ke avishkaar tatha prachaar ne bhi maanakata ko anivaarya banaaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain