maanachitrakala

vishv ka madhyakaaleen (1482) niroopan

maanachitr tatha vibhinn sambandhit upakaranon ki rachana, inke siddhaanton aur vidhiyon ka gyaan evam adhyayan maanachitrakala (Cartography) kahalaata hai. maanachitr ke atirikt tathya pradarshan ke liye vividh prakaar ke anya upakaran, jaise uchchaavachan model, golak, maanaarekh (cartograms) aadi bhi banaae jaate hain.

maanachitrakala mein vigyaan, saundaryameemaansa tatha takaneek ka mishran hai. 'kaartograafi' shabd greek Χaaάaaρaaτaaηaaς, chartes or charax = kaagaj tatha graphein = 'likhna' se bana hai.

anukram

parichay

maanachitr vigyaan ka sambandh maanachitr aur aarekh taiyaar karne se hai, jo bhaugolik parightanaaon ke vitran ko darshaate hain. yeh maanachitr va aarekh nirmaan karne ka prayogaatmak adhyayan hai. yeh maanachitron aur prateekaaksharon ki sahaayata se pruthvi ko prastut karta hai. paaramparik roop se maanachitron ka nirmaan kalam, syaahi aur kaagaj ki sahaayata se hota raha hai, parantu computer ne maanachitr vigyaan mein kraanti la di hai. ji. I. S. vidhi ke dvaara koi bhi vyakti maanachitr va aarekh apni ichhaanusaar poorn dakshata se taiyaar kar sakta hai.

sthaanik aaainkade maapan aur anya prakaashit sroton dvaara praapt kiye jaate hain aur use vibhinn uddeshyon ke liye prayog hetu daataabes mein bhandaarit kiya ja sakta hai. syaahi aur kaagaj dvaara maanachitr banaane ki parampara ab samaapt hoti ja rahi hai. iska sthaan computer nirmit maanachitr le rahe hai. ye maanachitr adhik gatyaatmak aur ant:kriyaatmak hote hai tatha ankeeya yukti (digital divaais) se ismein parivartan kiye ja sakte hain. aaj adhik vyaapaarik gunavatta vaale maanachitr computer software ki sahaayata se banaaye gaye hai. ye computer software computer aadhaarit aankada prabandhan (kaid/CAD), bhaugolik soochana tantr (GIS) aur bhoomandaleeya sthiti tantr (jeepeees/ GPS) hai.

maanachitrakala, aarekhan takaneek ke sangrahan se nikalkar vaastavik vigyaan ban gayi hai. ek maanachitrakaar ko avashya samajhna chaahiye ki kaun sa sanket pruthvi ke baare mein prabhaavashaali soochana deta hai aur unhein aise maanachitr taiyaar karne chaahiye jinse pratyek vyakti maanachitron ke prayog hetu utsaahit ho aur vah iska prayog sthaanon ko dhooaindhne tatha apne dainik jeevan mein kare. maanachitrakaaron ko bhooganit ke saath-saath aadhunik ganit mein bhi paarangat hona chaahiye taaki ve samajh sakein ki pruthvi ki aakruti, nireekshan ke liye chauras satah par prakshepit maanachitr ke chinhon ki vikruti ko kis prakaar prabhaavit karti hai.

''bhaugolik soochana tantr'' pruthvi ke vishay mein soochanaaon ka bhandaar hai, jo computer dvaara svachaalit va uchit reeti se pun: praapt kiya ja sakta hai. ek ji. I. S. visheshagya ko bhoogol ke anya upavishyon ke saath-saath computer vigyaan tatha aankada sanchaya tantr ki samajh honi chaahiye. paaramparik roop mein maanachitron ka upayog pruthvi ki khoj aur sansaadhanon ke dohan mein hota raha hai. ji. I. S. takaneek maanachitr vigyaan ka vistaar hai, jiske dvaara paaramparik maanachitran ki kshamata aur vishleshanaatmak shakti kaafi badh gayi hai. aajkal vaigyaaniko ka samudaaya maanaveeya kriyaakalaapon ke falasvaroop paryaavaran par padne vaale prabhaavon ko jaan gaye hai tatha ji. I. S. takaneek bhoomandaleeya parivrtanon ki prakriyaaon ko samajhne ka anivaarya upakaran ban gaya hai. vividh prakaar ke maanachitron aur upagrah soochana tantron ko milaakar praakrutik tantron ki jatil ant:kriyaaon ki punarrachana ki ja sakti hai. is prakaar ki sajeev kalpana se yeh bhavishyavaani ki ja sakti hai ki baar-baar baadh se grast hone vaale kshetr ka kya hoga ya kisi vishesh udyog ke kisi kshetr mein sthaapit ya viksit hone se kshetr mein kya parivartan honge.

british aardinens sarvekshan ke aadhaar par sthaapit bhaarateeya sarvekshan vibhaag ke baad raashtreeya etalas evam vishyak maanachitran sangathan (N. A. ti. M. O.) Bhaarat mein maanachitr nirmaan ki pramukh sanstha hai. iske das lakh shrunkhala ke maanachitr bahut prasiddh hain. 1960 mein paandicheri ke fraanseesi sansthaan ke maanachitran ikaai ne bhoogol ke vikaas mein ullekhaneeya prabhaav daala. is sansthaan ne 1:1,00,000 ke paimaane par vanaspati aur mruda maanachitr banaaye the. is sansthaan ko sansaadhanon ke maanachitran ke liye khoob prashansa mili. 1995 mein is ikaai ka darja badhaakar jyometiks prayogashaala (Geomatics Lab) kar diya gaya, jismein computer maanachitr aur bhaugolik soochana tantr par vishesh bal diya jaata hai.

maanachitrakala ka itihaas

naksha kheenchna

naksha kheenchna (Map Drawing) manushya ko usaki bhaumik paristhitiyon se saakshaatkaar karaane ka sabse saral maadhyam hai. bhooprushth par sthit praakrutik vivran, jaise pahaad, nadi pathaar, maidaan, jungle aadi aur saanskrutik nirmaan, jaise sadkein, relamaarg, pul, kueain dhaarmik sthaan, kaarkhaane aadi ka sakshipt, sahi aur vishvasaneeya chitran nakshe par milta hai.

nakshe ki is vyaakhya se teen prashn uth khade hote hain :

  • (1) aise vishaal aur vistrut bhooprushth ka chhote kaagaj par kaise pradarshan ho?
  • (2) gol bhooprushth ko bina vikruti ke samatal par kaise chitrit kiya jaae?
  • (3) bhooprushth ki adhikaansh praakrutik aur krutrim vastueain trivimiteeya hoti hain, at: unka samatal par kaise gyaan karaaya jaae?

pehli samasya ka samaadhaan kaagaj ki ek ikaai doori par pruthvi ki kai ikaai doori ko pradarshit karke kiya gaya hai, arthaat kinheen bhi do vinduon ki bhaumik doori ko nakshe par ek nishchit anupaat mein pradarshit karte hain, jaise nakshe par 1 inch = 1 meal 2 meal, 4 meal ya 50 meal ityaadi, ya 1 ikaai (inch ya seintimeetar) = 1,000, 10,000, 25,000 50,000 (inch ya seintimeetar) ityaadi. ise anupaat ke roop mein 1 : 1,000, 1 : 25,000 aadi bhi likh sakte hain. is prakaar ki abhivyakti nakshe ka paimaana kahalaata hai.

doosari samasya ka graahya samaadhaan maanachitr prakshep (map projection) se kiya gaya hai, jismein akshaansh (latitude) evam deshaantar (longitude) maanachitr ke prayog ki suvidha ke anukool samatal par prakshipt kar liye jaate hain. prakshep ka arth samajhne ke liye kalpana karein ki kaach ke ek gole par apaaradarshi rang se akshaansh tatha deshaantar rekhaaeain kheenchi hain. gole par ek sparshi samatal ya samatal ke roop mein viksit ho jaanevaali satahein, jaise shanku (cone) ya belan (cylinder), rakhi hain aur gole ke kendra par prakaash ka ek bindu-sa hai is avastha mein sparshi satah par bani chhaaya akshaansh ya deshaantaron ka prakshep kahalaaegi. bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke prakshep, jinmein kisi par kshetrafal, kisi par disha evam doori aur kisi par aakrutiyaaain sahi banti hain, isi prakaar ki ek ya doosari satah par taiyaar kiye jaate hain. inmein samatal par traijya (Gnomonic) prakshep, trivim (stereographic) prakshep, belan aur kaisini (Cassini) ka prakshep, marketar (Mercator) ke prakshep aur shanku par bahushankuk (polyconic) prakshep sarvaadhik prayukt hote hain. sarvekshit bhoomi ke vistaar aur bhoo prushth par usaki sthiti ke anusaar prakshep ka chayan kiya jaata hai.

teesari samasya ka samaadhaan, vivran (detail) ke liye saanketik chihnon ka prayog kar, kiya gaya hai. saanketik chihnon ke nirdhaaran mein yeh dhyaan rakha jaata hai ki ve bina kisi atirikt tippani ke us vastu ka parichay de sakein jiske ve pratinidhi hon, tatha maanachitr par banaane ki drushti se saral aur sookshm hon. in chihnon ka aakaar maanachitr ke paimaane par nirbhar karta hai. maanachitr ke paimaane jaise-jaise chhote hote jaate hain vaise-vaise kam mahatva ke vivran chhod diye jaate hain aur chinh bhi chhote hote jaate hain, jaise Bhaarat ke bhaugolik maanachitr, gaaainv, chhoti nadiyaaain, vanaspati aadi naheen dikhaae jaate aur nagar keval binduon ya chhote vrutton se pradarshit kiye jaate hain.

saanketik chihnon ke vishay mein ek baat vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai ki anya vivranon ko lanbaai aur chaudaai, arthaat do vistaaravaale saanketik chihnon se darshaana kathin naheen, kintu pahaadi tatha ubhari bhoomi ka maanachitr par sahi parichay karaana vishesh mahatva rakhata hai. ubhari bhoomi (ground relief) ka pradarshan chaar prakaar se hota hai :

  • (1) samochch rekhaaon (contouring) se,
  • (2) rekhaachhaadan (hachuring) se
  • (3) chhaaya (shading) se tatha
  • (4) pradarshan (layering) star se.

inmein samochch rekhaaon ka upayog sabse adhik hota hai.

prakriya evam upakaran

kaaryakshetr mein kiye gaye sarvekshan ke patalachitr, ya patalachitron, ya havaai sarvekshanon ka blue print mote kaagaj par se banaaya jaata hai. yeh maanachitr ki sabse pehli prati hoti hai. iske baad litho mudran dvaara vaanchhit sankhya mein pratiyaaain taiyaar kar li jaati hain. blue print par sabse pehli prati haath se taiyaar karne ka pramukh kaaran yeh hai ki patalachitr, ya havaai sarvekshan khand (air survey section), par haath se kiye gaye rekhan ki trutiyaaain nikal jaaeain aur maanachitr sundar aur sughad kalaakruti ban jaae. iske liye jo upakaran prayukt hote hain, ve nimnalikhit hain :

  • rekhan lekhani (Drawing pen) - yeh kisi ke sahaare ya svatantr seedhi rekhaaeain kheenchne ka upakaran hai.
  • firki kalam (Swivel Pen) - yeh haath se vakr rekhaaeain kheenchne ka upakaran hai. pradhaanat: samochch rekhaaeain kheenchne mein iska prayog hota hai.
  • maarg lekhani (Road Pen) - yeh do seedhi samaantar rekhaaeain saath saath kheenchne ki lekhani hai. yeh pradhaanat: sadkon ke rekhan mein prayukt hoti hai.
  • vrutt lekhani (Circle Pen) - yeh vrutt ya chaap kheenchne ki lekhani hai.
  • samaantar rekhani (Parallel Ruler) - yeh seedhi aur samaantar rekhaaeain kheenchne ki lekhani hai.
  • fraanseesi vakr (French Curves) - yeh vakr rekhaaeain kheenchne ka sahaayak upakaran hai.
  • padi parakaar (Beam Compass)
  • parakaar (Divider) - ye donon doori napaane ke upakaran hain.
  • anupaati parakaar (Proportional Compass) - yeh aanupaatik doori lagaane mein prayog mein aata hai.
  • lohe ki nib (Crowquill Nib) - yeh haath se sookshm rekhaaeain kheenchne ke kaam mein prayukt hoti hai.

shuddh rekhaaeain maanachitr ke vaanchhit paimaane se dyodhe paimaane par kiya jaata hai, jise fotograafi dvaara ghata kar vaanchhit paimaane ka maanachitr praapt kar liya jaata hai. isse yeh laabh hota hai ki uparyukt sahaayak upakaranon dvaara bhi yadi rekhan mein kuchh trutiyaaain aa gayi hon to ve laghukaran mein itni chhoti rah jaaeain ki aaainkh ko na khatakein. rekhan karte samay nakshaanavees abhivrdhak leins ka bhi upayog karta hai, jisse vah buraaiyon ko bada dekhkar saath saath door karta jaata hai.

sampoorn rekhan to kaale rang mein hota hai, kintu prakaashan ke samay pahachaanane ki suvidha ke liye bhinn-bhinn vivran bhinn-bhinn rangon mein chhaape jaate hain. rangeen mudran ka saadhaaran niyam nimnalikhit hai :

saanskrutik nirmaan (maanav nirmit vastueain) kaale ya laal rang mein, jalaakrutiyaaain neele rang mein, ubhar aakrutiyaaain bhoore rang mein, tatha vanaspatiyaaain hare rang mein dikhaai jaaeain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

See Maps for more links to modern and historical maps; however, most of the largest sites are listed at the sites linked below.