maanachitr

vishv ka maanachitr (2004, CIA world faiktabuk)

pruthvi ke satah ke kisi bhaag ke sthaanon, nagaron, deshon, parvat, nadi aadi ki sthiti ko paimaane ki sahaayata se kaagaj par laghu roop mein banaana maanachitran kahalaata hain. maanachitr do shabdon maan aur chitr se mil kar bana hai jiska arth kisi maap ya moolya ko chitr dvaara pradarshit karna hai. jis prakaar ek sookshmadarshi kisi chhoti vastu ko bada karke dikhaata hai, uske vipreet maanachitr kisi bade bhoobhaag ko chhote roop mein prastut karte hain jisse ek najar mein bhaugolik jaankaari aur unke antarsambandhon ki jaankaari mil sake. maanachitr ko naksha bhi kaha jaata hai.

aajkal maanachitr keval dharati, ya dharati ki satah, ya kisi vaastavik vastu tak hi seemit naheen hain. udaaharan ke liye chandrama ya mangal grah ki satah ka maanachitr banaaya ja sakta hai; kisi vichaar ya avadhaarana ka maanachitr banaaya ja sakta hai; mastishk ka maanachitran (jaise M aar I ki sahaayata se) kiya ja raha hai.

anukram

parichay

maanachitr kisi chauras satah par nishchit maan ya paimaane aur akshaansh evam deshaantar rekhaaon ke jaal ke prakshep ke anusaar pruthvi ya anya grah, upagrah, athva uske kisi bhaag ki seemaaeain tatha tannihit vishisht vyaavahaarik, ya saanketik, chihnon dvaara chitran ya parilekhan maanachitr kahalaata hai. at: praaya: maanachitr kisi bade kshetr ka chhota pratinidhi roopachitran hai, jismein ankit pratyek bindu maanachitr kshetr par sthit bindu ka sangat bindu hota hai. is prakaar maanachitr tatha maanachitrit kshetr mein sthaitik ya sthaanik samyakata sthaapit ho jaati hai. maanachitr par bhooaakruti ya vastusthiti ke pradarshan ke nimitt prayukt pratyek chitr, chinh ya aakruti ek vishisht sthiti ka bodh karaate hain aur prachalan evam upayog mein rahane ke kaaran in roodh chihnon ka ek sarvamaanya antararaashtreeya vidhaan sa ban gaya hai. is prakaar ke chihnon ke upayog se kisi bhi bhaasha ke ankit maanachitr, bina us bhaasha ke gyaan ke bhi graahya evam pathaneeya ho jaate hain. uddeshyavishesh ki drushti se vibhinn vidhiyon dvaara rekhaaon, shabdon, chihnon, aadi ka upayog kiya jaata hai, jisse maanachitr ki graahyata evam upaadeyata badh jaati hai. maanachitr nirmaan ke kala mein pichhle kuchh dashakon mein, visheshakar dviteeya mahaayuddh kaal tatha paravarti kaal mein prachur pragati hui hai aur sanprati kam se kam shabdaalekh ke saath maanachitr mein vibhinn prakaar ke tathyon ka samyak‌ parilekhan sambhav ho gaya hai. kisi maanachitr mein kitne tathyon ka graahya samaavesh samuchit roop se kiya ja sakta hai, yeh maanachitr ke paimaane, prakshep tatha maanachitrakaar ki vaidhaanik kshamata evam kalaatmak bodh aadi par nirbhar karta hai.

maanachitr vastut: trivim (three dimensional) bhootal ka dvivim (two dimensional) chitr prastut karta hai. maanachitr mein kisi kshetr ke vaise roop ka pradarshan kiya jaata hai jaisa vah oopar se dekhne mein prateet hota hai. at: pratyek maanachitr mein dvivim sthititthya, arthaat‌ vastu ki lanbaai, chaudaai chitrit hoti hai, na ki ooainchaai ya gaharaai. udaaharanasvaroop, saadhaaranataya dharaatal par sthit parvat, makaan ya ped paudhon ki ooainchaai maanachitr par naheen dekh paate aur na hi samudron aadi ki gaharaai hi dekh paate hain, lekin sanprati bhoo-aakruti ka trivim praaroop pradarshit karne ke liye block chitr (block diagrams) tatha uchchaavach model (relief model) aadi atyadhik safalta ke saath nirmit kiye ja rahe hain.

hindi ka shabd 'maanachitr' 'maan' tatha 'chitr' do shabdon ka saamaasik roop hai, jisse maan ya maap ke anusaar chitr chitrit karne ka spasht bodh hota hai. is prakaar yeh angreji ke maip (map) shabd ki apeksha jo swayam laitin bhaasha ke maipa (mappa) shabd se (jiska arth chaadar ya tauliya hota hai) bana hai, adhik vaigyaanik evam arthabodhak hai. maanachitr ke saath hi chart (chart) evam plaan (plan) shabdon ka upayog hota hai. chart shabd French bhaasha ke kaart (carte) shabd se bana hai pehle bahudha chart evam maanachitr shabdon ka upayog ek doosare ke arth mein hua karta tha, parantu ab 'chart' ka upayog mahaasaagareeya ya vaayumandaleeya maargon athva jal ya hava ki tarangon evam unke maargo ko ankit karne ke liye haata hai. samudra par jahaajon ke tatha vaayumandal mein vaayuyaanon mein maarg chart par pradarshit kiye jaate hein. maanachitr aur plaan mein bhi vyaavahaarik antar ho gaya hai. plaan, saadhaaranataya uddeshya vishesh ke liye apekshaakrut chhote bhaag ko theek theek maapakar taiyaar kiye gaye chitr ko kehte hain. udaaharanasvaroop, bhavan-nirmaan-kala-visheshagya dvaara bhavan ka plaan taiyaar kiya jaata hai, jismein usaki baahari seema hi naheen andar ke kamron, darvaajon, khidkiyon aadi ke sthaanavishesh bhi ankit rahate hain. plaan, maanachitr ki apeksha adhik bade paimaane par taiyaar kiye jaate hain.

maanachitr ki upayogita

maanachitr anek prakaar ke hote hain aur anek prakaar se upayogi hain. prati ikaai sthaan ka maanachitr kisi anya prakaar ke varn ya aalekhan ki apeksha adhik tathyasoochak evam samaaveshi hota hai. hajaaron shabdon mein bhi jis tathya ka theek theek varnan kar gyaan naheen kara sakte, usaka gyaan vaigyaanik dhang se taiyaar kiya gaya ek chhota maanachitr suvidha se kara sakta hai. isaliye aajkal sabhi prakaar ke gyaan vigyaan aadi sambandhi vastusthiti ke bodh ke liye maanachitron tatha samaanataabodhi aakrutiyon, chitron aadi ka adhikaadhik upayog ho raha hai.

bhoogol tatha maanachitr mein dhanishth sambandh hai. bhoogol ka adhyayan aur adhyaapan donon maanachitr ke bina adhoore tatha asambhav se lagte hain. maanachitr dvaara vibhinn tathyon ki sthiti, vistaar athva vitran evam paarasparik sthaitik sambandhon ka samuchit evam sahaj gyaan ho jaata hai. udaaharanasvaroop, yadi hamein deshavishesh ya uske vibhinn prashaasanik vibhaagon ki kul janasankhya ka gyaan ho, to bhi us gyaan se hamein janasankhya ke vaastavik vitran ka bodh naheen ho paata, kintu usi gyaan ko maanachitr par ankit karne par na keval vitran ka pratyut kshetreeya ya sthaaneeya janasankulata ke vibhinn parimaan bhi spasht gyaan sahaj hi ho jaata hai. at: maanachitr ke dvaara pruthvi ki vastusthitiyon ka jitna gyaan vihangam drushtimaatr se hi ho jaata hai utana pustakeeya athva kisi anya saadhan dvaara sambhav naheen hai. bhoogol mein vastusthiti ke vitran ka vishesh adhyayan hota hai, isaliye maanachitr ko adhikaadhik mahatva pradaan kiya jaata hai. sainik vigyaan mein bhi maanachitr ko samuchit mahatva diya jaata hai.

prashaasanik kaaryon tatha yojanaaon mein bhi maanachitr atyupayogi siddh hue hain. raashtra ya raajyon athva vibhinn prashaasanik vibhaagon tatha upavibhaagon ke seemaanirdhaaran ke liye hi naheen, pratyut pratyek khand ke vibhinn praakrutik tatha maanaveeya sansaadhanon ke vitran ke maanachitr bhi suchaaru prashaasan ke liye aavashyak hai. yojana sambandhi kaaryon ke liye vibhinn maanaveeya tatha praakrutik sansaadhanon ke vitran ka gyaan bhi aavashyak hai, jiske aadhaar par santulit tatha vaigyaanik roop se aur praadeshik ya kshetreeya drushti se aarthik samunnati ke liye yojanaaeain banaai jaaeain. iske atirikt vibhinn praakrutik avayavon ke paarasparik paaristhitik (ecological) sambandhon evam nirbharata ke bodh ke liye maanachitr sarvashreshth saadhan hai. udaaharanasvaroop, jalavaayu ke vibhinn avayavon, taap, aardrata, vrushti, aadi ka sambandh mitti, vaanaspatik tatha jaivik prakaaron se maanachitr dvaara prakat kiya ja sakta hai aur us sankalit chitr ka sambandh janasankhya ke vitran se sthaapit kiya ja sakta hai. sainya sanchaalan, paryatan, yaataayaat, vyaapaar, vyavasaaya aadi, sabhi kshetron mein maanachitr ka mahatva adhik hai.

20veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein jab manushya mahaasaagaron ke tal tatha antariksh ke grah upagrahon tak apni satta sthaapit karne mein safalataapoorvak sachesht hain, na keval pruthvi ke hi pratyut anya grah upagrahon ke maanachitr taiyaar karne ki aavashyakta badh gayi hai.

  • maanachitr poore vishv se lekar chhote-se-chhote sthaan ki bhaugolik jaankaari ke liye ek sandarbh ka kaam karta hai.
  • maanachitr kisi agyaat sthaan ke liye maargadarshak aur digdarshak ka kaam karta hai.
  • thal, jal ya vaayu maarg se yaatra karne mein yaatra ke maarg ki yojana banaane aur us maarg par bane rahane mein sahaayak
  • nagar ya gram ki bhaavi vikaas ki yojana banaane ke liye
  • sena apni kaaryavaahi (operation), sainikon ki tainaati, shatru ki sthiti ka aakalan evam shastraastron ki tainaati ke liye bhi maanachitr ka atyadhik upayog karti hai.
  • bhoomi ke svaamitv, nyaayaadhikran evam kar nirdhaaran ke liye sarkaar maanachitr par nirbhar karti hai.
  • police, aparaadhon ka maanachitran karke pata karti sakti hai ki aparaadhon mein koi paitarn hai.
  • isi prakaar Dr John sno ne landan mein haija failane par maanachitr ki sahaayata se hi yeh anumaan laga liya tha ki iske liye ek saarvajanik jal pamp jimmedaar thi.

maanachitr pathan ke liye aavashyak baatein

maanachitr bhootal par sthit kisi vaastavik tathya ko naheen pradarshit karte, keval chihnavishesh dvaara kaagaj ya anya tal par pruthvi ke sangat bindoo ki sthiti dikhaate hain. is satya ka gyaan na hone se bhraanti utpann hoti hai.

maanachitr samatal hote hain, parantu pruthvi ya anya grah upagrah, ya usaka koi bhaag, golak arthaat‌ gole ka bhaag hota hai, par golak (globe) ko samatal par theek theek naheen prakat kiya ja sakta, at: is cheshta mein maanachitr ke vibhinn bhaagon mein aakruti ki vikruti hoti hai. prakshep ke dvaara vibhinn prakaar se akshaansh evam deshaantar rekhaaon ka jaal taiyaar kar maanachitr banaaya jaata hai (dekhein prakshep). at: maanachitr ke pathan ke liye pruthvi ke vibhinn bhaagon ki maanachitr par utaari hui saapekshik sthiti, disha, doori tatha vistaar aadi ka gyaan hona aavashyak hai.

maanachitr ke sambandh mein do baatein aavashyak hain :

(1) maanachitr ka pathan, arthaat‌ pruthvi ke vishay mein maanachitr par ankit tathyon ka gyaan praapt karna, tatha

(2) maanachitr ki rachana, jiske antargat, maanachitr taiyaar karne ki vidhiyon ko seekhana tatha aaainkadon, maapak, prakshep, vyaavahaarik evam saanketik chihnon, rangon aadi ka gyaan praapt karna aata hai.

maanachitr ka vargeekaran aur prakaar

maanachitr anek prakaar ke hote hai aur unhein ham kai prakaar se vargeekrut kar sakte hain :

1. saadhaaran maanachitr

2. vishisht vishyaatmak maanachitr.

saadhaaran maanachitr mein maanachitr kshetr ki sabhi saadhaaran praakrutik evam saanskrutik sthitiyon ka samaavesh rahata hai, jaise parvat, nadi, prashaasanik vibhaag, nagar, parivhan ke saadhan aadi. vishisht vishyaatmak maanachitron mein uddeshya vishesh se kuchh nishchit prakaar ke tathyon ka samaavesh rahata hai, jaise janasankhya ka vitran maanachitr ya fasalon ke vitran ka maanachitr. ek hi maanachitr par bahut se ya samast tathyon ka pradarshan ek to asambhav hai, doosare usase vibhinn tathyon ke vitran, vistaar ya saapekshik mahatva aadi ke vishay mein bhraantiyaaain ho jaati hai, at: vibhinn tathyon ki kshetreeya saapekshikta ke gyaan ke liye ek hi paimaane par taiyaar kiye gaye vibhinn vishyaatmak maanachitron ka tulanaatmak adhyayan aasaani se kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharanasvaroop, kisi kshetr ke ek hi paimaane par, alag alag taiyaar kiye gaye, varsha, taap, mitti, vanaspati, fasalon tatha janasankhya ke vitran maanachitron ka sahaj hi tulanaatmak drushti se adhyayan kiya ja sakta hai.

paimaane tatha uddeshya ke aadhaar par

maanachitron ko paimaane tatha uddeshya ke samaavisht tathyon ki drushti se is prakaar vargeekrut kar sakte hai:

k. bhookar ya patavaari maanachitr (Cadastral map) - aise maanachitr mein bhoomisvatv, krushi kshetron, bhavan tatha anya bhoomisanpatti ka savistaar samaavesh rahata hai. prashaasan dvaara vyaktigat bhoomi kar, aay kar, bhavan kar aadi, vasool karne mein isse suvidha milti hai. hamaarein gaavon ke maanachitr praaya: 16 inch, parantu kabhi kabhi 32 inch tatha 64 inch, prati meal ke paimaane par bane rahate hain.

kh. bhoo-aakruti (Physiographic) maanachitr - ye maanachitr shuddh sarvekshan vidhiyon dvaara theek theek sarvekshan karke taiyaar kiye jaate hain. Bhaarat ke sarvekshan vibhaag ke maanachitr isi prakaar ke hote hain. inmein dharaatal par ke mahatvapoorn praakrutik tathya, jaise parvat, pathaar, uchchaavachan, nadi, vanaspati aadi tatha saanskrutik, arthaat‌ maanav dvaara nirmit vastueain, jaise bhavan, gram, nagar, parivhan ke saadhan, aadi pradarshit kiye jaate hain. saadhaaranataya inka paimaana ek inch baraabar ek meal (dyotak bhinn 1:63,360) ke roop mein hota hai, kintu 1/2 inch ya 1/4 inch baraabar ek meal ke bhi maanachitr hote hain. videshi maanachitron ke paimaane bhi bhinn bhinn hote hain. adhikaansh Europeeya deshon ke bhoo-aakruti maanachitron ke paimaanon ke dyotak bhinn 1:25,000 ya 1:1,00,000 ya inke gunak ke roop mein hote hain. sanyukt raajya (amareeka) mein 1:62,500 ya 1:1,25,000, ke dyotak bhinn par bhoo-aakruti maanachitr bane hain. metrik pranaali ke apnaane se Bhaarat ke sarvekshan maanachitr bhi 1:50,000 dyotak bhinn ke paimaane par parivrtit kiye ja rahe hain. 1:10,00,000 (1inch baraabar lagbhag 15.78 meal) ke maanachitr bhi isi prakaar ke hain, jinhein antararaashtreeya maanachitr kehte hain.

g. deevaari maanachitr (Wall maps) - bhoo-aakruti maanachitron ki apeksha inka paimaana chhota hota hai. ismein bhi pramukh praakrutik tatha maanavanirmit nirmaanon ka aalekh rahata hai aur isaliye inka adhikaansh upayog kakshaaon mein adhyayan adhyaapan ke liye hota hai.

gh. aitalas maanachitraavali - ye maanachitr apekshaakrut bahut chhote paimaane par taiyaar kiye jaate hain aur deevaari maanachitron ki tarah hi inmein vibhinn praakrutik tatha maanav dvaara nirmit nirmaanon ka samaavesh rahata hai. chhota paimaana hone ke kaaran praaya: pramukh prashaanik khandon evam vibhaagon ne bhi raashtreeya ya praadeshik aitalas taiyaar kiye hain aur kar rahe hain. Bhaarat mein bhi keindreeya sarkaar ne ek mahati raashtreeya aitalas yojana banaai hai, jiska kendra Calcutta hai aur jo bhoogolavidon ke prabandh mein safalataapoorvak chal rahi hai.

uddeshya tatha samaavisht tathya ke aadhaar par

uddeshya evam tathya ke anusaar bhi maanachitron ke anek prakaar hote hain. aise maanachitron mein jis tathyavishesh ka samaavesh rahata hai, usi ke anusaar unka naamakaran hota hai; udaaharanasvaroop, grah upagrahon evam antariksh ki sthiti pradarshak maanachitr, 'jyotish maanachitr' kahalaata hai, kintu jab kai tathya pradarshit kiye jaate hain aur unamein vishyaatmak sanbaddhata rahati hai, to mool vishay par naamakaran hota hai; udaaharanasvaroop, jab kisi manachitr mein taap, hava, jal ya himvrushti ya mausam sambandhi tatv saath saath samaavisht rahate hain, to use ritudarshak maanachitr (Weather map) kehte hai. kuchh pramukh tathyaatmak (thematic) maanachitr nimn hain :

1. jyotish (astronomical) maanachitr;

2. uchchaavachan (relief) maanachitr;

3. bhoovaijnyaaanik (geological) maanachitr : ismein bhoogarbhik-sthitiyon, chattaanon, khanij padaarthon tatha mitti aadi evam unka vistaar aadi ka samaavesh rahata hai;

4. samudra ki gaharaai (bathymetric) maapan maanachitr : inmein samudron, mahaasaagaron ya badi jheelonsh aadi ki samudra tal se gaharaai tatha unke vitl (floor) ki uainchaai nichaai pradarshit ki jaati hai;

5. samudra evam parvateeya (orographic) uchchaavachan maanachitr : inmein samudron, mahaasaagaron ya jheelon ki gaharaai tatha parvateeya uainchaai nichaai ka pradarshan rahata hai;

6. ritu ya mausam soochak maanachitr;

7. jalavaayu maanachitr -- inmein adhik kaalaavadhi ke ritu prakaranon ki ausat dashaaon ka vitran dikhlaaya jaata hai;

8. vanaspati evam jeev sambandhi maanachitr -- inmein vanaspati ke vibhinn prakaar, jaanvaron tatha manushya aadi ka vitran dikhlaaya jaata hai;

9. raajaneetik (political) maanachitr : inmein kisi raashtra ke vibhinn stareeya prashaasanik khandon, upakhandon tatha unke vibhaagon, upavibhaagon, seemaaon, prashaasanik keindron aadi ka samaavesh rahata hai (vibhinn raashtrasamooh aadi ka bhi saath saath dikhlaae jaate hain, jaise raashtrakul ke desh);

10. janasankhya sambandhi maanachitr : inmein vibhinn vidhiyon dvaara aabaadi ka vitran dikhlaaya jaata hai prajaati ke anusaar maanav ke vitran maanachitr ka maanav jaati (ethnographic) maanachitr kehte hain;

11. aarthik (economic) maanachitr -- inmein mukhyat: van saadhan, krushi ki fasalon, khanij tatha audyaagik vastuon ka vitran dikhlaaya jaata hai (inhein sansaadhan (resource) maanachitr bhi kehte hain. vyaapaarik mahatva ki vastueain, tatha vyaapaar mein sahaayak saadhanon jaise yaataayaat saadhan aadi dikhlaanevaale maanachitron ko vyaapaarik maanachitr kehte hain. vitran dikhlaanevaale maanachitron ko vitran maanachitr kehte hain;

12. aitihaasik tatha puraataatvik maanachitr -- inmein praacheen gram evam nagar, praacheen raajyon tatha saamraajyon ki seema, yuddhasthal, aakraman ya raksha evam yaatra ke maarg aadi ka ankan hota hai tatha

13. sainik maanachitr -- inmein sainik mahatva ke tathyon ka ankan hota hai.

maanachitr ki bhaasha

maanachitr mein shabdon dvaara kam se kam vastusthiti ya tathya ka aalekh hota hai aur unke sthaan par vividh vidhiyon ka upayog hota hai. un vividh vidhiyon tatha chihnon ko saamoohik roop se maanachitr ki bhaasha ki sanjnyaa de sakte hain. is bhaasha ke nimnalikhit pramukh tatv hain:

paimaana

maanachitr mein pruthvi ya uske khand ko chhote roop mein pradarshit karte hain. at: pruthvi tatha maanachitr ke madhya jo aanupaatik sambandh hota hai, use paimaane dvaara pradarshit karte hain. paimaane do prakaar ke hote hain : deergh tatha laghu. deergh paimaane mein do binduon ke madhya ki doori apekshaakrut adhik hogi. at: deergh paimaane ka maanachitr laghu paimaane ke maanachitr ke apeksha kam kshetr gherega, kintu usamein adhik tathyon ka samaavesh spashtatar dhang se hoga. chhote paimaane mein do binduon ki doori sameepatar hogi aur apekshaakrut kam ya pramukh tathyon ka hi samaankan aise maanachitron mein sambhav hai. paimaane ka chunaav nimnalikhit baaton par nirbhar karta hai : (k) maanachitrit kshetr ka kul kshetrafal, (kh) kaagaj ka vistaar, (g) ankit kiye jaanevaale tathyon ki sankhya evam (gh) maanachitr ka prayojan. paimaana pratyek maanachitr par avashya ankit rahana chaahiye. paimaane teen vidhiyon se pradarshit kiye jaate hain, kintu sabhi vidhiyaaain pratyek maanachitr par naheen dikhlaai jaati : a. saadhaaran vivran dvaara ya likhkar, jaise 4 inch = 1 meal; b. rekha dvaara (is vidhi mein seedhi rekha ko kai samaan bhaagon mein vibhaajit karte hain, jinke beech ki doori dharaatal par ke binduon ki doori pradarshit karti hai. rekha ko praaya: pramukh tatha gaun vibhaagon mein vibhaajit karte hain), s. anupaat dyotak ya pratinidhi bhinn dvaara (representation), (is vidhi mein do binduon ki doori tatha maanachitrit bhookhand par ke sangati binduon ki doori ke anupaat ke aisi bhinn dvaara pradarshit karte hain, jiska ansh ek rahata hai aur har bhi usi maap ki ikaai hota hai. aisi bhinn ko ghotak bhinn kehte hain. 1/100 dyotak bhinn ka arth hoga ki pruthvi par ki pratyek 100 ikaaiyon ka pradarshan maanachitr par usaki ek ikaai dvaara kiya gaya hai. chaahe ukt ikaaiyaaain, inch, foot, gaj mein hon athva seinteemeetar, meter mein athva maap ki anya ikaaiyon mein)

dyotak bhinn paimaane ka sabse bada laabh yeh hai ki isse agyaat bhaasha ke maanachitr par ankit do binduon ki doori aur pruthvi ke aanupaatik sambandh ko gyaat kiya ja sakta hai. saadhaaran vivran ke paimaane ko dyotak bhinn meein tatha dyotak bhinn ko saadhaaran vivran ke paimaane mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai.

sanketaatmak evam roodh chinh (symbols and conventional signs)

maanachitr par adhikaadhik evam vividh prakaar ke chihnon ka upayog kiya jaata hai, jinka ham do bhaagon mein varnan kar sakte hain. saanketik ya prateekaatmak chinh unhein kehte hain jinheein praaya: vibhinn vyakti, vibhinn roop se, vibhinn tathyon ko pradarshit karne ke liye upayog mein laate hain. ye chinh rekha, bindu, vrutt, varg, tribhuj aadi, vibhinn jyaamiteeya aakrutiyon athva prateekaatmak aksharoein dvaara dikhlaae jaate hain (dekhein, naksha kheenchna)

roodh chinh bhi sanketaatmak hote hai, lekin antararaashtreeya star par inhein paramparaagat sarvamaanyata praapt hai aur tathyavishesh ke liye chihnavishesh ka hi upayog hota hai. udaaharanasvaroop, pakki sadak ko har desh ke dharaataleeya maanachitr par do samaantar rekhaaon dvaara tatha kachchi sadak ko do samaantar tooti rekhaaon dvaara dikhlaate hain. isse antararaashtreeya star par maanachitron ki graahyata evam upaadeyata badh jaati hai.

rang

aajkal vibhinn evam adhikaadhik tathyon ko maanachitr par graahya evam suspasht banaane ke liye vibhinn rangon ya ek hi rang ke vibhinn staron ya chhaayaaon ka upayog badh gaya hai. saadhaaran rangeen maanachitr mein neele rang dvaara nadiyaaain tatha jalaashaya, bhoore rang dvaara samochch rekhaaeain tatha anya ooainchaaiyaaain, laal rang dvaara sadkein tatha bhavanaadi, kaale rang dvaara relamaarg aadi, hare rang dvaara van ya anya vanaspatiyaaain tatha peele rang dvaara krushikshetr pradarshit kiye jaate hain.

bhaugolik jaal

golak par na kaheen aarambh hai aur na kaheen ant aur na hi koi prakrut nishchit bindu (reference point) hai, lekin pruthvi par, jo swayam lagbhag golaakaar hai, usaki dainik ev vaarshik gatiyon tatha grah upagraheeya ant:sambandhon ke kaaran uttari tatha dakshini dhruv bindu, nishchit bindu ho jaate hain aur usaki dhuri ke jodte hain, jiske sahaayata se kaalpanik dhang se nishchit kiya hua akshaaainsh tatha deshaantar rekhaaon ka rekha jaal (net), jise bhaugolik jaal kehte hain, banta hai. poorv se pashchim evam uttar se dakshin shuddh shuddh, theek theek doori par khinchi akshaansh tatha deshaantar rekhaaon ka jaal maanachitron par kisi sthaan ki sthiti nirdhaaran ke liye aavashyak hai. yadi kisi sthaan vishesh ki sthiti 50° 25' 25² uo ao tathaa70° 25' 15² pooo deo par hai, to bhaugolik jaal ki sahaayata sugamata se iski sthiti ka nirdhaaran ho sakta hai. ye saari rekhaaeain vrutt athva vrutt ke bhaag hain aur ansh (°) minute (') evam second (²) mein banti rahati hai.

deshaantar rekhaaeain uttari dhruv se dakshini dhruv tak khinchi rahati hain aur is prakaar arddhavrutt hoti hain. antararaashtreeya samay ke nirdhaaran ke liye London ke sameep greenich sthaan ki vedhashaala se gujaranevaali deshaantar rekha ko pramukh deshaantar rekha (prime meridian) kehte hain. isasesh poorv ki deshaantar rankhaaeain poorv deshaantar tatha pashchim ki deshaantar rekhaaeain pashchimi deshaantar rekhaaeain kahalaati hai. 180° poorv ya 180° pashchim deshaantar jo ek hi rekha hai, use antararaashtreeya tithirekha (International date line) kehte hain, jahaaain poorv evam pashchimi golaardhon ki samayasaarini nirdhaarit hoti hai.

akshaansh rekhaaeain uttari tatha dakshini dhruvon se samaan doori par pruthvi ke chaaron or kheecheen jaati hai aur vrutt banaati hai. inki madhya rekha bhoomadhya athva vishuvat (equator) rekha kahalaati hai, jo 0° 0' 0² par khinchi rahati hai aur jo pruthvi ko uttari tatha dakshini do gaalaarddhon mein vibhaajit karti hai. iske 23.5° uttar tatha 23.5° dakshin, kramash: kark (North tropic) tatha makar (South tropic) rekhaaeain tatha 66.5° uttar tatha dakshin mein kramash: uttari tatha dakshini dhruveeya vrutt rekhaaeain hoti hai.

maanachitr prakshep

chauras kaagaj par golak se in rekhaaon ko utaarakar jo jaal taiyaar hota hai, use rekhaajaal (net) kehte hain. at: paribhaasha ke roop mein ek samatal dharaatal par (chauras kaagaj par) ek nishchit paimaane ke anusaar pruthvi ya kisi kshetr ki ankshaansh evam deshaantar rekhaaon ko kramabaddh roop mein kheechane ki vidhi ko maanachitr prakshep kehte hain. maanachitr banaane ke liye kisi na kisi vidhi par taiyaar kiye gaye prakshep par adhaarit akshaansh tatha deshaantar rekhaaon ka jaal banaana nitaant aavashyak hai. prakshepon ka chunaav maanachitr ke prayojan par nirbhar karta hai, jainse shuddh kshetrafal, shuddh disha athva shuddh aakaar aadi vaanchhaneeya tatvon mein se kisi ek par ek maanachitr mein vishesh dhyaan diya jaata hai. ye teenon gun ek se maanachitr prakshep mein naheen milte.

pruthvi ka aakaar lagbhag goleeya hai. prekshap nirdhaaran ke liye bhinn deshon mein bhinn aayaam ke golaabhon ka upayog hua hai. bhaarateeya maanachitron ke liye sveekrut golaabh 'evarest golaabh' hai. kaagaj par paarthiv sandarbh rekhaaon ke niroopan dvaara pruthvi ki vakr satah ko samatal prushth par niroopan karne ki paddhati hi maanachitr prakshep hai. saamaanya roop se ye aakshaansh ki samaantar rekhaaeain aur deshaantar (yaamyottar) ki rekhaaeain hain. ye bhootal ki kaalpanik, kintu parishuddh ganiteeya ganana ke yogya rekhaaeain hain.

yeh to prakat hi hai ki bhoomandal, jiska aakaar lagbhag goleeya hai, samatal prushth par theek theek niroopit naheen kiya ja sakta. at: samatal kaagaj par pruthvi ki vakr satah ke niroopan ke liye prakshep ka aashray liya jaata hai. uddeshya ke anusaar truti aur vikruti ko ichhit ansh tak seemit ya door hata diya jaata hai.

aakaar ko banaae rakhane ke liye do baaton ka dhyaan rakhana aavashyak hai :

  • (1) deshaantar aur akshaansh rekhaaeain prakshep mein ek doosare ke lanbavat‌ hon,
  • (2) kisi nishchit‌ bindu par sabhi dishaaon mein paimaana ek ho chaahe vah bhinn binduon par vibhinn ho.

ise samaroopi prakshep kehte hain. bhaarateeya sarvekshan ke maanak maanachitron ke liye uchit her fer ke saath samaroopi shankvaakaar prakshep prayukt hote hain.

bhoo-aakruti ki uainchaai, nichaai tatha svaroop ka pradarshan

maanachitr mein bhoo-aakruti ke vibhinn svaroopon evam aakrutiyon ko dikhaana kathin kaarya hai. sh bhoo-aakruti ki uainchaai nichaai ka abhipraaya samudratal se bhoomi ki uainchaai nichaai se hai. jahaaain bhoomi samudratal se neechi hai vahaaain nichaai rinaatmak (-) chinh dvaara dikhaai jaati hai evam ooainchaai ya nichaai foot ya meter mein dikhaai jaati hai. maanachitr par bhoo-aakruti ko dikhlaane ki kai vidhiyaaain hain:

  • 1. chitr dvaara pradarshan,
  • 2. ganit dvaara tatha
  • 3. mishrit vidhiyaaain

chitr dvaara pradarshan

ismein kai vidhiyaaain apnaai jaati hai: (k) rekhaachhaadan vidhi (Hachures)-- is vidhi dvaara bahut patali patali chhoti rekhaaon ki sahaayata se jalapravaah ya dhaal ki disha dikhlaate hain. adhik dhaalavein kshetr ko apekshaakrut moti tatha paas paas kheenchi rekhaaon dvaara pradarshit karte hain (dekhein naksha banaana). maidaanon athva pathaar ke samatal bhaagon ko shvet chhod dete hain. theek theek pradarshan ke liye rekhaaon ki motaai ganit ke aadhaar par nirdhaarit hoti hai, lekin lekin bahudha anubhav ke adhaar par hi kheenchatein hain. at: isse dhaalakram ka saadhaaran gyaan ho jaata hai, parantu bhoo-aakruti theek theek spasht naheen ho paati hai aur maanachitr mein darshaae gaye pahaadi kshetron mein itni adhik rekhaaeain ho jaati hain ki bhoo-aakruti ke anya roopon ka gyaan naheen ho sakta. rekhaaon ko khichnein mein samay bhi adhik lagta hai, at: iska upayog kam ho raha hai. adhik oordhvaadhar paimaane (vertical scale) par kheenchi samochch rekhaaon (contour) ke beech beech mein chhichhli ghaatiyon, chhoti tekari (knoll) aadi ke pradarshan mein iska upayog hota hai.

pahaadi chhaayaakaran (Hill Shading)

iske antargat (a) oordhvaadhar pradeepti aur (b) tiryak‌ pradeepti vidhiyaaain aati hain.

a. oordhvaadhar pradeepti (Vertical illumination) - is vidhi mein kalpana ki jaati hai ki ek kalpit prakaashapunj bhoomi ke oopar prakaashit ho raha hai, jiska prakaash dhaal ke utaar chadhaav ke kram ke anusaar kam beshi hota hai apekshaakrut chapate bhaag halaki chhaaya se dikhlaae jaate hain.

b. tiryak‌ pradeepti (Oblique illumination) - is vidhi mein kalpana ki jaati hai ki maanachitr ke uttar-pashchimi kone ke baahar prakaashapunj rakha hua hai. at: uttar pashchimi dhaal prakaashit rahega aur dakshin-poorvi bhaag aaindhere mein rahega. chhaaya mein padnevaale bhaag adhik bade dikhaai dete hain. samatal bhaag bhi chhaaya mein padne par dhaalavein dikhaai dete hain. haishyoor ki tarah hi parvateeya chhaayaavidhi mein dhaalakram ka theek gyaan naheen ho paata, parantu ismein binduo ki sahaayata li jaati hai, at: yeh apekshaakrut suvidhaajanak hota hai aur kam samay mein taiyaar ho jaata hai.

star varn (layer tint) bidhi

is vidhi mein vibhinn rangon se ooainchaai dikhlaai jaati hai.

ganit dvaara pradarshan

is vidhi mein nimnalikhit paddhatiyaaain apnaai jaati hai :

(k) bindu dvaara - sthaan ki uainchaaiyaaain (spot heights) bindu dvaara ankit sthaan ke paas, samudratal se sthaan vishesh ki uainchaai theek maap kar, foot ya meter mein likh di jaati hai.

(kh) nirdesh chinh (Bench Mark) - bhavanaadi ya pul ki khaas uainchaai par bee0 ema0 (B.M.) likhkar samudratal se uainchaai likh di jaati hai, jaise bi. M. 200.

(g) trikonamiteeya station (Trigonometrical Station) - ismein trikoneeya sarvekshan dvaara nishchit kiye gaye stationon ko unki uainchaai ke saath dikhlaate hain, jaise D 200.

(gh) samochch rekhaaeain - ye ve kalpit rekhaaeain hain, jo samudratal se samaan uainchaai ke sthaanon ko milaati hui, maanachitr par baraabar doori par kheenchi jaati hai. ye adhik shuddh hoti hai aur inke vibhinn svaroopon se bhoo-aakrutiyon ka samuchit gyaan ho jaata hai.

(ch) khandit rekha (form line) vidhi - rekhaaeain samochcharekhaaon ke samaan hi hoti hain, kintu ye samochcharekhaaon ke beech beech mein aavashyakataanusaar chhoti chhoti bhoo-aakrutiyon ko dikhaane ke liye tooti rekhaaon dvaara dikhlaai jaati hai.

mishrit vidhiyaaain

aajkal bhoo-aakruti ko dikhlaane ke liye kai vidhiyon ko saath saath upayog mein laate hain, udaaharanasvaroop (k) samochch rekhaaeain tatha haishyoor, (kh) samochch rekhaaeain, haishyoor tatha sthaanik uainchaaiyaaain (g) samochch rekhaaeain, khandit rekhaaeain tatha sthaanik uainchaaiyaaain, (gh) samochcharekhaaeain tatha parvateeya chhaaya vidhi aur (ch) samochch rekhaaeain tatha staravarn.

maanachitr kala (Cartography)

maanachitr tatha vibhinn sambandhit upakaranon ki rachana, inke siddhaanton aur vidhiyon ka gyaan evam adhyayan maanachitrakala kahalaata hai maanachitr ke atirikt tathya pradarshan ke liye vividh prakaar ke anya upakaran, jaise uchchaavachan model, golak, maanaarekh (cartograms) aadi bhi banaae jaate hain.

shuddh rekhan

sarvekshan ki upayukt vidhiyon se vibhinn sarvekshan khandon ka photo lekar kaali chhaap taiyaar ki jaati hai. inhein pruthak‌-pruthak‌ maanachitron dvaara sankalit (mosaiced) kar liya jaata hai. in sankalanon ke banaane mein bahut saavadhaani baratani chaahiye, taaki sarvekshanon ki parishuddhata bani rahe. kaali chhaap ko maanachitr prakshep par jispar ki trikonamiteeya dhaaaincha ankit hai, joda jaata hai. yeh isliye ki sarvekshan ka pratyek bhaag theek maanachitrit sthitiyon mein jam jaae. is prakaar sankalan ko antim prakaashan (final publication) ke dedhgune aakaar mein photo chitrit kiya jaata hai aur ek achhe rekhanapatr par neeli chhaapon (blue print) ka sangrah praapt kar liya jaata hai. parivrdhan ka kaaran yeh hai ki antim prakaashan mein rekhaakruti (line work) ki spashtata aur sundarata mein vruddhi ho.

maanachitr mein vivran ki jatilta ke kaaran vividh praakrutik tatha krutrim aakrutiyaaain supashtata ki drushti se prabhedak rangon (distinctive colours) mein prastut ki jaati hain. maulik roop se jalaakrutiyon ke liye neela, pahaadi tatha marusthal ke liye bhoora ya usase milta julata, vanaspati ke liye hara, krushi kshetr ke liye peela, sadak aur bastiyon ke liye laal, pahaadi aakruti aur anya vivranon, jaise srot, railway aadi ke liye kaale rang ka upayog kiya jaata hai. anushangi vishyon jaise seema patti, jal aadi ke liye anya rangon ka upayog karte hain. achhe rekhaankan ke liye teen neeli chhaap chaahiye. pahaadi tatha marubhoomi ki samochch rekha kheenchne ke liye ek neeli chhaap kaam aati hai. doosari neeli chhaap se van bhoomi, chhitre vruksh, tarakaariyon, chai bagaanon aadi vanaspatiyon ka chitran hota hai. teesari neeli chhaap anya vivranon tatha naamon ke kaam aati hai. achhe rekhaankan ke liye nakshaaveesi mein kushalata tatha praveenata honi chaahiye aur parishuddh tatha surekh mool taiyaar karne ke liye dhairya paramaavashyak hai. maanachitr ki charam sundarata, supathyata aur parishuddhata is vidhi par nirbhar hai.

maanachitr sankalan

chhote paimaane par sthalaakrutik tatha bhaugolik maanachitr saamaanyat: bade paimaane ke nakshon se sankalit kiye jaate hain. vivran ka ichhit parimaan chun liya jaata hai aur prakaashit maanachitron par gahari rekhaaon se ankit kar diya jaata hai. in ankit maanachitron ka photo rekhaachitr ke prastaavit paimaane par liya jaata hai. is ghataae gaye paimaane par kaali chhaapein li jaati hain aur unhein kaagaj ke aise takhte par joda jaata hai jispar sankalit maanachitr ki seemaarekhaaeain shuddhata se prakshipt ki gayi hon. is sankalan se rekhan ki saamagri li jaati hai aur poorvavarti pairaagraaf mein varnit vidhi se usaka shuddh rekhan chitran kiya jaata hai.

chhapaai ki vidhiyaaain

1830 E. ke poorv Bhaarat mein maanachitr taiyaar karne ki ek hi vidhi thi - haath se nakal karne ki, jo bahut mand aur kharcheeli thi. taaainbe par maanachitr ki nakkaashi sambhav thi, kintu Bhaarat mein bahut thode khaasagi nakkaash the aur renel ke samay se hi nakkaashi ka kaarya London mein hota tha.

fotojinko chhapaai

1823 E. ke baad Bhaarat mein litho mudran ka praarambh hua or kalakatte mein ek sarkaari mudranaalaya sthaapit hua. maanachitr mudran ke liye iska bahut kam upayog tha lekin kalakatte mein niji mudranaalayon mein kai sarvekshan maanachitr litho dvaara mudrit hue 1852 E. mein mahaasarvekshak ke Calcutta sthit kaaryaalaya mein maanachitr mudran kaaryaalaya sthaapit hua aur 1866 E. mein deharaadoon mein ek aur mudranaalaya (fotojinko mudranaalaya) chaaloo hua. mahaasarvekshak ke kaaryaalaya mein maanachitr mudran tatha vikraya ki drut pragati hui aur 1868 E. se maanachitron ka mudran ke liye England jaana band ho gaya. tab se litho mudran pragati kar raha hai aur ab to vah ek vaigyaanik vidhi ke roop mein viksit ho gaya hai. is vidhi me jaste ke plate kaam mein aate hain jinse rotari ofaset masheenein prati ghante hajaaron pratiyaaain chhaap sakti hain.

poorvavarti pairaagraafon mein varnit vidhi se shuddh rekhan dvaara praapt teen mool rekhaachitron ka sahi paimaane par photo liya jaata hai aur kaach ke pleton par 'geeli plate' vidhi dvaara unke nigetiv (pratichitr) taiyaar kiye jaate hain. teesare shuddh rekhit mool ke nigetiv se, jismein shesh vivran ka samaavesh hota hai, 'choorn vidhi' dvaara dviteeya pratilipi praapt ki jaati hai. saar roop mein is vidhi se vilg rang nigetiv praapt karne ke liye sasta pratikrut nigetiv praapt kiya jaata hai. is vidhi se taiyaar kiye teen nigetivon mein se ek par ve sabhi vivran fotopek se aalepit kar liye jaate hain jinhein neele aur laal rang mein dikhaana hota hai, keval ve hi vivran usapar rahane dete hain jinhein kaale rang mein chhaapana hai. isi prakaar anya do nigetivon par keval ve hi vivran rahane dete hain jinhein kramash: neele aur laal mein prastut karna hota hai aur anya vivranon ko aalepit kar diya jaata hai. in teen nigetivon ke parinaam jaste ke pleton par antarit kar liye jaate hain. ye plate kramash: kaale, laal aur neele vivran ke liye chhapaai ke plate ho jaate hain.

rotari ofaset chhapaai

chhapaai praarambh karne ke poorv yeh aavashyak hai ki un trutiyon ko poori tarah theek kar diya jaae jo jaste ke plate ki taiyaari ke liye ki gayi vividh prakriyaaon mein pravisht ho gayi hon. iske liye pramaanak machine par ek proof prati samay rangon mein taiyaar ki jaati hai. pleton ke pramaanit hone par unhein chhapaai masheenon mein rakha jaata hai. aajkal kai prakaar ki aadhunik chhapaai masheenein upayog mein hain, kintu aadhunik chhapaai ke anivaarya yantr 'svachaalit bharan' (Automatic feed) aur 'rabar ofaset' hain. doosare shabdon mein yantr mein kaagaj ka bharan yantr ke apne bharan saadhan se hota hai. jaste ke plate se chhaap rabar ke aavaran par antarit kar deta hai. kaagaj aur chhapaai plate ke seedhe sampark se jaisi chhaap praapt hoti hai usase unnat aur teevratar chhaap ofaset vidhi se praapt hoti hai. pratyek kaagaj ke takhte ko kai baar machine mein se gujarana padta hai. yeh sankhya pleton ki sankhya nirbhar hai aur pleton ki par sankhya antim maanachitr mein rangon ki sankhya par nirbhar hai. aadhunik masheenon mein adhiktar do rolar hote hain. do rolaron se ek saath do rangon mein do pleton ki chhapaai ho sakti hai.

paimaana ya maapani

  • saadhaaran kathan vidhi (Simple Statement Method)
  • nirupak bhinn vidhi (Representative Fraction)
  • aarekhi vidhi (Graphical Method)

maanachitr-prakshep

maanachitron ke prakaar

maanachitron ke saadhaaranataya nimnalikhit prakaar hain :

  • (k) bhaugolik maanachitr,
  • (kh) sthaalaakrutik maanachitr,
  • (g) bhoo kar tatha raajasv maanachitr,
  • (gh) nagar tatha kasbon ke darshak maanachitr,
  • (ङ) chhaavani maanachitr,
  • (ch) vishisht upayog ke maanachitr tatha
  • (chh) vividh maanachitr.

bhaugolik maanachitr

in maanachitron mein desh ki saadhaaran bhaugolik aakrutiyaaain hoti hain aur unamein apradhaan sthalaakruti ke vivran naheen dikhaae jaate. ooainchi neechi dharaakruti (height relief) ke ooainche neeche star rangon ya rekhaachhaadan dvaara darshaate hain. in maanachitron ka paimaana 1 inch se 8 meal se lekar 1/120 lakh ya isse bhi chhota ho sakta hai.

sthalaakrutik maanachitr

sthalaakrutik maanachitron mein abhi praakrutik aur krutrim aakrutiyaaain vivran sahit paimaane ke andar yathaasanbhav supaathya aur spasht roop darshaai jaati hain. pahaadi aakrutiyaaain, samatal rekhaapaddhati se jise samochch rekha kehte hain, dikhaai jaati hain. vishesh aakruti vaale sthalon ko ausat samudratal se oopar ki ooainchaai ke ank dekar dikhaaya jaata hai. bhautik tatha saanskrutik lakshanon, raajaneetik tatha prashaasanik seemaaon, aakrutiyon aur sthaanon ke naamon se yukt hone ke kaaran ye maanachitr bahut vyaapak hote hain. ye maanachitr hi vividh paimaanon mein bhaugolik maanachitr taiyaar karne ke aadhaar bante hain. vikaas ke liye mool yojanaaeain banaane mein bhi in maanachitron ka bahut bada haath rahata hai. inka paimaana ek meal ke 2.5 inch se, chaar meal, ke ek inch tak ho sakta hai (bhavishya mein maanak sthalaakruti maanachitr maala ka paimaana 1:2500; 1:50,000; 1:100,000; aur 1:250,000 hoga).

bhookar tatha raajasv maanachitr

ye maanachitr raajasv prayojan ke liye raajya sarkaar dwaar banaae jaate hain. inka uddeshya sthalaakrutik visheshataaon ke dikhaane ko chhodkar gaaainv, shahar, jaageer aur vyaktigat bhoomi sampatti ka pariseeman hai. inka paimaana praaya: ek meal ke 16 inch ka hai. maap ka chunaav 1:500 se 1:25,000 tak ho sakta hai aur ye kaali syaahi mein hi chhaape jaate hain.

nagar aur kasbon ke darshak maanachitr

jaisa ki naam se prakat hai in maanachitron mein nagar ya kasb ke saare vivran, jaise sadak, makaan, nagarapaalika seema, sarkaari daftar, aspataal, bank, cinema, baajaar, shiksha sansthaan, ajaayabaghar, baag aadi dikhaae jaate hain. ye maanachitr sthaaneeya sanghatanon, parivhan aur nagar vikaas samitiyon, vaanijya sansthaaon tatha paryatakon ke liye upayogi hote hain. paimaana 24 inch ke 1 meal se, 3 inch ke 1 meal tak hota hai. bhavishya mein darshak maanachitron ka paimaana 1:20,000 tatha 1:5000 hoga.

chhaavani maanachitr

ye maanachitr vishesh reeti se sainik injeeniyri seva aur chhaavani adhikaariyon ke liye bane hote hain. inka paimaana 16 inch ka ek meal aur 64 inch ka ek meal hota hai. bhavishya mein paimaana 1:5000 aur 1:1000 hoga.

vividh maanachitr

anek sarkaari vibhaagon aur sansthaaon ko prashaasan aur vikaas kaaryo ke liye vishesh vishyon se sambandhit nakshe ki aavashyakta hoti hai. ye nakshe hi anek vishesh adhyayan ke liye upayukt nakshe ke aadhaar bante hain. inke udaaharan hain : tateeya aur sinchaai maanachitr, sadak aur railway maanachitr, bhoovaijnyaaanik, mausamavijnyaaan, paryatak, naagrik uddayan, teleegraaf or telephone maanachitr, naishanal school aur anya aitalason ke liye maanachitr tatha audyogik sanyantr sthal aadi ke liye maanachitr.

vishv vaimaanik chart I. si. A. O. (intaranaishanal civil eviyeshan oganaaijeshan) 1:10,00,000 ullekhaneeya hai. isi prakaar bhaarateeya sarvekshan dvaara taiyaar kiye hue antararaashtreeya asainik vaimaaniki ke maanachitr bhi mahatva ke hain. intaranaishanal civil eviyeshan organaaijeshan ke sabhi sadasya raashtron ko in maanachitron ka taiyaar karna aavashyak hai. pratyek sadasya raashtra apni seema ke andar ki maanachitr maala taiyaar karne ke liye uttaradaayi hain. shaili aur vinyaas, maanak sanket, rang aur sangaman (convention) aur taiyaari ki vidhi ki ekaroopata ke liye niyam bane hain jinka paalan hota hai. in maanachitron ka paimaana adhiktar 1:10,00,000 hota hai. 1:2,50,000 paimaane ke I. si. A. O. instrumeint aiproch chart aur sansaar ke sabhi mahatvapoorn havaai addon ke paimaane 1:31,680 ke avataran chart in maanachitron ke anushangi chart hain.

anya maanachitr
  • aakaashi maanachitr
  • aadhaar maanachitr
  • bit maanachitr
  • samochch naksha
  • bhoo-vaigyaanik maanachitr
  • kaarno maanachitr
  • smruti maanachitr
  • mausam maanachitr

vitran maanachitr evam maanaarekh

  • rangaarekh vidhi (Colour-Patch or Chrochromatic Map)
  • saamaanya chhaaya vidhi (Simple Shade method)
  • chitreeya vidhi (Pictorial method)
  • prateekaatmak vidhi (Choro-Schematic or Symbol method)
(1) jyaamiteeya prateek
(2) chitramaya prateek
(3) moolaakshar prateek

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain