maaladeev

maaladeev ganatantr
ދaaިaaވaaެaaހaaިaaރaaާaaއaaްaaޖaaޭaaގaaެ ޖaaުaaމaaްaaހaaޫaaރaaިaaއaaްaaޔaaާ

(divehi rajje gay jumhuriya)
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtragaan: gaumi salaam
"raashtreeya salaami "
rajdhani maale
raajabhaasha(eain) Divehi (Mahl)
maanavajaateeya varg (2001) ≈a98% Mahls (Divehin)
≈a2% Others (Foreign labourers)
nivaasi maaldeevyi/maaladeevi
sarkaar raashtrapateeya ganaraajya
- raashtrapati yaameen abdul gayoom (poorv-mohammad vaheed hasan)
- up-raashtrapati mohammad jameel (poorv-mohammad vaheed deen)
- majalis ke pravakta abdullaah Shahid
- mukhya nyaayaadheesh Ahmad faij
Independent
- from United Kingdom 26 July 1965
kshetrafal
- kul 298 varg kilometer (206 vaan)
115 varg meal
- jal (%) negligible
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 396,334[1] (176th1)
- 2006 janaganana 298,842[2]
- ghanatv 1,036.9/varg kimi (11th)
2.9/varg meal
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $1.713 billion$[3]
- prati vyakti $4,967$[3]
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $1.261 billion$[3]
- prati vyakti $3,654$[3]
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Straight Line Steady.svg 0.698[4]
madhyam · 103vaaain
mudra Maldivian Rufiyaa (MVR)
samay mandal (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+5)
yaataayaat chaalan disha left
doorabhaash koot 960
Internet teeeladi .mv

maaladeev /ˈaamɒaaldaɪaavz/ IPA: /ˈaamɒaaldiːaavz/ ya (Dhivehi: ދ ި ވ ެ ހ ި ރ ާ އ ް ޖ ެ Dhivehi Raa'je) ya maaladeev dweep samooh, aadhikaarik taur par maaladeev ganaraajya, hind mahaasaagar mein sthit ek dweep desh hai, jo minikauya aaileind aur chaagos arkipelego ke beech 26 pravaal dveepon ki ek dohari chen, jiska felaav Bhaarat ke lakshadveep taapoo ki uttar-dakshin disha mein hai, se bana hai. yeh lakshadveep saagar mein sthit hai, shri lanka ki dakshin-pashchimi disha se kareeb saat sau kilometer (435 mi) par.

maaladeev ke pravaal dweep lagbhag 90,000 varg kilometer mein fela kshetr sammilit karte hain, jo ise duniya ke sabse pruthak deshon mein se ek banaata hai. ismein 1,192 taapoo hain, jismein se 200 par basti hai.[5] maaladeev ganaraajya ki rajdhani aur sabse bada shahar hai maale, jiski aabaadi 103,693 (2006) hai. yeh kaafoo pravaal dweep mein, uttar maaainle pravaal dweep ke dakshini kinaare par sthit hai. yeh maaladeev ka ek prashaasakeeya vibhaag bhi hai. paaramparik roop se yeh raaja ka dweep tha, jahaan se praacheen maaladeev raajakeeya raajavansh shaasan karte the aur jahaaain unka mahal sthit tha.

maaladeev janasankhya aur kshetr, donon hi prakaar se Asia ka sabse chhota desh hai. samudra tal se oopar, ek ausat 1.5 meter (4 fut 11 inch) jameeni star ke saath yeh grah ka sabse laghutam desh hai.[6] yeh duniya ka sabse laghutam uchchatam bindu wala desh hai.2.3 meter (7 fut 7 inch)[6]

anukram

maaladeev ki "vyutpatti"

inhein bhi dekhein: Names of Maldives

"maaladeev" naam, maale dhivehi raaje ("maale [ke praadhikran ke antargat] dweep raajya"), jo maaladeev ka sthaaneeya naam hai, se utpann hua hoga. dweep raashtra apni rajdhani, "maale" ke saath samaanaarthi tha aur kabhi kabhi 'mahaldeep' kahalaaya jaata tha aur logon ko maaldiviyn 'dhiveheen' kaha jaata tha. shabd dheeb/deeb (pracheen dhivehi, sanskrut ke dweep shabd ka apabhransh) ka matlab hai 'taapoo' aur dheevas (dhiveheen) matlab 'dweep-vaasi' (yaani maaldiviyn). upanivesheeya yug ke dauraan, dach ne apne pralekhan mein is desh ko maldivische ilanden naam se sambodhit kiya jabki "maaladeev aaileind " iska british dvaara prayukt kiya jaane wala aanglikran hai, jo baad mein maaladeev likha jaane laga.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

Sri Lanka ka praacheen itihaas, mahaavansh paali mein mahilaadiva ya 'mahilaaon ka dweep' (ahildibh) naamak ek dweep ko sandarbhit karta hai. mahaavansh, ek bahut hi puraane kaarya sinhaala se vyutpad hua hai, jo doosari shataabdi B.C. ka kaam hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

kuchh vidvaanon ka kehna hai ki "maaladeev" naam sanskrut shabd maaainlaadvipa (dmaalaaveep) matlab "dveepon ka haar" se utpann hua hai.[7] koi bhi naam ka kisi bhi saahitya mein zikr naheen kiya gaya magar vaidik samay ka paaramparik sanskrut avataran "sau hajaar dweep"(lakshaadveepa) ke baare mein charcha karta hai, yeh ek vargeeya naam hai jismein na keval maaladeevaj balki lakshadveep aur chaagos dweep samooh bhi shaamil hai.[8]

kuchh madhyayugeen arab yaatri jaise ibn batoota in dveepon ko "mahal dibiyt" kehte the. (مaaهaaل دaaبaaيaaأaaت) arabi shabd mahal ("place") se.[9] yahi naam vartamaan mein maaladeev raajakeeya chinh ki naamaavali par khuda hua hai. maaladeevaj ka shaastreeya yemeni naam dibjat hai.[10]

filostorgius, ek eriyn yoonaani itihaasakaar, ek divoeis bandhak ke baare mein bataata hai jo homerites se apna kaarya poora karne ke pashchaat, "diwas " (maaldivj) naamak apne dweep vaapas chala gaya.[11] vartamaan naam "maaladeev" sinhali shabd maala divaina, jiska arth hai haar dweep, se bhi nikla ho sakta hai, yeh sambhavat dveepasamooh ke aakaar ka ullekh karta hai.

bhoogol

inhein bhi dekhein: Atolls of the Maldives evam List of islands of the Maldives
antariksh se dekha gaya malhosmadulhoo pravaal dveepais chitr mein "fasdutere" aur dakshini maalhosmadulhoo pravaal dweep dekha ja sakta hai.
maaladeev mein ek dweep ka ek drushya.
chitr:Coralreef.jpg
maaladeev mein ek pravaal-bhitti ka shool anubhaag.

maaladeev mein lagbhag 1,190 muaingiya dweep shaamil hain, jo utar-dakshin disha ke baraabar 26 pravaal dveepon ki dohari chen mein sangathit hain. yeh lagbhag 90,000 varg kilometer mein fela hai, jo ise duniya ke sabse pruthak deshon mein se ek banaata hai. pravaal dweep gatisheel moonga reef aur ret ki tikiyon se bana hai. yeh ek 960 kilometer lambe panadubbi Cuttack ke oopar sthit hai jo akasmaat bhaarateeya mahaasaagar ki gaharaai mein se utthaan karta hai aur uttar se dakshin ki or chalta hai. is praakrutik muaingiya rukaavat ke keval dakshini chhor ke paas 2 khule raaste hai, jo maaladeevaj ke kshetreeya paani dvaara jahaajon ko bhaarateeya mahaasaagar ke ek kinaare se doosare kinaare tak surakshit mallaahi deta hai. prashaasakeeya prayojanon ke liye maaladeev sarkaar ne in pravaal dveepon ko ikkees prashaasakeeya vibhaagon mein sangathit kiya hain. maaladeevaj ka sabse bada dweep gan hai, jo laamoo pravaal dweep ya hahdhummaathi maaladeev ka hai. adadoo pravaal dweep mein, sabse pashchimi dweep, reef ke oopar sadakon dvaara jude hue hain aur sadak ki kul lanbaai hai14 kimi (9 meal)[krupaya uddharan jodein]

maaladeevaj ke paas duniya mein sabse nichla desh hone ka record hai, iska adhiktam praakrutik jameeni star sirf 2.3 meter (7 fut 7 inch), jiski ausat saagar ke star se keval {1/ hai, haalaanki aise kshetr jahaan nirmaan ke astitv hain, vaha inmein kai meter ki vruddhi ki gayi hai. reef moongiya malabe aur kriyaasheel moongiya se banaaya jaata hai. yeh daladal bana kar saagar ke viruddh ek praakrutik baadha ka kaarya karta hain. anya dveepon, ek doori bana lete hain aur reef ke anuroop unki apni ek suraksha frinj hoti hai. moonga baadha ke aaspaas ek chhidr, shaant jheel ke paani ko abhigm deta hai. dweep ki moonga baadha use toofaanon aur hind mahaasaagar ki uchch tarangon se surakshit rakhati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

maaladeev mein ek vhel shaark, anek jaanvaron mein se ek aisa jaanavar jo bhitti mein nivaas karta hai jo poora desh banti hai.

dharan ki ek moti parat, dveepon ki mitti ki oopari parat banti hai.152 mileemeetar (6.0 inch) neeche 2 fut (0.61 mi)dharan parat reteele patthar ki hoti hai, uske baad ret aur fir taaje paani ki. samudra tat ke paas mitti mein namak ke uchch star ke kaaran, vanaspati ke roop mein sirf jhaadiyaaain, pushpit paudhe aur chhoti baadh hi pai jaati hai. dweep ke aantarik bhaag mein, adhik vanaspati jaise mainagrov aur bargad paae jaate hain. naariyl ke vruksh, raashtreeya ped, in dveepon par lagbhag har jagah ug jaate hain aur janasankhya ki jeevan shaili ka abhinn ang hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

seemit vanaspati aur bhoomi vanyajeevon ka bahutaayat samudri jeevan se poorak hai. maaladeev ke aas-paas ka jal jaivik aur vaanijyik moolya ki durlabh prajaatiyon mein prachur maatra mein hain, toona machhali paalan paramparaagat roop se desh ke mukhya vaanijyik sansaadhanon mein se ek hai. maaladeev mein samudra jeevan ki adbhut vividhta hai. ismein pravaal aur 2,000 se bhi adhik prakaar ki machhaliyaan hain, reef machhali se lekar reef shaark, more ilj aur kai prakaar ki re machhaaliyaaain: maanata rej, sting re aur igal re. maaladeevi jal vhel shaark ke liye ghar bhi hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

mausam

maaladeev mein sooryaast

hind mahaasaagar ka desh ki jalavaayu par bada prabhaav hai, vah ek garmi pratirodhak ke roop mein avachooshan aur bhandaaran karte hain aur dheere se ushnadesheeya garmi nikaalate hain. maaladeev ka taapamaan poore saal 24 (75F) aur 33 °ase (91 °afai) ke beech rahata hai. haalaanki nami apekshaakrut adhik hai, lagaataar shaant samudra havaaen vaayu ko gatimaan rakhati hain aur garmi kam karti hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

maaladeev ka mausam dakshin Asia ke uttar mein bade bhoomi ke dher se prabhaavit hota hai. is bhoomi ke dher ki upasthiti bhoomi aur jal ke antar taapak ka kaaran banta hai. yeh tattv hind mahaasaagar se dakshin Asia ke oopar nami se bharpoor hava achal karte hain jiske parinaamasvaroop dakshin pashchim monsoon aata hai. do ritu maaladeev ke mausam ko prabhaavit karti hain: poorvottar monsoon se judi shushk ritu aur barasaat ritu jo garmiyon mein dakshin pashchim monsoon ke dvaara laai jaati hai. maaladeev mein geela dakshin pashchim monsoon April ke ant se October ke ant tak rahata hai aur tej hava aur toofaan laata hai. nam dakshin pashchim monsoon se shushk poorvottar monsoon mein badlaav October aur November ke dauraan hota hai. is avadhi ke dauraan poorvottar hava poorvottar monsoon ki utpatti karne mein yogadaan deti hain jo December ki shuruaat mein maaladeev pahuainchata hai aur March ke ant tak vaha rahata hai. haalaanki, maaladeev ke mausam ka paitarn hamesha dakshin Asia ke monsoon paitarn ke anuroop naheen rahata. vaarshik ausat varsha uttar mein 2,540 mileemeetar aur dakshin mein 3,810 mileemeetar rahati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

Nuvola apps kweather.svg Maldives ke liye mausam ke ausat Weather-rain-thunderstorm.svg
maheene January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
uchchamaana°aC (°aF) 32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
37
(99)
37
(99)
34
(93)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
37
(99)
ausat uchcha°aC (°aF) 29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
ausat nimn °aC (°aF) 23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
25
(77)
nimnamaan °aC (°aF) 17
(63)
17
(63)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
17
(63)
varsha mm (inch) 46
(1.81)
18
(0.71)
23
(0.91)
58
(2.28)
178
(7.01)
295
(11.61)
226
(8.9)
198
(7.8)
160
(6.3)
185
(7.28)
140
(5.51)
86
(3.39)
1,613
(63.5)
srot: BBC Weather[12] 2009-12-10

paryaavaran ke mudde

pichhli sadi mein, samudra ka jal star badh gaya hai 20 seinteemeetar (8 inch), keval 2.3 meter (7 fut 7 inch) adhiktam praakrutik jameeni star ke saath aur samudra star se oopar keval 1.5 meter (4 fut 11 inch) usat ke saath, yeh duniya ka sabse neechala desh hai aur mahaasaagar mein[13][14] isse jyaada uchhaal maaladeevaj ke astitv ke liye khatra paida ho sakta hai. lekin, 1970 ke aaspaas, vahaaain samudra star mein giraavat I hai. November 2008 mein, raashtrapati mohammad nasheed ne Bhaarat, Sri Lanka aur Australia mein nai jameenein khareedne ke yojana ki ghoshana ki, global vaarming aur jyaada dveepon ke jal star badhne se baadh ki sambhaavana ke baare mein apni chinta ke kaaran unhonne yeh yojana banaai. maujooda anumaan ke anusaar varsh 2100 tak samudra tal mein 59 seinteemeetar (23 inch) ki vruddhi ho sakti hai. bhoomi ki khareed paryatan dvaara utpann mooladhan se kiya jaaega.[15] raashtrapati ne apne iraade spasht kiye hai:

"ham maaladeev chhodna naheen chaahate, lekin ham dashakon ke liye teint mein rahane vaale jalavaayu sharanaarthi bhi naheen banana chaahate."[16]

2004 hind mahaasaagar mein bhookamp ke kaaran, hind mahaasaagar mein soonaami I jiski ki vajah se saamaajik aarthik buniyaadi dhaanche mein gambhir kshati pahunchi, jisne kai logon ko beghar bana diya aur paryaavaran ko aparivrtaneeya nuksaan pahuainchaaya. aapada ke baad, maanachitrakaar soonaami ki vajah se aae parivartan ke kaaran dveepon ke nakshe doosari prati utaarane ki yojana bana rahe hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

22 April 2008 ko, maaladeev ke us samay ke raashtrapati maumoon abdul gayoom ne vishveeya greenahaaus gas ke utsarjan mein katauti ke liye anurodh kiya, yeh chetaavani dete hue ki samudra ka jal star badhne par maaladeev ka dweep raashtra doob sakta hai. 2009 mein, baad ke raashtrapati mohammad nasheed ne pratijnyaa li ki vah maaladeevaj ko saur env pavan shakti se ek dashak ke bheetar kaarban nishpaksh bana deinge.[17] haal hi mein, raashtrapati nasheed ne maaladeevaj jaise neechale desho ko jalavaayu parivartan se hone vaale khataron ke baare mein jaagrukta badhaane ke liye, 17 October 2009 ko duniya ki pehli antarjaleeya cabinet baithak aayojit ki.[18]

itihaas

18th-century map by Pierre Mortier of The Netherlands depicting with detail the islands of the Maldives.

maaladeev ke maukhik, bhaashaai aur saanskrutik parampara aur rivaaj ka tulanaatmak adhyayan is baat ki pushti karta hain ki pehle basane vaale log Dravid the, yeh sangam avadhi (BCE 300-300 CE), mein Kerala se yahaaain aae the. yeh shaayad dakshin pashchim tat ke machhuaare the jo ab bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ka dakshin aur Sri Lanka ka pashchimi tat hai.[19] aisa ek samudaaya giraavaaroo logon ka hai jo praacheen tamilon ke vanshaj hain. poonji ki sthaapana aur maale ke aaleeshaan shaasan ke baare mein praacheen kathaaon aur sthaaneeya lok kathaaon mein varnan kiya hai. unhein dweep par basane wala sabse pehla samudaaya maana jaata hai. ek spasht tamil-malayalam adh:star ke saath tamil janasankhya aur sanskruti ki ek majaboot antarnihit parat maaladeev samaaj mein maujood hai jo jagah ke naam, jaati ke shabdo, kavita, nrutya aur dhaarmik vishvaason mein bhi dikhaai deti hai. keralan samudra parala ki vajah se, tamil lakshadveep mein basane lage aur maaladeevaj spasht roop se dveepasamooh ke ek vistaar ke roop mein dekha gaya. kuchh logon ka tark hai ki gujaraati bhi pravaasan ki pehli parat mein the. Gujarat se samudreeya kaam sindhu ghaati sabhyata ke dauraan shuroo hua. jataka aur puraan is samudri vyaapaar ke prachur saakshya dikhaate hain. ek aur praarambhik nivaasi dakshin poorv Asia se ho sakte hai.[20] sinhali, jo kalinga (Bhaarat) ke nirvaasit Rajkumar vijaya (vijaya ek banga ya Bengal Rajkumar the jinka maatru poorvaj kalinga tha) aur unki kai sau ki party ke vanshaj the, unka aagaman maaladeevaj mein 543-483 BCE ke beech hua. unase unke udeesa aur uttar pashchim Bhaarat ke sinhapura raajya ke mool kshetr chhudava diye gaye. mahaavansa ke anusaar, 500 BC ke aaspaas ek jahaaj jo Rajkumar vijaya ke saath Sri Lanka ke liye ravaana hua tha, dishaaheen ho gaya aur ek mahilaadvipika naamak dweep, jo maaladeevaj hai, vaha pahuainch gaya. yeh bhi kaha jaata hai ki us samay mahilaadvipika ke log Sri Lanka ki yaatra karte the. Sri Lanka aur maaladeevaj ke kuchh sthaanon mein unka avasthaapan janasaankhyiki mein mahatvapoorn parivartan aur Bhaarat-aarya bhaasha, dhivehi ke vikaas ke liye arthapoorn hai. jyaadaatar dakshin pravaal dveepon mein arab aur poorvi Asiaee nivaasiyon ke kuchh sanket mile hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]bauddh dharm samraat ashok ke prasaar ke samay maaladeev mein aaya aur 12 veen shataabdi AD tak maaladeev ke logon ka pramukh dharm bana raha. praacheen maaladeev raajaaon ne bauddh dharm ko badhaava diya aur pehla maaladeev lekhan aur kalaatmak upalabdhiyaan viksit moortikla aur vaastukala ke roop mein isi avadhi se hain. isdhoo lomafaanoo (Lōamāafāanu) abhi tak ki maaladeevaj par paae jaane waali sabse puraani taamr pattar pustak hai. yeh kitaab 1194 AD(AH 590) mein siri fennaadheettha maha radoon (dahini kalaaminja) ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan likhi gayi thi, iski pehli pattar ko chhod kar baaki divehi akuru ke evela ke roop mein hai. aisa kaha jaata hai ki tusites maakari, maaladeev pauraanik kathaaon mein yuddh ke parameshvar, kisi bhi neta ko pakad lete the jisne taaj pahane hue galat tareeke ke kaam kiye hote the.

maaladeev ki praarambhik sabhyata ke pehle ke avashesh ka adhyayan, seelon desheeya service ke ek british adhikaari, H.C.P. bail ke kaam ke saath shuroo hua. 1879 mein dveepon par bail ki nauka ka naash ho gaya aur vah kai baar praacheen bauddh avasheshon ki jaanch karne laute. unhonne maaladeev ke logo dvaara praacheen havita aur ustuboo (yeh naam chetiya aur stoopa se utpan kiye gaye hain) (mahl : ހaaަaaވaaިaaއaaްaaތaaަ) naamak teelon ke baare mein adhyayan kiya jo kai pravaal dveepon par paae jaate hain.

haalaanki bail ne kaha ki praacheen maaladeev ke log theraavada bauddh dharm maanate the, sthaaneeya bauddhadharmi ke kai puraataattvik avashesh jo ab maale sangrahaalaya mein hain asal mein mahaayaana aur vijraayaana aaikaunograafi darshaate hain.

11 veen sadi ki shuruvaat mein minikauya aur thilaadhunamathi, sanbhavat: anya uttari pravaal dweep bhi madhyakaaleen chola tamil samraat, raaja raaja chola 1 ke dvaara vijayi kar liye gaye aur chola raajya ka hissa ban gaya.

the graafik ke ek anuchhed mein prakaashit kiya gaya udaaharan CW rosett dvaara shaahi mahal ka osaara gaana darshaata hai. usane 25 October 1885 ko maaladeev ka daura kiya aur maale mein raha, usaka uddeshya tha aupaniveshik aur bhaarateeya pradarshaneeyon mein apne nishkarshon ka pradarshan karna.

maaladeev lok kathaaon ki ek dantakatha ke anusaar, 12 veen sadi AD ke shuroo mein seelon ke laayan race ka koimaala naamak madhyakaaleen Rajkumar uttar maalhosmaaduloo pravaal dweep ke rasgetheemu dweep (vastut: raja ka shahar) ko ravaana hua, vaha se maale gaya aur vaha ek raajya ki sthaapana ki. tab tak, aadeetta (soorya) vansh ne kuchh samay ke liye maale par shaasan karna band kiya tha, sanbhavat: dasveen sadi mein dakshin Bhaarat ke chola dvaara hamlon ki vajah se. maale pravaal dweep ke svadesheeya log, giraavaaroo ne koimaala ko maale aane ke liye aamantrit kiya aur use raaja ghoshit hone ki anumati di. koimaala kalooo (laard koimaala) raaja maanaabaraana ke roop mein raajya karta tha, vah homa (loonar) raajavansh ka raaja tha, jise kuchh itihaasakaar house of theemuge kehte hain. koimaala ke shaasanakaal se maaladeev raajagaddi, singaasana (sher raajagaddi) bhi kahalaai jaane lagi.[21] isse pehle aur tab se kuchh sthitiyon mein ise saridhaaleys (gajadant raajagaddi) bhi kaha jaata tha.[22] kuchh itihaasakaar koimaala ko, tamil chola ke shaasan se maaladeev ko mukt karavaane ke liye, pratyaayit karte hain.


kai videshi yaatri, mukhya roop se arab, ne maaladeev ke oopar ek raajya ka ek raani ke dvaara shaasan karne ke baare mein likha tha. yeh raajya koimaala raajakaal se pehle dinaankit tha. al idareesi, praarambhik lekhako ke lekhan ki charcha karte hue ek raani ke baare mein ullekh karta hai. usaka naam damahaar tha. vah aadeetta (soorya) raajavansh ki ek sadasya thi. homa (loonar) vansh mukhya ne aaditta (soorya) vansh ke saath shaadi kar li. yahi kaaran tha ki 1968 tak maaladeev raajaaon ke aupachaarik sheershak mein "kula sudha ira " ka sandarbh hota tha, jiska arth hai "chandrama aur soorya se utpann hua". aadeetta raajavansh ke shaasanakaal ke koi sarkaari record maujood naheen hain.[22]

islaam mein parivartan ka ullekh praacheen aajnyaaapatron mein kiya gaya hai jo 12 veen shataabdi AD ke ant ke taamr pattar par likha hain. ek videshi sant (anuvaad ke anusaar, tabrij shahar se ek faarasi yaan ek morokan barbar) ke baare mein bhi ek sthaaneeya gyaat dantakatha hai, jisne rannaamaari naamak ek daanav ko shaant kiya. dhovemi kalaaminja jo koimaala ke baad aaya vah 1153 AD mein islaam mein parivrtit ho gaya.

sadiyon se, dveepon ka daura kiya gaya hai aur unke vikaas ko arab saagar aur Bengal ki khaadi ke naavikon aur vyaapaariyon ne prabhaavit kiya hai.

1953 mein, ganatantr banaane ka ek sankshipt nishfal prayaas kiya gaya, lekin saltanat fir se laga diya gaya. 1959 mein naasir ke keindravaad par aapatti jaahir karte hue, teen dakshini pravaal dveepon ke nivaasiyon ne sarkaar ke khilaaf virodh kiya. unhonne sanyukt suvaadive ganaraajya ka gathan kiya aur abdulla afeef ko raashtrapati env hithaadhoo ko rajdhani ke roop mein chuna.

haalaanki 1153 se 1968 tak svatantr islaami saltanat ke roop mein is par shaasan hua hai, magar maaladeevaj 1887 se 25 July 1965 tak ek british sanrakshan raha.

svatantrata

maaladeev ko poori raajaneetik svatantrata dene ka samjhauta mahaamahim sultaan ki or se ibraaheem naasir rannaabandeyri kilegefaan, pradhaan mantri aur mahaaraani saahiba ki or se sar Michael vaukar british elachi maaladeev dweep ke abhinihit ne hastaaksharit kiya. yeh samaaroh 26 July 1965 ko Colombo mein british uchchaayukt ke nivaas par aayojit kiya gaya. 1965 mein Britain se aajaadi ke baad, saltanat, raaja muhammad fareed deedi ke tahat agale teen saal tak chalti rahi. 11 November 1968 ko raajashaahi samaapt kar di gayi aur ibraaheem naasir ke raashtrapati pad ke tahat ek ganatantr se badal di gayi, haalaanki yeh ek prasaadhak badlaav tha isse sarkaar ke dhaanche mein koi mahatvapoorn parivartan naheen aaya. desh ka adhikaari ka naam maaladeev dweep samooh se badal kar maaladeevaj rakh diya gaya. 1970 ke dashak ke aarambh tak paryatan dveepasamooh par viksit hona shuroo ho gaya.

baharahaal, sattar ke dashak mein, raashtrapati naasir ke gut aur anya lokapriya raajanaitik vyaktiyon ke beech raajaneetik ladaai ki vajah se 1975 mein nirvaachit pradhaanamantri Ahmad jaaki ki giraftaari aur ek dooravarti pravaal dweep par nirvaasan ho gaya. aarthik giraavat ke baad gan mein sthit Britain havaai adda band ho gaya aur sookhi machhali ka baajaar, ek mahatvapoorn niryaat, patan ho gaya. apni prashaasan hichk ke samarthan se, 1978 mein naasir Singapore bhaag gaye, kathit taur par sarkaari khajaane se karodon dollar ke saath.

maumoon abdul gayoom ne 1978 mein apni 30 varsh lambi raashtrapati ki bhoomika ka praarambh kiya, virodh ke bina lagaataar chhah chunaav jeet kar. gayoom ki gareeb dveepon ka vikaas karne ki praathamikta ko dhyaan mein rakhate, uske chunaav ki avadhi raajaneetik sthirta aur aarthik vikaas ke sanchaalan ke roop mein dekhi gayi. paryatan ka alankaran hua aur videshi sampark badha jisse dveepon mein vikaas ko protsaahan mila. haalaanki, usaka shaasan kuchh aalochakon ke saath vivaadaaspad hai, unke anusaar gayoom ek taanaashaah tha jisne svatantrata seemit aur raajaneetik pakshapaat dvaara matabhed par kaaboo paaya.[23]

naseer samarthakon aur vyaapaarik hiton ki ghaatak koshishon ki ek shrrunkhala (1980, 1983 aur 1988 mein) ne safalta ke bina sarkaar giraane ki koshish ki. jabki pehle do prayaason ko thodi safalta mili, 1988 ke ghaatak prayaas mein PLOTE tamil aatankvaadi samooh ke kareeb 200-log shaamil hue, jinhonne havaai adde par kabja kiya aur gayoom ke ek ghar se doosare ghar bhaagane ka kaaran bane jab tak 1600 bhaarateeya dalon ne vaayu vaahit hastakshep karke maale mein vyavastha bahaal ki.

November 1988 mein, muhammadu Ibrahim lutfi (ek chhota vyaapaari) ke netrutv mein maaladeev ke logo ke ek samooh ne raashtrapati gayoom ke khilaaf ek takhtaapalat manch par Sri Lanka se tamil aatankvaadiyon ka istemaal kiya. madad ke liye maaladeev sarkaar ki or se ek appeal ke baad bhaarateeya sena ne gayoom ko satta mein bahaal karne ke liye aatankvaadiyon ke khilaaf hastakshep kiya. 3 November 1988 ki raat ko, bhaarateeya vaayu sena ne Agra se ek pairaashoot battalion samooh vaayu vaahit kiya aur use lagaataar 2,000 kilometer (1,240 meal) se adhik ki doori par maaladeevaj ke liye ravaana kar diya. bhaarateeya pairaatroopars hulule par utare aur havaai kshetr ko surakshit karte hue kuchh hi ghanton ke bheetar maale par sarkaar ka shaasan bahaal kar liya. operation kaiktas, naamak is sankshipt raktaheen operation, mein bhaarateeya nausena bhi shaamil ki gayi thi.

2004 sunaami

2004 hind mahaasaagar bhookamp se utpann soonaami ki chapet mein aane ke kuchh hi der baad, maale ke log baadh se apne gharon ki raksha karne ke liye baadha ke roop mein prayog ke liye paas ke ek nirmaan sthal se ret ke bag nikaalate hue.

2004 hind mahaasaagar mein aae bhookamp ke baad, 26 December 2004 ko, maaladeev sunaami se tabaah ho gaya. soochana ke anusaar keval nau dweep hi baadh se bach paae, jab ki sattaavan dveepon ke sookshm aavashyak tatvon par gambhir kshati pahunchi, chaudah dveepon ko poori tarah khaali karna pada aur chhah dveepon ka naash ho gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein] iske ilaava ikkees rijaurt dveepon ko gambhir kshati pahuainchane ke kaaran jabaran band karavaaya. anumaan hai ki kul nuksaan kareeb 400 million dollar ya 62% GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) se adhik ka hua.[krupaya uddharan jodein][krupaya uddharan jodein] kathit taur par, soonaami mein maare gaye logon ki kul sankhya 108 thi jinmein chhah videshi bhi shaamil the.[23] nichle dveepon par laharon ka vinaashakaari prabhaav isliye hua kyoonki vahaaain vaastav mein koi mahaadveepeeya shelf ya bhoomi ka dher naheen tha jis par laharon ko oonchaai haasil ho sakti. sabse ooainchi laharein 14 fut (4.3 mi) prativedit ki gayi thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

bahudaleeya lokatantr

2004 aur 2005 mein hinsak virodh pradarshan ke chalte raashtrapati gayoom ne raajaneetik dalon ko vaidh banaane aur lokataantrik prakriya mein sudhaar laane ke liye sudharaav ki ek shrrunkhala shuroo kar di. 9 October 2008 ko bahudaleeya, bahu ummeedavaar chunaav aayojit kiye gaye jismein 5 ummeedavaar padadhaari gayoom ke khilaaf gaye. October 28 ko gayoom aur mohammad nasheed ke beech raashtrapati pad ke ummeedavaar ke roop mein ek apavaah chunaav hua, ek poorv patrakaar aur raajaneetik kaidi jo gayoom shaasan ka kattar aalochak tha uske prabhaav se nasheed aur uske upaadhyaksh ummeedavaar dau॰ vaheed ko 54 pratishat bahumat haasil hua. 11 November 2008 ko apne uttaraadhikaari ko satta saunpane se pehle ek bhaashan mein gayoom ne kaha: "main apne aise kisi bhi kaarya ke liye atyant khed prakat karta hoo... (jo) kisi bhi maaladeev vaasi ke liye anuchit upachaar, kathinaai ya anyaaya ka kaaran bana". us samay, gayoom kisi bhi Asiaee desh ke sabse lambe samay tak rahane vaale neta the.[23]

mohammad nasheed pehle raashtrapati bane jinhein maaladeev mein ek bahudaleeya lokatantr dvaara nirvaachit kiya gaya aur dau॰ vaheed maaladeev ke pehle up raashtrapati chune gaye. inki chunaavi jeet se raashtrapati gayoom ka 30 saal ka shaasan samaapt ho gaya.

raashtrapati nasheed ki nai sarkaar ka saamana aise kuchh muddon se hua: 2004 soonaami ke baad dweep aur arthavyavastha ki bahaali, global vaarming se dveepon ke bhavishya par asar ke baare mein chinta sambodhit karna, berojgaari, sarkaar ke bhrashtaachaar aur nasheeli davaaon ke prayog ka badhaana, khaaskar yuvaaon mein. 10 November 2008 ko nasheed ne paryatan dvaara kamaae gaye dhan se svaayatt sampatti nidhi banaane ke iraade ki ghoshana ki, jise, yadi mausam ke badlaav se samudra star badh kar desh mein baadh laaya to, vah maaladeev nivaasiyon ke sthaanaantar ke liye kahi aur bhoomi khareedne ke istemaal mein la sakte hain. soochana ke anusaar sarkaar saanskrutik aur jalavaayu samaanataaon ke kaaran Sri Lanka aur Bhaarat ke kuchh sthaanon par vichaar kar rahi hai, yahaaain tak ki Australia mein bhi.[23]

haal ke ek forum 18 report mein likha tha ki koi maaladeev prashaasan, naagrikon ko antaraatma ki buniyaadi svatantrata ka aanand sunishchit karne mein saksham naheen hua.[24]

raajaneeti

maaladeev mein raajaneeti ek adhyaksheeya ganaraajya dhaanche ke tahat hoti hai, jahaaain raashtrapati sarkaar ka mukhiya hota hai. raashtrapati ke kaaryakaari shaakha ka mukhiya hota hai aur kebinet ki niyukti karta hai jise sansad manjoori deti hai. raashtrapati majalis(sansad) ke gupt matadaan dvaara paanch varsh ke kaaryakaal ke liye naamaankit kiya jaata hai jiski pushti raashtra janamat sangrah dvaara ki jaati hai. savindhaan gair-muslim voto ko mana karta hai.

[[maaladeev ki yunikemrl majalis mein|maaladeev ki yunikemrl majalis mein]] pachchaas sadasya hote hain, jo paanch saal ke kaaryakaal tak seva karte hain. pratyek pravaal dweep mein do sadasya seedhe chune jaate hain. aath raashtrapati dvaara niyukt kiya jaate hain, jo ki mukhya dwaar hai, jahaaain se mahilaaye sansad mein pravesh karti hain.

desh ke itihaas mein July,2005 mein pehli baar raajanitik dalon ko pesh kiya gaya, sansad ke pichhle chunaav ke chh: maheene baad. sansad ke chhatees sadasyon ne dhivehi raayaathunga party mein shaamil hue aur unhonne maumoon abdul gayoom ko apna raashtrapati niykt kiya. sansad ke baarah sadasyon maaladeev democratic party ke sadasyon ke roop mein vipaksh ka gathan kiya aur do sadasya svatantr rahe. March 2006 mein, raashtrapati gayoom ne sudhaar agenda ke liye ek vistrut khaata prakaashit kiya jismein naya samvidhaan likhne ke liye aur kaanooni dhaanche ka aadhunikeekaran karne ke liye samay pradaan kiya gaya. is yojana ke tahat sarkaar ne sansad mein sudhaar upaayon ka beda prastut kiya. ab tak paarit kaanoon ka sabse mahatvapoorn tukada maanav adhikaar aayog adhiniyam mein sanshodhan tha, jisne ise peris sinddaant ke anuroop bana diya hai.

muliaag (Muliaa'ge) - maale, maaladeev ke raashtrapati ka mahal.

sansad ke pachaas sadasya, ek samaan sankhya ke usi prakaar se niyukt kiye gaye logon aur mantrimndalon ke saath sanvidhaani sabha ka gathan karne ke liye baithate hain, yeh maaladeev ke liye ek aadhunik udaar lokataantrik samvidhaan likhne ke liye raashtrapati ki pahal par ekatr kiye gaye. yeh sabha July 2004 se baithi hui hai aur dheemi gati se badhne ke liye iski bahut aalochna ki gayi hai. sarkaar aur vipaksh deri ke liye ek doosare par aarop laga raha hai, lekin svatantr paryavekshakon ka maanana hai ki dheemi gati se badhne ka kaaran kamjor sansadeeya parampara, gareeb feint (koi bhi saansad (MP) party ticket par naheen chuna gaya tha) aur vyavastha hastakshep ke antaheen ank hain. pragati ki dheemi gati ka kaaran, mukhya vipakshi party MDP ki raashtrapati gayoom ko sudhaar ka agende laagoo karne ke baad seedhi kaarravaai se padachyut karne ki pratibaddhata bhi hai, jiske kaaran July-August 2004 aur August 2005 mein naagrik ashaanti aur November 2006 mein ek nishfal kraanti hui. gaurtalab hai ki, MDP ke neta Ibrahim ismaail (sabse bade nirvaachan kshetr, maale ke MP) April 2005 mein, daaktar mohammad vaheed hasan ko kuchh hi maheene pehle maat dene ke baad, apne party pad se isteefa de diya. unhonne antat: November, 2006 mein MDP ko apni raashtreeya kaaryakaarini samiti ki kattarata ka ullekh karte hue chhod diya. sarkaar ne party ke samvaad ki suvidha ke liye raashtramandal vishesh doot, tun moosa hitm ko vyast kiya aur jab MDP ne usaka bahishkaar kiya, tab british uchchaayukt ko sanlaap ki seva dene ke liye bharati kiya gaya. aagaami vestaminstar sadan ki prakriya mein kuchh pragati hui lekin jab MDP ne November kraanti ka nirnaya liya tab yeh khaali kar diya gaya.

hulahumaale (Hulhumalé) mein masjid

rodamaip is sabha ko apna kaam samaapt karne ke liye aur October 2008 tak desh mein pehle bahu-daliye chunaav ka maarg prashast karne ke liye, 31 May 2007 ki samay seema pradaan karta hai. chunaav itna najdeeki tha ki chunaav ka ek doosra bhaag trigr ho gaya jismein chunauti karta mohammad nasheed aur mohammad vaheed hasan jeet gaye. dau॰ mohammad vaheed hasan chunaav mein bhaag lene maaladeev aaenge. raashtrapati nasheed aur upaadhyaksh dau॰ vaheed ne 11 November 2008 ko kaaryaalaya mein shapath li.

raajashaahi se ganatantr ke nikaas ke baavajood, samakaaleen raajanaitik dhaancha saamanti ateet ke saath ek avichhedata dikhaata hai, jismein saamaajik sanrachana ke sheersh par kuchh parivaaron ke beech satta baanti hui thi. kuchh dveepon mein, kaaryaalaya ek hi parivaar mein peedhiyon ke liye bane rahe hai. aadhunik din mein, gaanv par kateeboo (Katīabu) naamak ek prashaasakeeya adhikaari ne shaasan kiya hai, jo dweep mein kaaryakaari mukhiya ke roop mein kaarya karta hai. har pravaal dweep ke katibs ke oopar ek atoluvaeriya (pravaal dweep pramukh) hai. in sthaaneeya pramukhon ki shakti bahut seemit hai aur yeh kuchh jimmedaari lete hain. unhein apne dweep ki sthiti ke baare mein sarkaar ko report karne, keindreeya satta se keval nirdesh ke liye intajaar karne aur unka achhi tarah se paalan karne ke liye prashikshit kiya jaata hai. haalaanki, dweep shaasi mukhya nagar se kaafi lambe faasale par hue hain, kisi vishisht dweep ke vyavasthaapak kan par prashaasakeeya adhikaaron ko nyoonatam par rok liya jaata hai, isi ke saath dveepon ke pratinidhiyon ko ek saamaanya sansad mein kendrit kar diya jaata hai; maale mein sthit peepals majalis desh bhar se sabhi sadasyon ka pratishthaan karte hain.[25]

prashaasakeeya vibhaag

pratyek prashaasakeeya pravaal dweep, ek thaana varn se mark kiya jaata hai, jise pravaal dweep pahachaanane ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai. praakrutik pravaal dveepon ka halke neele rang se vargeekaran kiya hai. nakshe ke poorn drushya

maaladeev mein 7 praant hain, har ek mein nimnalikhit prashaasakeeya vibhaag hain (rajdhani maale apni prashaasakeeya vibhaag hai):

  1. maathi-uthuru praant; ismein ha alif pravaal dweep, ha dhaaloo pravaal dweep aur shaaviyaani pravaal dweep shaamil hain.
  2. uthuru praant; ismein noonu pravaal dweep, ra pravaal dweep, ba pravaal dweep aur lhaaviyaani pravaal dweep shaamil hain.
  3. medhu-uthuru praant; ismein kaafoo pravaal dweep, alifu alifu pravaal dweep, alifu dhaaloo pravaal dweep aur vaavoo pravaal dweep shaamil hain.
  4. meindu praant, ismein memoo pravaal dweep, faafu pravaal dweep aur dhaaloo pravaal dweep shaamil hain.
  5. medhu-dhekunu praant; ismein tha pravaal dweep aur laamoo pravaal dweep shaamil hain.
  6. maathi-dhekunu praant; ismein gaafoo alifu pravaal dweep aur gaafoo dhaaloo pravaal dweep shaamil hain.
  7. dhekunu praant; ismein gnaaviyaani pravaal dweep aur seenoo pravaal dweep shaamil hain.

yeh praant uthuru bodutheelaadhunmaathi ke aitihaasik vibhaajan ke anuroop hain. dhekunu bodutheelaadhunmaathi, uthuru medhu-raajje, medhu-raajje, dhekunu medhu-raajje, huvaadhoo (ya uthuru suvaadeenmaathi) aur adadoolaakatholhoo (ya dhekunu suvaadeenmaathi).

maaladeev mein chhabbees praakrutik pravaal dweep hain aur kuchh pruthak bhittiyon par dweep samooh hai, yeh sabhi ikkees prashaasakeeya vibhaagon mein vibhaajit kiye gaye hain (bees prashaasakeeya pravaal dweep aur maale shahar).[26]

ek naam ke alaava, har prashaasanik khand, maaladeev code varn se jaana jaata hai jaise thilaadhunmati uthuruburi(thilaadhunmaathi uttar) ke liye "ha alif"; aur ek letin code varn dvaara.

pehla, pravaal dweep ke bhaugolik maaladeev naam se mel khaata hai. doosra code suvidha ke liye apnaaya gaya hai. iski shuruaat pravaal dweep aur keindreeya prashaasan ke beech radio sanchaar ki suvidha ke liye ki gayi thi. chooainki vibhinn pravaal dveepon mein kuchh aise dweep hain jinke naam ek jaise hain isliye prashaasakeeya prayojanon ke liye dweep ke naam se pehle yeh code uddhrut kiye jaate hai, udaaharan ke liye: ba funaadhoo, kaafoo funaadhoo, gaafoo-alifu funaadhoo. adhiktam pravaal dveepon ke bhaugolik naam bahut lambe hain isliye yeh tab bhi istemaal kiye jaate hain jab pravaal dweep ke naam ko alp uddhrut karna hota hai, jaise pravaal dweep website ke naamon mein.[27]

is code moolyavarg ki videshiyon dvaara kaafi ninda ki gayi hai, jinhein in naamon ke samuchit upayog ki samajh naheen hai aur jinhonne paryatakon ke prakaashanon mein maaladeev ke asli naamon ko anadekhi kiya hai.[28] maaladeev ke vaasi saadhaaran bolachaal mein varn code naam ka upayog kar sakte hain, lekin aham bhaugolik, aitihaasik ya saanskrutik lekhan mein hamesha asli bhaugolik naam hi shreshth pad lete hain. laitin code varn aksar naav panjeekaran pleton mein prayog kiya jaata hai. yeh varn pravaal dweep aur dweep ki sankhya ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai.

pratyek pravaal dweep ka prashaasan ek pravaal dweep pramukh (atholhoo veriya) dvaara kiya jaata hai, jise raashtrapati niyukt karta hai. pravaal dweep prashaasan ka mantraalaya aur uske uttari aur dakshini kshetreeya kaaryaalaya, pravaal dweep kaaryaalaya aur dweep kaaryaalaya saamoohik roop se pravaal dweep prashaasan ke liye raashtrapati ko javaabadeh hote hain. har dweep ka prashaasakeeya pramukh, dweep mukhyaadhikaari (katheeb) hota hai, jise raashtrapati niyukt karta hai. dweep mukhyaadhikaari ka tatkaal afsar pravaal dweep mukhyaadhikaari hota hai.

code varn naamon ka praarambh, khaas kar ke videshiyon ke liye, kaafi hairaani aur galatafahami ka srot raha hai. kai logon ko lagta hai ki prashaasakeeya pravaal dweep ka code varn unka naya naam hai aur usane unke bhaugolik naam ko badal diya hai. aisi paristhiti ke tahat yeh jaanana kathin hai ki istemaal karne ke liye sahi naam kaun sa hai.[27]

janasaankhyiki :

maale, maaladeev ki rajdhani.

maaladeev sajaateeya pehchaan sanskrutiyon ka mishran hai jo un logon ko darshaata hai jo in dveepon par base, yeh dharm aur bhaasha ke dvaara prabalit hai. aarambhik nivaasi sambhavat: dakshini Bhaarat aur Sri Lanka se the. vah bhaasha aur sajaateeya mein bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke Dravid logon se sambandhit hai. unhein sajaateeya taur par maahalaj (sthaaneeya roop mein dhivehis) kaha jaata hai.

dveepon par kuchh saamaajik stareekaran maujood hai. yeh kathor naheen hai, kyoonki kram vibhinn kaarakon par aadhaarit hai, jismein vyavasaaya, dhan, islaami punya aur parivaar ke sambandhon shaamil hain. paramparaagat roop se, ek jatil jaati vyavastha ki bajaay, maaladeev mein keval mahaan (befulhoo) aur aam logon ke beech ek antar tha. saamaajik abhijaat varg ke sadasya maale mein sakeindrit kar rahe hain. seva udyog ke baahar, keval yahi ek sthaan hai, jahaan videshi aur aantarik janta ki baatcheet ki sambhaavana hai. paryatakon ki sairagaah un dveepon par naheen hain jahaan mool nivaasi rahate hain aur do samoohon ke beech anaupachaarik sampark hatotsaahit kiya jaata hain.

1905 ke baad se ek janaganana darj ki gayi hai, jo yeh darshaati hai ki desh ki janasankhya agale saath saal tak 100,000 ke aaspaas rahi. 1965 mein aajaadi ke baad, janta ke svaasthya ki sthiti mein itna sudhaar aaya ki 1978 tak janasankhya doguni (200000) ho gayi aur 1985 mein janasankhya vruddhi dar 3.4% tak badh gaya. 2007 tak, aabaadi 300,000 tak pahuainch gayi thi, yadyapi 2000 mein janaganana se pata chala ki janasankhya vruddhi dar mein 1.9% ki giraavat I thi. 1978 mein janm ke samay jeevan pratyaasha 46 saal tha, jabki ab yeh badh kar 72 saal ho gaya hai. shishu mrutyu dar 1977 mein 127 prati hajaar se gir kar aaj 12 ho gaya hai aur vayask saaksharata 99% par hai. sanyukt school naamaankan uchch 90 ke padaav par hai.

April 2008 se 70,000 se adhik videshi karmachaari is desh mein rahate hain aur anya 33,000 avaidh aapravaasi maaladeev ki aabaadi ka teesare se bhi jyaada hissa sanchaya karte hain. ismein mukhya roop se dakshin Asiaee padosi deshon jaise Bhaarat, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh aur Nepal ke log shaamil hain.

arthavyavastha

maaladeev baajaar

praacheen kaal mein maaladeev kaudi khol, naariyl-jata ki rassi, sookhi toona machhali (maaladeev machhali), embargrij (maavaaharoo) aur koko de mer(tavaakkaashi) ke liye prasiddh tha. sthaaneeya aur videshi vyaapaarik jahaaj in utpaadon ko Sri Lanka se bhar ke hind mahaasaagar ke anya bandaragaahon par pahuainchaaya karte the. doosari shataabdi aidi se arab, jinhonne hind mahaasaagar vyaapaar maargon ko varchasv kiya hua tha, dveepon ko 'mani aailj' kehne lage.[krupaya uddharan jodein] maaladeevaj ne bhaari maatra mein kaudi khol, praarabhik yog ki antararaashtreeya mudra, pradaan ki. kaudi ab maaladeev maudrik praadhikran ka prateek hai.

maaladeev sarkaar ne 1989 mein ek aarthik sudhaar kaaryakram shuroo kiya, iska praarambh aayaat kota utha ke aur niji kshetr ke liye kuchh niryaat kholne se kiya gaya. baad mein, iske niyam udaar kar diye gaye aur adhik videshi nivesh ki anumati de di gayi. vaastavik sakal ghareloo utpaad ki vruddhi ek dashak se jyaada ke liye prati varsh 7.5% ausat se adhik rahi. aaj, 'maaladeev ka sabse bada udyog paryatan hai, iska sakal ghareloo utpaad mein 28% aur maaladeev videshi mudra ki praapti mein 60% se adhik ke liye lekhaankan hai. machhali pakadna doosra pramukh kshetr hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

der December 2004 mein, ek bade soonaami mein 100 se adhik log maare gaye, 12,000 visthaapit hue aur 400 karod dollar se adhik ki sampatti ka nuksaan ho gaya. soonaami ke parinaamasvaroop, 2005 mein sakal ghareloo utpaad kareeb 3.6% anubandh hua. paryatan ke kshetr mein khushahaali lautane lagi, soonaami ke baad punarnirmaan aur nae risaurts ke vikaas se arthavyavastha ko jaldi se theek hone mein madad mili aur 2006 mein 18% ki vruddhi dekhi gayi. 2007 ke aakalan darshaate hain ki, ameer faarasi gulf deshon ko chhod kar anya dakshin Asiaee deshon ke beech maaladeev sarvaadhik sakal ghareloo utpaad prati vyakti 4,600$ (2007 ist) ka aanand uthaata hai.

paryatan

oonche khajoor ke ped aur neeli jheel ke saath vishisht maaladeev samudra tat.

1970 ke dashak tak maaladeev mote taur par paryatakon ke liye ananveshit kshetr tha. hind mahaasaagar mein bhoomadhya rekha ke paar bikhre, maaladeev dveepasamooh ek asaadhaaran adviteeya bhoogol ke roop mein ek chhota sa dweep desh hai. prakruti ne is dveepasamooh ko 1,190 chhote dveepon mein khandit kiya hai, jo 90,000 kilomeetara2 ka maatr 1 pratishat kshetr prayog karte hain. sirf 185 dweep iski 300,000 ki janasankhya ke liye ghar hain, jabki anya dweep poori tarah se aarthik prayojanon ke liye istemaal kiye jaate hain, jinmein paryatan aur krushi sabse adhik prabhaavi hain. sakal ghareloo utpaad ka 28% aur 'maaladeev videshi mudra ki praapti ka 60% se adhik, paryatan khaate mein se aata hai. 90% se adhik sarkaar kar raajasv, aayaat shulk aur paryatan sambandhit karon se aata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]. paryatan ke vikaas ne desh ki arthavyavastha ke samagr vikaas ko badhaava diya hai. isne anya sambandhit udyogon mein pratyaksh aur apratyaksh rojagaar aur aay ke avsar utpaadit kiye hain. pehle paryatan risaurts 1972 mein khole gaye bandos dweep rijaurt aur kurumba gram the.

maaladeev samudra tat video

paryatan mantraalaya ki website ke mutaabik, 1972 mein paryatan ke udbhav se maaladeev ki arthavyavastha badal gayi, iski nirbharata teji se matsya paalan kshetr se paryatan ka kshetr ban gayi. bas saade teen dashak mein, yeh udyog maaladeev ke logon ki aay aur aajeevika ka mukhya srot ban gaya hai. paryatan desh ka sabse bada videshi mudra arjak aur sakal ghareloo utpaad ka sabse bada sahayogi bhi hai. aaj, maaladeev mein 89 sairagaah hain, jinmein 17,000 se adhik bistar ki kshamata hai, yeh paryatakon ko vishv star ki suvidhaaen upalabdh karaate hain, yahaaain paryatakon ki vaarshik aagaman ki sankhya 600,000 se adhik hai.[29]

sairagaahon ki sankhya 1972 aur 2007 ke beech 2 se badh kar 92 ho gayi hai. 2007 mein 8,380,000 se adhik paryatakon ne maaladeev ka daura kiya tha.[30]

vaastav mein sabhi aagantuk, rajdhani maale ke theek bagal mein hulhule dweep par sthit maale antararaashtreeya havaai adde par pahuainchate hain. havaai adda vistrut saarani ki udaanau se upayukt hai, yahaaain Bhaarat, Sri Lanka, dubai aur dakshin poorv Asia ke sabhi pramukh havaai addon ke liye udaanein hain aur saath hi Europe se badhti hui sankhya ke chaartar bhi hain. kai udaanein raaste mein Colombo (Sri Lanka) rookati hain.

adadoo ke dakshini pravaal dweep par sthit gan havaai adda bhi saptaah mein kai baar Milan ki antararaashtreeya udaan ke liye kaarya karta hai.

matsya paalan udyog

bina laateen jalayaan ke ek Dhoni.
maaladeev ki patavaar machhali (kyfosas sinraasasenas)

kai shataabdiyon ke liye maaladeev arthavyavastha poori tarah se machhali paalan aur anya samudri utpaadon par nirbhar tha. machhali pakadna logon ka mukhya vyavasaaya hai aur sarkaar matsya paalan kshetr ke vikaas ko vishesh praathamikta deti hai.

1974 mein, paaramparik machhali pakadne ki naav, Dhoni ka masheeneekaran, matsya paalan udyog aur saamaanya roop se desh ki arthavyavastha ke vikaas ke liye ek mahatvapoorn ghatna thi. 1977 mein, ek Japani company ke saath sanyukt udyam ke roop mein, felivaaroo dweep mein ek machhali kaining yantr sthaapit kiya gaya. 1979 mein, ek matsya salaahakaar board sthaapit kiya gaya, yeh sarkaar ko matsya paalan kshetr ke samagr vikaas ke liye neeti nirdeshon par salaah dene ke janaadesh ke saath banaaya gaya tha. maanav shakti vikaas kaaryakram ki shuruaat 1980 ke dashak ke praarambh mein hui aur matsya paalan shiksha school paathyakram mein shaamil kar di gayi. machhali kul upakaran aur nauvahan eds vibhinn rananeetik ankon mein sthit the. iske alaava, maaladeev ke matsya paalan ke liye vishesh aarthik kshetr (E E Z) ke khulne se matsya paalan kshetr ke vikaas mein ijaafa hua hai. aaj, matsya paalan desh ke sakal ghareloo utpaad mein pandrah pratishat se adhik ka yogadaan deta hai aur desh ke lagbhag tees pratishat logon ko is kaam mein sanlagn karta hain. yeh paryatan ke baad doosra sabse bada videshi mudra arjak hai.

krushi aur kuteer udyog

krushi aur vinirmaan arthavyavastha mein kam bhoomika nibhaate hain, yeh kheti ki jameen ki seemit upalabdhata aur ghareloo shram ki kami ki vajah se baadhya hai. kai mukhya khaadya padaarth aayaat karne hote hain. udyog, jo vastr utpaadan, naav ke nirmaan, hastashilp mein mukhya roop se shaamil hai, sakal ghareloo utpaad ke khaaton mein lagbhag 7% ka yogadaan deinte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]paryatan kshetr ke vikaas ne desh ke anubhavaheen paaramparik kuteer udyogon jaise chataai ki bunaai, lakh ke kaam, hastakala aur naariyl-jata rassi banaane ko mahatvapoorn badhaava diya hai. tab se jo nae udyog ubhar kar aae, un mein chhapaai, PVC pipe ka nirmaan, int banaana, samudri engine ki marammat, soda paani ki botal bharna aur vastr utpaadan shaamil hai.

nyaayapaalika

inhein bhi dekhein: Evolution of the Judiciary in the Maldives

1968 mein ganaraajya ke roop mein samvidhaan laagoo hua (aur 1970, 1972 env 1975 mein iska sanshodhan kiya gaya) yeh nirsit kiya gaya aur 27 November 1997 mein raashtrapati gayoom ki sahamati se doosare samvidhaan ke saath badal diya gaya. yeh samvidhaan 1 January 1998 ko laagoo hua. sabhi ne kaha ki raashtrapati raajya ka pramukh, sarkaar ka pramukh aur sashastr senaaon env maaladeev ki police ka pradhaan senaadhyaksh tha. virodh se teevr dabaav ke tahat dinaank 7 August 2008 ko ek nae samvidhaan ka anumodan hua, jiske tahat nyaayapaalika ki shakti ko raajyapaal se alag kar diya gaya.

maaladeev ke samvidhaan ke anusaar, "nyaayaadheesh svatantr hain aur keval samvidhaan env kaanoon ke adheen hain. jab aise maamale tay kiye jaane hon jis par samvidhaan ya kaanoon ni:shabd hain, tab nyaayaadheeshon ko islaami shariah par vichaar karna chaahiye."

svatantr nyaayik seva aayog, nyaayapaalika ka krod hai, jo nyaayaadheeshon ki niyukti aur barkhaastagi ki nigraani karta hai aur yeh sunishchit karta hai ki nyaayaadheesh apne niymabaddh aacharan ka anumodan karein. vartamaan mein, ek antarim charan mein, ise raashtrapati, asainik seva aayog, sansad, saarvajanik, uchch nyaayaalaya ke nyaayaadheesh, nichli adaalat ke nyaayaadheesh aur Supreme court ke ek sadasya dvaara niyukt kiya jaata hai. janasamooh ke charitra mein antarvirodh, iski aavashyakta hai ki ek Supreme court sadasya janasamooh par maujood ho, bhale hi Supreme court, aayog ki salaah se banana chaahiye.

aayog ki svatantrata par chinta uthaai gayi hai, diye gaye aath antarim sadasya mein, adhyaksh inki niyukt karta hai aur sabhi maujooda nyaayakarta raashtrapati maumoon abdul gayoom ke dvaara pichhle samvidhaan ke adheen niyukt kiye gaye the, unamein se do aayog mein niyukt kiye gaye the.

maaladeev ka Supreme court ek mukhya nyaayaadheesh ki adhyakshata mein hain, jo nyaayapaalika ka pramukh hai. abhi ek antarim manch par raashtrapati ne 5 nyaayaadheesh niyukt kiye, jo sansad dvaara anumodit kiye gaye. antarim adaalat, samvidhaan ke tahat ek nae sthaayi Supreme court ke manoneet hone tak baithegi. Supreme court ke neeche ek uchch nyaayaalaya aur ek nichli adaalat. samvidhaan ko maaladeev ke uchch nyaayaalaya ke liye ek asamaan sankhya ke shaasan ki aavashyakta hai, isliye teen nyaayakartaaon ki niyukt ki jaati hai. kisi bhi faisale ko bahumat dvaara pahuainchaaya jaata hai, lekin usamein ek 'alpasankhyak' report ka shaamil hona bhi zaroori hai.

nav svatantr nyaayapaalika ka ek bhaag hone ke roop mein, ek abhiyojak general niyukt kiya gaya hai, jo sarkaar ki or se adaalat ki kaaryavaahi shuroo karne ke liye jimmedaar hai, vah nireekshan karega ki jaaainch-padtaal kaise aayojit ki jaati hai aur aaparaadhik anusheelata mein bhi usaka nirdesh hoga, yeh kaam pehle attorney general dvaara kiya jaata tha. uske paas jaanch ka aadesh, najarabandiyon par nigraani, lodge ke punarvaad aur maujooda maamalon ki sameeksha karne ki shakti hoti hai. maaladeev ka abhiyojak general, raashtrapati dvaara niyukt kiya jaata hai aur ismein sansad ki manjoori aavashyak hai.

maaladeev ne sanyukt raashtra vikaas kaaryakram (UNDP), ke sahayog se duniya ka pehla muslim aaparaadhik code likhne ka kaarya praarambh kiya. yeh pratyaalekh is chhote se desh mein aaparaadhik nyaaya ki kaaryavaahi ko niymaanuroop karke duniya ka sabse vyaapak aadhunik aaparaadhik code bana dega. code likh diya gaya hai aur sansad dvaara kaarravaai ke intajaar mein hai.

is beech, islaam hi maaladeev ka shaasakeeya dharm hai. anya sabhi dharmon ka khula anusheelan mana hai aur aisi prakriya kaanoon ke tahat mukadama chalaane ke liye uttaradaayi hain. sanshodhit samvidhaan ke lekh do ke anusaar, yeh kaha gaya hai ki ganatantr "islaam ke siddhaanton par aadhaarit hai." anuchhed nau kehta hai ki "ek gair muslim maaladeev ka naagrik naheen ban sakta"; number das kehta hain, islaam ke kisi bhi siddhaant ke vipreet, maaladeev mein koi kaanoon laagoo naheen kiya ja sakta hai." lekh unnees kehta hai ki "naagrikon ko bhaag lene ki ya aisi koi bhi gatividhi karne ki svatantrata hai jo spasht roop se shareeyat ya kaanoon dvaara nishiddh naheen hai."

ek vishesh dharm ka paalan karne aur anya dharmon ki saarvajanik pooja karne par nishedh ki aavashyakta, maanav adhikaar ke saarvalaukik prakhyaapan ke anuchhed 18 aur asainik env raajaneetik adhikaaron ke antarraashtreeya anubandh ke anuchhed 18, jiske maaladeev haalahi mein sahaayak bane hain,[31] ke vipreet hai aur iseeliye anubandh ka paalan karte hue maaladeev aarakshan mein is daave ke saath sambodhit kiya ki, "anubandh ke anuchhed 18 mein diye gaye siddhaant maaladeev ganaraajya ke samvidhaan par pakshapaat kiye bina anuprayog honge."[32]

maaladeev ke saina

maaladeev raashtreeya suraksha bal (MNDF) ek sanyukt suraksha bal hai jo maaladeev ki suraksha aur aadhiptya ki raksha ke liye jimmedaar hai, iska praathamik kaarya hai maaladeev ke sabhi aantarik aur baahya suraksha prayojanon ke liye upasthit hone ki jimmedaari lena, ismein vishesh aarthik kshetron (EEZ) ki suraksha bhi shaamil hai.

aag aur bachaav seva naukaaen.

MNDF sanghatak ki shaakhaaen hain tat rakshak, aag aur bachaav seva, paidal sena seva, prashikshan aur shiksha ke liye suraksha sansthaan (prashikshan samaadesh) aur sahaayata sevaaen.

tat rakshak

ek paani baadhya desh hone ki vajah se iski adhik suraksha chintaaen samudra se jodi hai. desh ka lagbhag 90% bhaag samudra ke dvaara aavrut hai aur shesh 10% jameen 415 kimi x 120 kimi ke kshetr mein faili hui hai, jismein sabse bada dweep adhik se adhik 8 km2 ka hai. isliye maaladeev paani par nigraani rakhane aur videshi ghuspaithiyon dvaara E E Z aur praadeshik jal kshetr mein avaidh shikaar ke khilaaf sanrakshan pradaan karne ke MNDF ko saunpe gaye kartavya donon sainya aur aarthik drushti se kaafi vishaal kaarya hain. isliye, in kaaryon ko karne ke liye tat rakshak ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai. samay par suraksha pradaan karne ke liye iski gashti naukaaen vibhinn MNDF kshetreeya mukhyaalayon mein tainaat rahati hain.

tatarakshak ko samay par tareeke se samudri sankat call ka javaab aur khoj aur bachaav sanchaalan karne ka kaam bhi saunpa jaata hai. samudri pradooshan niyantran abhyaas aisi khatarnaak sthitiyon se nipatne aur unase parichay karne ke liye vaarshik aadhaar par niyamit roop se aayojit kiya jaata hain.

tatarakshak desh bhar ke sena aur sainya upakaranon ke sashastr samudri parivhanon ka upakram karte hain.

hind mahaasaagar aayog

naasa (NASA) ke dvaara maaladeev ki saitelaait chhavi. maaladeev ka sab se dakshini pravaal dweep, adadoo pravaal dweep chhavi mein dikhaai naheen de raha.

1996 ke baad se, maaladeev hind mahaasaagar aayog ka adhikaari pragati anushravan raha hai. 2002 ke baad se, maaladeev ne hind mahaasaagar aayog ke kaam mein ruchi vyakt ki hai lekin sadasyata ke liye aavedan naheen kiya. maaladeev ki abhiroochi ek chhote se dweep raajya ke roop mein apni pehchaan se sambandhit hai, vishesh roop se aarthik vikaas aur paryaavaran sanrakshan ke maamalon ke sambandh mein aur France, jo IOC ke kshetr mein ek mukhya abhineta hai, uske saath nikat sambandh banaane ki ichha. maaladeev, kshetreeya sahayog ki dakshin Asiaee sabha env saark (SAARC) ka sansthaapak sadasya hai aur great Britain se aajaadi paane ke kuchh 17 saal ke baad, great Britain ke poorv sanrakshan ke roop mein 1982 mein raashtramandal mein shaamil hua. maaladeev seshels aur maureeshas ke saath ghanishth sambandhon ka aanand uthaata hai, jo maaladeev ki hi tarah raashtramandal ke sadasya hain. maaladeev aur komoros donon islaami sammelan sangathan ke sadasya bhi hain. maaladeev ne maureeshas ke saath maaladeev aur british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr ke beech samudri seema ke seemaankan par kisi bhi vaarta mein pravesh karne se inkaar kar diya hai, unka kehna hai ki antararaashtreeya kaanoon ke tahat, chhaagos dveepasamooh ki samprabhuta Britain ke saath tiki hai jiske saath baatcheet 1991 mein shuroo hui thi.

bhaasha aur sanskruti

inhein bhi dekhein: Dhivehi language, Dhivehi Writing Systems, Islam in the Maldives, Hinduism in Maldives, Music of the Maldives, evam Maldivian Folklore

थाना लिपि

maaladeev sanskruti Sri Lanka aur dakshin Bhaarat se bhaugolik niktata hone ke kaaran bahut prabhaavit hai.

sarkaari aur aam bhaasha dhivehi hai jo ek Bhaarat-Europeeya bhaasha hai jismein praacheen sinhali bhaasha, iloo ke saath kuchh samaanataaen hain. pehli gyaat lipi likhti hai ki dhivehi, eveyala akuru lipi hai, jo raajaaon (raadhaavaalhi) ke aitihaasik rikaurding mein paaya jaata hai. baad mein ek dheevas akuru naam ki lipi prastut hui aur ek lambi avadhi ke liye prayog ki gayi. vartamaan mein likhit lipi, thaana kahalaai jaati hai aur daahini or se baain or likhi jaati hai. kaha jaata hai ki thaana mohammad thaakurufaanu ke shaasan dvaara shuroo ki gayi hai. angreji vaanijya mein vyaapak roop se istemaal ki jaati hai aur teji se sarkaari schoolon mein shiksha ka maadhyam bhi ban rahi hai.

bhaasha ek indik saanskrutik mool ki hai, jismein uttarakaaleen ka prabhaav upamahaadveep ke uttar se hai. dantakathaaon ke anusaar, aaleeshaan vansh jo ateet mein desh ka shaasan karta tha, usaka mool vahaan ka hai.

sanbhavat: yeh praacheen raaja, bauddh dharm upamahaadveep se laae the, lekin maaladeev dantakathaaon mein yeh spasht naheen hai. Sri Lanka mein isi tarah ki dantakathaaen hain, tathaapi, yeh asambhav hai ki praacheen maaladeev raajaparivaar aur bauddh dharm donon us dweep se aae kyonki Sri Lanka ka koi bhi itivrut maaladeev ka ullekh naheen karta. yeh avishvasaneeya hai ki praacheen Sri Lanka ka koi bhi itivrut maaladeev ka ullekh karne mein asafal hota, agar uske raajya ki ek shaakha maaladeev dweep samooh ki or badi hoti.[33]

islaami kendra, jismein masjid masjid-al sultaan mohammad thaakurufaanu-al- ejaऍm ka aavaas hai.

maaladeev itihaas mein bauddh dharm[34] ke lambe kaal ke baad, muslim vyaapaariyon ne sunni islaam ki shuruaat ki. maaladeev vaasi, madhya 12 veen shataabdi tak dharmaantarit kar diye gaye. dweep mein sufik aadeshon ka ek lamba itihaas hai, aisa desh ke itihaas mein dekha ja sakta hai jaise ki makabaron ka nirmaan. yeh makabare haal hi mein 1980 ke dashak tak mare hue santon se sahaayata praapt karne ke liye istemaal kiye jaate the. yeh aaj, maaladeev ke kuchh puraane masjidon ke bagal mein dekhe ja sakte hai aur aaj ek saanskrutik viraasat ke roop mein maane jaate hain. tassavuf ke anya pahalu jaise maauloodoo (Maulūadu) kahalaaye jaane waali vidhishaastareeya dhikr reeti, jiske praarthana karne ki reeti mein kuchh hi samay poorv tak ek maadhurya svar mein anuvaachan aur kuchh praarthanaaeain shaamil thi. yeh maauloodoo (Maulūadu) tyohaar is avsar ke liye vishesh taur par nirmit alankrut teint mein aayojit kiya jaata hai. vartamaan mein, sunni islaam sampoorn janasankhya ka aadhikaarik dharm hai, naagarikta paane ke liye iska paalan karna aavashyak hai.

12 veen shataabdi mein islaam ko saamaanya roopaantaran aur keindreeya hind mahaasaagar mein ek chauraahe ke roop mein apni jagah banaane se, 12 veen shataabdi Eddy ke baad se maaladeev ki bhaasha aur sanskruti par arab ka bhi bahut prabhaav pada hai. yeh madhya poorv aur atyant poorv ke beech lambe vyaapaar ke itihaas ke kaaran hua tha. somaali samudri daakooon ne baad mein, purtagaaliyon se pehle, 13 veen sadi mein sone ke liye dweep ki khoj ki. unka sankshipt thaharaav baad mein somaalion dvaara kahalaaye jaane vaale "dagaal deeg badaani" khooni sangharsh mein 1424 mein samaapt hua.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/s' not found. luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/a' not found. luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/c' not found. luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/g' not found.

  • maaladeev mein islaam
  • maaladeev mein ibn batoota

sandarbh

  1. CIA Population Division (2009). "CIA World Fact Book" (.html). 2009 revision. US. abhigman tithi:
  2. http://www.planning.gov.mv/publications/PRELIMINARY_RESULTS_FINAL_25032006.zip
  3. a aa i E "Maldives". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=556&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=83&pr.y=10. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-01.
  4. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.
  5. http://www.smartmaldives.com/maldives-island.html
  6. a aa http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/nov/11/climatechange-endangered-habitats-maldives
  7. J hoganadorn aur M Johnson, the shel mani of the slev trade, pap 20-22.
  8. aapte, vaaman shivraam (1985). sanskrut-angreji shabdakosh. Motilal banaaraseedaas, nai Delhi, 1985.
  9. ibn batoota, trevals in Asia end Africa. A.aar. gibb dvaara anuvaadit.
  10. akhbaar al-sinn va L-hind (cheen aur Bhaarat par nots), jo 851 se dinaankit hai.
    http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200504/the.seas.of.sindbad.htm Saudi araamako world patrika, khand 56, ank 4, the seej of sinbaad, itihaasakaar aur arabist paul lund dvaara
  11. http://www.maldivesroyalfamily.com/maldives_roman_links.shtml maaladeev shaahi parivaar website
  12. "Average Conditions Maldives". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 2010-09-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20100911111523/http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT004820. abhigman tithi: December 10 2009.
  13. Bruce C. Douglas (1997). "Global Sea Rise: A Redetermination". Surveys in Geophysics 18: 279–292. doi:10.1023/A:1006544227856.
  14. vishveeya samudra star vruddhi mein ek 20 veen sadi badhotri
  15. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/nov/10/maldives-climate-change
  16. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/nov/10/maldives-climate-change svarg lagbhag kho diya: maaladeev vaasi ek naya desh khareedna chaahate hain. the gaarjiyn.
  17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7944760.stm maaladeev ke liye kaarban-nishpaksh lakshya. BBC (BBC)
  18. Lang, Olivia. "Maldives leader in climate change stunt". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8312320.stm. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-19.
  19. jeviyrs romero-frias, the maaladeev aaileindaraj, a stadi of the popyular kalchar of N enshiyent oshan kingadam
  20. Maloney, Clarence. "Maldives People". http://www.iias.nl/iiasn/iiasn5/insouasi/maloney.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-22.
  21. "Maldives Royal Family". http://www.maldivesroyalfamily.com/maldives_proclamation_sultan.shtml.
  22. a aa "Maldives Royal Family". http://www.maldivesroyalfamily.com/maldives_koimala.shtml.
  23. a aa i E bait (BAT)
  24. http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1383
  25. maaladeev http://www.maldives-ethnography.com/Maldives
  26. http://www.statoids.com/umv.html statoids.com se maaladeev pravaal dweep
  27. a aa divehiraajjege jografige vanaavaaroo . muhammadu Ibrahim lutfi
  28. udaaharan ke liye jaise thor heyerd: ki pustak the maaladeev mistri
  29. paryatan mantraalaya ki website; http://www.tourism.gov.mv/, 03 April 2009 ko aikses kiya gaya.
  30. report 'fathuruverikmuge thaaraggeege dhuveli, 35 aharoo' angreji mein anuvaad 'pace of toorijm, 35 iarj' ministri of toorijm end civil eviyeshan, ank 23 http://tourism.gov.mv/pubs/35_years_of_tourism_final.pdf; 03 April 2009 ko aikses kiya gaya
  31. http://www.foreign.gov.mv/v3/?p=menu_item&sub_id=21&submenu=Human%20Rights%20and%20Democracy
  32. http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v q=cache:vDo8t9r8544J:www.internat-recht.uni-kiel.de/veranstaltungen/lehrveranstaltungen/ss09/giegerich/vrII/materialien/PubIntLIIMaldives.pdf+maldives+%22international+covenant%22&hl=en&gl=us&sig=AFQjCNH5ZrO4bqRO0D_sET5MrodSBbxEpg
  33. klaareins mailoni; peepal of the maaladeev aaileindj
  34. http://www.maldivesstory.com.mv/site%20files/after%20islam/latest/conversion-frames.htm sheershakaheen pralekh www.maldivesstory.com.mv par

aage pathan

  • diveheeraajjege jogaraafij (Jōagrafīage) vanaavaaroo . muhammadu Ibrahim lutfi. ji sosani (Sōasanī). 1999 maale (Malé).
  • H.C.P. bail, the maaladeev aaileindj, N account of fijikl fecharj, histari, inhebeeteintas, prodakts end trade. Colombo 1883, ISBN 81-206-1222-1
  • HCP bail, the maaladeev aaileindj; monograaf onn the histari, arkioloji end epigrafi . 1940 Colombo punarmudran. kaaunsil for linguistik end historikl research. maale' 1989
  • HCP bail, ekssarpata maaladiviana . Colombo 1922/35 punarmudran ideeen. Asiaee shaikshik seva. nai Delhi - 1999
  • Xavier romero-frias, the maaladeev aaileindarj, a stadi of the popular kalchar of N enshiyent oshan kingadam . 1999 Barcelona, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
  • divehi taareekh: au alikmeh divehi bahaai taareekh: khidmaiykur kaumi markaju 1958 idan punarmudran. 1990 maale.
  • Christopher, 1836-38 William. taraanjekashann of the jiografikl society, vol.1. Mumbai.
  • lieutenant. aai.A. yang end va. Christopher, memoirj onn the inhebiteints of the maaladeev aaileindj .
  • geejar, vilhelam. maaladeev linguistik stadeej . 1919 ideeen punarmudran. Asiaee shaikshik seva. 1999 Delhi.
  • hokli, ti.va. the too thaaujeind aailj . 1835 ideeen punarmudran. Asiaee shaikshik seva. 2003 Delhi.
  • hideyuki taakaahaashi, ' maaladeev national sikyoritee– end the tharets of marsenaaris, the round table (landan), na. 351, July 1999, pap. 433-444.
  • maltein, Thomas: maledivn end lakkaadivein. materialaen joor bibliyograafi dar atolle im indischen ojeinn. bitrej joor sudasiyeain-faurasachang sudasiyeain- insteetayoot yunivrasitet-heedaelabarg, nrar. 87. fraanj steenar varlag. visbadeinn, 1983.
  • vilgonn, laars: maaladeev aur minikauya aaileinds bibliografi vid the lakshadveep aaileind. lekhak dvaara prakaashit kiya. staukahom, 1994.

baahari link