maaikalasan morle prayog

maaikalasan morle ka vyatikranamaapi yantr.

maaikalasan-morle prayog (angreji: Michelson–Morley experiment), albart mishelasan aur Edward morle dvaara 1887 mein kiya gaya prayog hai. kai baar ise maaikalasan morle vyatikranamaapi bhi kaha jaata hai. is prayog ke parinaam ne ithar siddhaant (aether) ko asatya siddh kar diya. is prayog ne paramparaagat raaste se hatkar us raaste par kadam badhaaya jo vaigyaanik samaaj ko 'dviteeya vaigyaanik kraanti' ki disha mein le gaya. vishisht aapekshikta ke moolabhoot pareekshan karne vaale teen prayog hain- maaikalasan morle prayog, ivs-istivel prayog (Ives–Stilwell) tatha kenedi-thaurnadaaik prayog (Kennedy–Thorndike experiments).

bhoomika

san 1887 mein e0 e0 maaikelsan aur i0 dablyoo0 maurli ne milkar ithar mein ghoomti hui pruthvi ka veg gyaat karne ka prayaas is poorvaanumaan par kiya ki pruthvi ke veg ka prabhaav prakaash ke veg par padta hai. kintu maaikelsan aur maurli prakaash ke veg par pruthvi ke veg ka koi bhi prabhaav gyaat karne mein asafal rahe. in dono vaigyaaniko ki asafalata hi aainstaain ke aapekshikta siddhaant ki janmadaatri hai. yeh prayog baar-baar doharaaya gaya kyonki yeh aapekshikta siddhaant ke liye mahatvapoorn tha (1902 se 1905 tak tatha fir 1920 ke dashak mein ki gayi prayogon ki shrunkhala) . is prayog mein maaikelsan ne svanirmit vyatikranamaapi ka upayog kiya tha (dekhein, maaikelsan vyatikranamaapi.

prayog ki vyavastha

maaikelsan ka vyatikranamaapi:
A - ekavarni prakaash srot
B - ardhaparaavartanakaari darpan
C - darpan
D - sansoochak (ditektar)
maaikelsan ke vyatikranamaapi ka yojanaamoolak chitr (kintu ismein lejar ka upayog kiya gaya hai.
maaikelsan-maarli prayog mein paraspar do abhilmb dishaaon mein koi phase-shift naheen mila, kintu ithar ki maujoodagagi mein aisa hona chaahiye tha.

baanyi or se ek prakaash kiran darpan B par aati hai . yeh darpan, ardh darpan hai jis par chaaaindi ka patala star hota hai, jisse keval 50 pratishat prakaash paraavartit hokar doosare darpan C (isko C1 maanein) ki or jaata hai aur shesh 50 pratishat prakaash paaragamit hokar seedha teesare darpan C (isko C2 maanein) darpan par aapatit hota hai. ye dono darpan C ek-doosare ke lambavat hain. prakaash ke ye do kirnapunj kramash: donon C darpanon se paraavartit hokar pun: B darpan par aapatit hoti hai aur prekshak in donon kirnon ke dvaara vyatikran ki dhaariyon (fringes) ko ek saath dekh sakta hai. yadi B se donon C darpan samaan doori par hon to, in dhaariyon mein se keindreeya dhaari chamakeeli hoti hai.

B darpan se donon C darpanon ki doori mein bahut thoda antar bhi ho to in do prakaashakirnon mein se ek ko pahuainchane mein usi ke anupaat mein thoda vilamb hoga aur keindreeya dhaari svalp maatra mein vichlit hogi. keindreeya dhaari ke sthaan vichlan ke maapan se in do kirnon ke sancharan (propagation) ke kaal ka antar gyaat ho sakta hai. B se C1 aur C1 ke antar yadyapi theek-theek baraabar hon, kintu maan lein kisi kaaran BC1 aur BC2 paraspar abhilanb dishaaon mein prakaash ka veg bhinn hota ho, to bhi keindreeya dhaari visthaapit hogi aur is visthaapan ka maapan kar in do dishaaon mein prakaash ke veg gyaat kiye ja sakte hain.

ithar ki parikalpana ke anusaar prakaash ka veg in do abhilanb dishaaon mein bhinn hona svaabhaavik tatha aavashyak hona chaahiye. nyootaneeya antariksh ek svatantr satta hai aur usamein ithar bhara hua hai. yeh ithar sthir hota hai. jab pruthvi is sthir ithar mein soorya ki parikrama karti hai, tab 'itharavaat' (ether wind) utpann hoga. ham kalpana kareinge ki 'itharavaat' BC2 disha mein hai (arthaat BC2 pruthvi ka tal hai) aur usaka veg va (v) hai. yeh veg vastut: keval pruthvi ki saur parikrama ka hi veg naheen rahega kintu pruthvi ki saur parikrama ka veg, saur mandal ka veg, aakaashaganga (jismein saur mandal hai) ka veg ityaadi sarvasanbhaavya vegon ka parinaami veg hoga. BC2 disha mein prakaashakirn ka pratham sancharan (c+v) veg se aur lautate samay sancharan (c-v) veg se hoga, jahaaain (c) prakaash ka veg hai. BC1 disha 'itharavaat' se abhilanb hai.

maaikelsan-maurli prayog mein keindreeya dhaari ka visthaapan naheen hua.

yeh sambhav hai ki 'itharavaat' jaisa BC2 disha mein samjha gaya vaisa naheen hoga, kintu kisi anya disha mein hoga. is shanka ka bhi nirsan is prayog mein hua. maaikelsan-maurli prayog mein vyatikranamaapi ek shila par drudhta se sthaapit tha, jiska prushth 150 seinmeeo aur motaai 30 semee0 thi (sabse oopar wala chitr dekhein). lohe ke vrutteeya haude mein paara bharakar usamein yeh shila rakhi gayi thi aur shila vyatikranamaapi sahit paare mein tair sakti thi. vyatikranamaapi ko is prakaar tairata rakhane se do laabh the : ek to kanpanon se hone wala upadrav nasht ho gaya aur doosra, prayog karte samay vyatikranamaapi ko poornat: ghumaana sambhav hua. is prakaar vyatikranamaapi ke ghumaate samay kisi ek kshan par BC2 disha 'itharavaat' ki disha mein aur BC1 shdisha abhilanb hogi. at: prekshan karte samay vyatikranamaapi ko ghoornan diya jaae to keindreeya dhaari ka visthaapan kramash: kam athva adhik hota rahega, athva doosare shabdon mein keindreeya dhaari ka vishisht antar mein dolan hota rahega. prayog ka adhik samvedi banaane ke liye, prakaash ke pathon ki vruddhi ki gayi thi, jiske liye vyatikran ke poorv darpanon se prakaashakirnon ka baar-baar paraavartan kiya gaya tha. aavashyak sudhaar tatha saavadhaaniyaaain rakhane par bhi keindreeya dhaari ka visthaapan naheen hua aur jo kuchh atyant svalp maatra ka vichlan praapt hua vah praayogik truti ke antargat tha. at: 'itharavaat' ka astitv praamaanit naheen hua.

maaikelsan-maurli prayog ki shrunkhala ke parinaamon ko sankshep mein is tarah kah sakte hai ki ithar mein ghoomti hui pruthvi ka veg prakaash ke veg par koi prabhaav naheen daalata hai, at: prakaash ke veg ki sahaayata se pruthvi ka veg naheen gyaat kiya ja sakta.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • maaikelsan vyatikranamaapi (Michelson's interferometer)