maagadhi

maagadhi us praakrut ka naam hai jo praacheen kaal mein magadh (dakshin Bihar) pradesh mein prachalit thi. is bhaasha ke ullekh mahaaveer aur buddh ke kaal se milte hain. jain aagamon ke anusaar teerthakar mahaaveer ka upadesh isi bhaasha athva usi ke roopaantar ardhamaagadhi praakrut mein hota tha. paali tripitk mein bhi bhagavaan‌ buddh ke upadeshon ki bhaasha ko maagadhi kaha gaya hai.

anukram

visheshataaeain

praakrut vyaakaranon ke anusaar maagadhi praakrut ke teen vishesh lakshan the--

  • (1) r ke sthaan par l ka uchchaaran, jaise raaja > laaja ;
  • (2) s sh sh in teenon ke sthaan par sh ka uchchaaran, jaise parush > pulish, daasi > daashi, yaasi > yaashi ;
  • (3) akaaraant shbdon ke kartaakaarak ekavachan ki vibhkti 'A', jaise nar > nale.

samraat ashok ki poorveeya pradeshavarti kaalasi aur jaugadh ki dharmalipiyon mein poorvokt teen lakshanon mein se pratham aur truteeya ye do lakshan prachurata se paae jaate hain, kintu doosra naheen. jainaagamon mein teesari pravrutti bahulata se pai jaati hai, tatha pratham pravruti alp maatra mein; doosari pravrutti yahaaain bhi naheen hai. isi kaaran vidvaan ashok ki poorv praadesheeya lipiyon ki bhaasha ko jain aagamon ke samaan ardhamaagadhi maanane ke paksh mein hain. kuchh praacheen lekhon mein, jaise raagadh parvatashreni ki jogeemaara gufa ke lekh mein, maagadhi ki ukt teenon pravruttiyaaain paryaapt roop se pai jaati hai. kintu jis paali tripitk mein Bhagwan buddh ke upadeshon ki bhaasha ko maagadhi kaha gaya hai, un granthon mein swayam kuchh apavaadon ko chhodkar maagadhi ke ukt teen lakshanon mein se koi bhi naheen milta. iseeliye paali granthon ki aadhaarbhoot bhaasha ko maagadhi na maankar shauraseni maanane ki or vidvaanon ka jhukaav hai.

magadhi praakrut mein likha hua koi svatantr saahitya upalabdh naheen hai, kintu khandash: uske udaaharan hamein praakrut vyaakaranon evam sanskrut naatakon jaise shakutanla, mudraaraakshas, mruchhakatik aadi mein milte hain. bharat naatyashaastr ke anusaar gangaasaagar arthaat‌ ganga se lekar samudra tak ke poorveeya pradeshon mein ekaarabahul bhaasha ka prayog kiya jaana chaahiye. unhonne kaha hai ki raajaaon ke ant:pur nivaasi maagadhi bolein, tatha raajaputr seth chet ardhamaagadhi. mruchhakatik mein shakaar, vasantasena aur chaarudatt in teenon ke chetak, tatha sanvaahak, bhikshu aur chaarudatt ka putr ye chhah paatr maagadhi bolte hain.

sandarbh granth

  • pishl krut granth ka hindi anuvaad--praakrut bhaashaaon ka vyaakaran;
  • dineshachandr sarkaar : graamar ov di praakrut laingvej;
  • voolavar : introduction tu praakrut

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain