maadakata

maadak padaarthon ke sevan se utpann sthiti ko davya maadakata (Substance intoxication) kehte hain.

vyasan shabd angreji ke 'edikt' shabd ka roopaantaran hai jisse shaareerik nirbharata ki sthiti prakat heti hai. vyasan ka abhipraaya shareer sanchaalan ke liye maadak padaarth ka niyamit prayog karna hai anyatha shareer ke sanchaalan mein baadha utpann hoti hai. vyasan na keval ek vichlit vyavahaar hai apitu ek gambheer saamaajik samasya bhi hai. tanaavon, vishdon, chintaaon evam kunthaaon se chhutakaara paane ke liye vyakti kai baar asaamaajik maarg apnaakar nashon ki aur badhne lagta hai, jo ki use maatr kuchh samay ke liye use aaraam dete hain. kisi prakaar ka vyasan (nasha) na keval vyakti ki kaaryakshamata ko kam karta hai apitu yeh samaaj aur raashtra donon ke liye haanikaarak hai. nasheele padaartho ki praapti hetu vyakti, ghar, mitr aur pados takamein chori evam aparaadhi kriyaaon ko anjaam dene lagta hai. svaasthya ki drushti se dekha jaae to vyasan vibhinn bimaariyon ko aamantran deta hai. raashtreeya evam antarraashtreeya star par yeh taskari, aatankvaad evam deshdrohi gatividhiyon ko badhaava deta hai. saamaajik drushti se juaa, veshyaavruti, aatankvaad, dakaiti, maarapeet, dange anushaasanaheenata jaisi saamaajik samasyaaeain vyasan se hi sambandhit hain. vyasani vyakti deerghakaaleen nashon ki sthiti mein unmatt rahata hai tatha nasheele padaarth par vyakti maanasik evam shaareerik taur par poornataya aashrit ho jaata hai, jiske haanikaarak prabhaav keval vyakti hi naheen apitu uske parivaar aur samaaj par bhi padte hain.

anukram

prakaar

mukhya roop se 6 prakaar ki maadak dravya upayog kiye jaate hain-

  • 1. sharaab
  • 2. avasaadak/shaantikr padaarth (sedative and hypnotic)
  • 3. uttejak padaarth (stimulant )
  • 4. naarkotik/svaapak (narcotic)
  • 5. bhramotpaadak
  • 6. nikoteen

sharaab

sharaab ka sevan yadi kam ya seemit maatra mein kiya jaae to ise kai deshon mein saamaajik roop se theek maana jaata hai saamaanyataya iska sevan sukh, ek samaajik kriya, prerana ya uttejana ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. sharaab ke sevan ke peechhe kai saamaajik, saanskrutik kaarak bhi uttaradaayi hote hain jaise uchch vargon mein saamaajik roop se iske sevan ko maanyata di jaati hai. berojgaari, bachapan mein maata pita ki mrutyu, pati-patni ka kaamkaaji hona, mitron ka dabaav, fashion, vigyaapan aadi aise kaarak hain jisse vyakti mein sharaab ya madiraapaan ki aadat viksit hoti hai. vyasan vartamaan samaaj ki ek gambhir samasya hai iski gambheerata ko do aadhaaron par dekha ja sakta hai :

  • (1) keval Bhaarat mein hi naheen vishv star par iske nivaaran hetu kaaryakram banaane ke prayaas kiye ja rahe hai,
  • (2) vartamaan samay mein kam aayu yuva peedhi tatha vidyaalaya aur mahaavidyaalaya mein bhi iske sevan ka prachalan nirntar badhta ja raha hai.

iske sevan ka ek bada kaaran chintaaon aur tanaavon se kshanik mukti praapt karna hai. dheere-dheere yeh use vyasani bana deti hai. yeh ek shaantikr padaarth hai yadyapi yeh nason ko shaant karte hue tanaav ko kam karti hai. parantu saath hi iske adhik sevan se nirnaya kshamata mand hone lagti hai.

shaamak/avasaadak/shaantikr padaarth

vyasan ke is prakaar mein shaantidaayak ya peedaashaamak maadak padaarth aate hain. shaamak ya avasaadak padaarth kendreeya naadeemandal ko ashakt karte hue neend utpann karte hain. at: iska prabhaav shaantikaarak hota hai. is shreni mein traikvilaaijar (shaanti pradaan karne vaale dravya) aur baarbityuret aate hain. saamaanyataya in dravyon ka prayog shalya chikitsa ke poorv aur baad mein rogiyon ke aaraam aur shithileekaran ke liye kiya jaata hai . isi prakaar se chikitseeya drushti se uchch raktachaap, anidra aur mirgi ke rogi ko upachaar dene ke liye bhi shamak dravyon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. kam maatra mein lene par vyakti ko shithilta ka anubhav karaate hue ye dravya saans ki gati va dil ki dhadkan ko dheema kar vyakti ko aaraam pahuainchaate hain, lekin adhik maatra mein in padaarthon ka prayog vyakti ko chidchida, aalasi aur nishkreeya bana deta hai. shaamak dravyon ka nirdhaarit maatra se adhik khuraak ke roop mein prayog vyasani ke sochane, kaam karne, dhyaan dene ki shakti ko kam karte hue bhayaavah sthiti ko utpann karta hai.

uttejak padaarth

uttejak dravya adhikaanshat: mukh se liye jaate hain lekin kuchh padaarth jaise methedreen injekshaan dvaara bhi liye jaate hain. in padaartho ka vyasan karne vaale vyaktiyon mein shaareerik nirbharata ki tulana mein maanasik nirbharata adhik hoti hai at: achaanak band kar diye jaane par ye maanasik avasaad utpann karte hai aur vyakti ki sthiti bhayaavah ho jaati hai . uttejak maadak padaarthon ka sevan nidra aur udaasi ko door karte hue vyakti ka chust, sakriya aur furteela banaata hai. daiaaktar dvaara aimfetaamaain ki madhyam doj thakaan ko niyantrit karti hai inmein kaifeen aur kokeen bhi sammilit hai parantu aimfetaamaain ka deerghakaalik bhaari upayog bauddhik, bhaavanaatmak, saamaajik aur aarthik vikaaron ko utpann karta hai. aparaadh jagat mein aimfetaain 'apars' ya 'pepapils drag' ke naam se mashaahoor hai. in uttejak padaarthon ko achaanak band kar dene se maanasik bimaariyaan va aatmahatya janya avasaad utpann hote hain.

naarkotik/svaapak/tandraakar padaarth

afeem ke vibhinn roop mein upalabdh charas, gaanja, bhaang, hairoin (smaik, brown shugar maarafeen, paithedeen) aadi vyasan ki naarkotik shreni mein sammilit hain aur praay: paudhon se praapt hote hain. vyakti in padaarthon ka vyasani chinta, udaasi, aur vivaad ko door karne ke prayaas ke kaaran ho jaata hain . tandraakar padaarth shaamak padaarthon ke samaan hi naadeemandal par avasaadak prabhaav utpann kar vyasani vyakti mein aanand, saamarthya, himmat, jaisi bhaavanaaon ko utpann karte hain. hairoin maarfeen, pethedeen aur kokeen ya to kash ke roop mein liye jaate hai ya fir taral padaarth ke roop mein injekshan dvaara afeem, gaanja, charas aadi ko vyakti ya to naak se kheenchata hai ya chilm ka sahaara leta hai lekin in sabhi padaarthon ka atyadhik prayog vyakti ki bhookh kam karta hai. naarkotik padaarthon ka sevan band kar dene se antim doj lene ke 8 se 12 ghante baad kampann, paseena aana, dast michlaahat pet va taangon mein ainthan, maanasik vedana jaise lakshan prakat hone lagte hain. in sab avasthaaon se gujarane par vyakti mahasoos karta hai ki jaise vah jeete ji narak bhogakar aaya hai.

gaanje ki adhik maatra lati vyakti ko aanand ki apeksha aatank mahasoos karaata hai tatha iska sevan band kar dene par vyakti achaanak hinsak ho uthata hai ya paagalon ke samaan sadko par daudne lagta hai. is shreni ke sabhi utpaad koshika ki saari kaaryavaahi ko ast-vyast kar dete hain. mastishk ki koshikaaon ke saath aisa hone par asaadhaaran sanvedanaayein ubharane lagti hain.

vibhraamaatmak padaarth / bhraamotpaadak / bhraantijnak padaarth

in padaarthon mein sarvaadhik vyasan L.S.di. (LSD) ka kiya jaata hai . yeh ek krutrim raasaayanik padaarth hai. yeh nasheela padaarth itna shaktishaali hai ki iski ek tole se hi teen lakh doj banaaye jaate hain. namak ke daane se bhi kam iski maatra manushya mein kai manorogamaya pratikriyaaeain utpann karta hai. is padaarth ke sevan ke 8-10 ghante tak neend aana lagbhag asambhav hai. L.S.di. lene ke pashchaat gaanje ke samaan hi flaishabaik ki ghatna praarambh ho jaati hai, vyakti hinsak hokar aparaadh bhi kar baithata hai tatha yeh poorn bhram ki sthiti utpann karte hain. chikitsakon ke dvaara in padaarthon ke sevan ki salaah kabhi naheen di jaati, aise padaarthon ka sevan band kar dene par atibhya, avasaad, sthaayi maanasik asanyam paida ho jaata hai.

taamrakooti / nikoteen padaarth

taamrakooti padaarthon mein cigarette, beedi, sigaar, churoot, naas (Snuff) tambaakoo sammilit hain. tambaakoo ki kheti ki jaati hai jiske patte chaude aur kadve hote hain. taamrakooti padaarthon ka koi chikitkeeya upayog naheen hota parantu shaareerik nirbharata ka jokhim rahata hain . yeh vyasani mein shithiln paida kar kendreeya naadeemandal ko uttejit karti hai tatha ubaaoopan ko door karti hai. tambaakoo ka adhik sevan dil ki beemaari, fainfade ke Cancer, shvaas nali jaise rog utpann karta hai. iska sevan teen prakaar se kiya jaata hai :-

  • 1. dhoomrapaan dvaara,
  • 2. nasya ya soonghane se,
  • 3. paan mein rakhakar ya choone ke saath malakar.

parantu log ise nasha naheen maanate kyonki is padaarth ko chhodne ke koi apanayan lakshan naheen hone va aparaadh ka kaaran naheen banane ke kaaran kaanoon bhi ise nasho ki shreni mein naheen rakhata. vibhinn shaharon mein dravya vyasan ki dar 17 se 25 pratishat ke beech milti hai. jinmein tambaakoo evam sharaab ke lagbhag 65 pratishaat se adhik vyasani mil jaate hain.

rokathaam ke upaaya

nasha vishvabhar ki ek gambheer samasya hai at: is samasya ke liye sanyukt aakraman ki aavashyakta hai jismein vyasaniyon ka upachaar, saamaajik upaaya, shiksha aadi sammilit hai. aadhunik samaaj mein janasankhya ki sanrachana mein hone vaale parivartan evam saamaajik vikaas se samaaj ke vibhinn kshetron mein pratiyogi prakriyaaain kaafi teevr ho gayi hain jiska spasht prabhaav vibhinn saamaajik sansthaaon par dikhaai deta hai . logon ka alagaav, tanaav aur avasaad se maanasik santulan gadbadaane laga hai, yahi kaaran hai ki maadak padaartho ke sevan ka pratishat gaanv, nagar, vidyaalaya evam mahaavidyaalaya aur mahilaaon mein badhta ja raha hai. at: saamaajik vidyatan ko rokane ke liye vyasan ki is aniyantrit sthiti par niyantran aavashayak hai .

samaajashaastreeya drushti se vyasan ki rokathaam ke liye kiye jaane vaale upaayon ko mote taur par chaar shreniyon mein vibhaajan kiya ja sakta hai - (1) shaikshanik upaaya (2) pravartak upaaya (manaane vaale) (3) suvidhaajanak upaaya aur (4) dandaatmak upaaya.

in upaayon mein se adhikaanshat: shaukshanik upaayon mein nashe ke shaareer aur man par padne vaale prabhaav ke sambandh mein gyaan pradaan kar jaagrukta laane ka prayaas kiya jaata hai taaki nasheele padaarth ke sevan ke prati bhaya utpann ho jaae. jabki dandaatmak upaaya mein nasha karne vaalon ka alagaav ya visanbandhan kiya jaata hai . vyasan ki rokathaam ke liye kiye jaane vaale pramukh upaayon mein nimn baaton ko dhyaan rakha jaana chaahiye .

shaukshanik upaaya

shaukshanik upaayon ko apnaate samay yeh vyakti ko jo tathya, sanket ya nishaan diye jaate hai ve bhaarateeya sanskruti ke sandarbh mein hone chaahiye . Bhaarat mein saaksharata ki dar kam hone ke kaaran likhit jaankaari ki apeksha nukkad naatak, poster, chalachitron evam TV aadi ke maadhyam se isse hone vaale bure prabhaav ko pradarshit kiya jaana chaahiye, saath hi nasha karne vaale vyaktiyon ki saamaajik-aarthik sthiti, ling, dhaarmik vishvaas, upasanskruti evam paarivaarik samasyaaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue in upaayon ko apnaaya jaana chaahiye. shiksha dene ke lakshit samoohon mein college, vishvavidyaalayon ke yuva chhaatron, chhaatraavaason mein rahane vaale chhaatron, kachchi bastiyon mein rahane vaale logon, audyaugik shramikon, truck chaalakon evam riksha chaalakon ko adhik sammilit kiya jaana chaahiye.

vaidhaanik upaaya

maadak padaarthon ke sevan ki rokatham ka ek mahatvapoorn upaaya vaidhaanikprayaas hai . britishkaal mein 1893 sarvapratham raayal aayog ka gathan kar maadak padaartho ke sevan ki samasya ki rokathaam ka kadam uthaaya gaya . sarkaar dvaara 1985 mein maadak padaartho ki taskari ki rokatham ke liye 'the naarakotik, drags va saaikotraapik sabsatasij act' banaakar 14 November 1985 se laagoo kiya gaya . jiske ulanghan par kathor kaaraavaas evam jurmaana donon ko nirdhaarit kiya gaya hai. is kaanoon ki safalta ke liye niyamon ka kathorata se paalan karne ke saath maadak padaarthon ka vyaapaar karne vaale vyaktiyon taskaron evam shadyankaariyon ko pakadnemein janta ka sahayog bhi liya ja sakta hai . is antarraashtreeya samasya ko badhne se rokane ke liye sthaaneeya nikaayon ko majaboot banaana hoga evam iske kraya vikraya ko poorn roop se rokana anivaarya karna hoga .

chikitsakeeya upaaya

vyasan ko rokane mein chikitsakon ki aham bhoomika hoti hai. baajaar mein milne waali neend ki davaaiyon, avasaad virodhi davaaiyon, dardanaak davaaiyon aur khaansi ki davaaiyon mein paaye jaane vaale padaarth kuchh samay tak niyamit sevan se vyakti ko lati bana dete hai. at: dravyon ke aushadh nirdesh dene sambandhi abhivrutiyaaain sakaaraatmak honi chaahiye, arthaat chikitsak ko yeh spasht roop bataana chaahiye ki rogi dravyon ke atirikt prabhaavon ki avhelna naheen kare evam bina chikitsakeeya paraamarsha ke dava lene mein satarkata barte.

saamaajik upaaya

shiksha aur chikitsa ke samaan vyasan ki rokathaam mein vibhinn saamaajik samoohon ke sahayog ki avhelna naheen ki ja sakti. saamaajik upaayon mein parivaar naatedaar, mitr aur svaichhik sangathan sammilit hain. is adhyaaya mein aapne jaana ki parivaar aur mitr samooh vyakti ke jeevan ko is disha mein prabhaavit karne vaale praathamik tatv hain. maata-pita ki upeksha, adhik virodh va vaivaahik asaamanjasya vyakti ko vyasan ki or le jaanevaale pramukh kaaran hain. at: maata-pita ko chaahiye ki ve paarivaarik paryaavar n ko adhik saamanjasyapoorn banaae rakhane ka prayaas karein jisse kam se kam bachche ghar ke baahar rahakar maadak padaarthon ke sevan ke liye prerit naheen honge. maata-pita ko bachche ke asaamaajik vyavahaar tatha vipthagaami vyavahaar jaise adhyayan va abhiroochiyon aadi kriyaaon mein kam roochi, gair jimmedaar vyavahaar, chidchidaapan, aavegi vyavahaar, vyagrata, ghabaraahat ki mukhaakruti aadi ko dekhkar kaaranon ka pata lagaana chaahiye. yadi maata-pita saamaajik aur naitik pratimaanon ki paalana karein to bachcha bhi avashya karega. at: saamaajik suraksha, parivaar ke nirnayon mein shaamilkar saamaajik paryaavaran ko snehapoorn banaakar bhi vyasan ki sthiti ko roka ja sakta hai.

upachaar

maadak vyasani ka pata lagaana hi apne aap mein ek kathin kaarya naheen hai apitu, vyasaneeyon ka upachaar karna bhi atyadhik kathin hai. vyaktigat roop se yeh kaarya aur bhi jyaada mushkil hai arthaat aise logon ke upachaar mein maadak dravyon ke sevan par poorn niyantran ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jo ghar ki apeksha chikitsaalaya mein adhik sambhav hai.

vyasan ek maanasik rog hai jiska upachaar manochikitsakon evam aushadhiyon se sambhav hai. in vyaktiyon ka upachaar vibhinn chikitsa kendron, medical collegeon evam nasha mukti kendron par ni:shulk bhi kiya jaata hai. vyasan ke upachaar ke dauraan inhein lambe samay tak paraamarsh ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein