maadak peya

kisi baar mein kachcha maadak peya padaarth (sprits).

maadak peya ithenaul (jise aamtaur par alkohal kaha jaata hai) yukt ek peya hai. maadak peyon ko saamaanyat: teen saamaanya vargon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai: beer, vaain aur sprits.

maadak peya ki khapat vishv ke adhikaansh deshon mein hai. international center of alkohalik polisi (ICAP) ke anusaar, 100 se adhik deshon mein inke utpaadan, bikri aur khapat niyantrit karne ke liye kaanoon hain.[1] vishesh roop se, aise kaanoon inhein kaanooni roop se khareedne aur peene ki nyoonatam aayu nirdisht karatein hain. yeh nyoonatam aayu 16 aur 25 varsh ke beech hoti hai, yeh raashtra aur peya ke prakaar par nirbhar karta hai. adhikaansh deshon mein yeh aayu 18 varsh hai.

alkohal ka utpaadan aur khapat, shikaari-sangrahakarta ke samay ke logon se lekar desh-raajya tak, vishv ki adhikaansh sanskrutiyon mein maujood hai.[2][3] maadak peya padaarth in sanskrutiyon mein saamaajik ghatnaaon ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa hain. kai sanskrutiyon mein, saamaajik sampark mein peena mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai - khaaskar alkohal ke snaayavik prabhaav ke kaaran.

alkohal ek manosakriya drag hai, jismein avasaadakeeya ka prabhaav hota hai. ek uchch rakt alkohal saamagri ko saamaanyat: kaanooni maadakata maana jaata hai, kyonki yeh dhyaan lagaane ki kshamata kam kar deta hai aur pratikriya dene ki gati ko dheema kar deta hai. alkohal ke nashe ki lat lag sakti hai aur alkohal ke nashe ki lat lagne ki avastha ko maadakata kehte hai.

anukram

prakaar

alkohal ki kam maatra vaale maadak peya padaarth (beer aur vaain) ko cheeni- ya staarch yukt paudh saamagriyon ko kinvit karke banaaya jaata hai. alkohal ki adhik maatra vaale maadak peya padaarth (sprits) ka nirmaan aasavit karne ke baad kinvit karke kiya jaata hai.

beer

beer sansaar ka sabse puraana[2] aur sarvaadhik vyaapak roop se khulkar sevan[3] kiya jaane wala maadak peya hai aur yeh chai aur paani ke baad teesara sarvaadhik lokapriya peya hai.[4] ise mukhyat: anaaj ke daanon se nikalne vaale shvetsaaron ko kinvit kar aur unka kinvaasavan kar banaaya jaata hai - adhikaanshat: yav mishrit jau se, ya gehoon, sharkara (makka) aur chaaval ke upayog se bhi banaaya jaata hai. gair anaaj sroton jaise angoor ya shahad se kinvit kiye gaye, ya anaaj ke daanon se khameereekrut na kiye gaye, maadak peya jinhein kinvan ke baad aasut kiya jaata hai, unhein beer ke roop mein vargeekrut naheen kiya gaya hai.

beer ke do mukhya prakaar yavasura aur beer hain. yavasura ko vibhinn roopon mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai, jaise pel yavasura, staaut aur bhoora yavasura.

adhikaansh beer mein hope ka svaad hota hai, jiska svaad kadva aur praakrutik parirkshak jaisa hai. anya svaad jaise fal ya jadi bootiyon ka bhi upayog kiya ja sakta hai. beer ki alkohal yukt shakti aamtaur par 4% se 6% ki maatra vaale alkohal (ABV) ke baraabar hota hai, lekin yeh maatra 1% se kam ya 20 % se adhik bhi ho sakti hai.

beer kai deshon mein peene ki sanskruti ka ang hai aur kai saamaajik paramparaaen jaise beer utsav, pab sanskruti, pab khel aur pab kraul isse jude hue hain.

beer banaane se sanbadhit mool baatein raashtreeya aur saanskrutik seemaaon ke paar saajha ki jaati hain. beer banaane ka udyam bahut bada hai, kai bahuraashtreeya companiyaan aur hajaaron chhote utpaadak, jo ki kshetreeya utpaadakon se lekar pramukh utpaadakon tak faila hua hai, is kaarobaar mein lipt hain.

vaain

vaain angoor se banaaya jaata hai aur froot vaain falon se banaaya jaata hai jaise aaloobukhaara, cheri ya seb. vaain banaane ki ek lambi (poorn) kinvan prakriya hai aur yeh ek lambe samay ki prakriya (mahina ya saal) hai, jisse 9% -16% ABV alkohal yukt beer banta hai. spaarkaling vaain botaling se pehle thoda cheeni milaakar banaaya ja sakta hai, jiske kaaran botal mein dviteeyak kinvan ki aavashyakta padti hai.

sprits

kam se kam 20 % ABV alkohal yukt bagair meethepan vaale, aasut, maadak peya ko sprits kaha jaata hai.[5] kinvit mool utpaad ko aasavit kar sprits banaaya jaata hai. aasavan alkohal par keindrit hota hai aur kuchh kaangnars ko baahar nikaalata hai.

drudheekrut vaain, jaise port aur sheri banaane ke liye vaain mein mein sprits milaaya jaata hai.

peya padaarthon mein alkohal ki maatra

peya mein alkohal ki saandrata ko saamaanyat: maatra anusaar alkohal (ABV) mein - ya sayukt raajya mein - proof mein aanka jaata hai. America mein, proof 60 degree faarenahaait par maatra anusaar alkohal ke pratishat ko duguna hota hai (uda. 80 proof = 40% ABV). poorv mein degree proof ka upayog United Kingdom mein kiya jaata tha, jahaan 100 degree proof 57.1 % ABV ke baraabar tha. aitihaasik roop se, yeh sabse adhik aasavit sprit tha jismein baarood ke paaudar ko jalaaya jaata tha.

saadhaaran aasavan se 95.6 % ABV (191.2 proof) se adhik alkohal naheen banaaya ja sakta, kyonki is avastha mein alkohal paani ke saath ek ejiyotrop hota hai. sprit jismein alkohal ki atyadhik maatra hoti hai aur kisi prakaar atirikt svaad naheen hota hai, use praakrutik sprit kehte hain. saamaanyataya, 170 proof ke kisi bhi aasut maadak peya ko praakrutik sprit maana jaata hai.[6]

alkohal ki saandrata 18 % se adhik hone par adhikaansh khameer ka pun: utpaadan naheen kiya ja sakta, isliye yeh kinvit peya padaarth jaise vaain, beer aur saaki ki shakti vaastavik seema hai. khameer ke upabhed viksit kiye jaate hain jinhein 25% ABV ke ghol mein pun: utpaadit kiya ja sakta hai.

maanak peya

maanak peya raashtreeya peya hai, jismein shuddh alkohal ki nirdisht maatra hoti hai. kai deshon mein sharaab sevan ki maatra nirdhaarit karne ke liye maanak peya ka upayog kiya jaata hai. ise aamtaur par beer, vaain ya sprits ke maap ke roop mein vyakt kiya jaata hai. sevit aakaar ya maadak peya ke prakaar par dhyaan diye bina maanak peya mein hamesha alkohal ki samaan maatra hoti hai.

maanak peya desh prati desh bhinn hoti hai. udaaharan ke liye, ostriya mein yeh 7.62 mileegraam (6 gram) alkohal hai, lekin Japan mein yeh 25 mileeleetar (19.75 gram) hai.

United Kingdom mein, sharaab ke upabhog ke liye dishaanirdesh alkohal ki ikaai ki pranaali maujood hai. alkohal ki ekal ikaai 10 mileegraam nirdhaarit hai. vishisht peya mein maujood ikaaiyon ki sankhya botal par chhapi hoti hai. yeh pranaali un logon ke liye hai jo apne peya mein alkohal ki maatra ko niyantrit karna chaahate hain; iska upayog sevit aakaar nirdhaarit karne ke liye naheen kiya jaata hai.

sanyukt raajya America mein, maanak peya mein 0.6 ameriki flooid auns (18 mileeli) alkohal hota hai. yeh beer ke 12 ameriki flooid auns (350 mileeli) gilaas, vaain ke 5 ameriki flooid auns (150 mileeli) gilaas, ya 40 % ABV (80 proof) sprit ke 1.5 ameriki flooid auns (44 mileeli) gilaas mein maujood alkohal ki maatra hai ek 5 ameriki flooid auns (150 mileeli) sharaab ke gilaas, ya ek 1.5 ameriki flooid auns (44 mileeli) aatma) kaanch ki ek 40% (80 proof)

sevit aakaar

United Kingdom

inhein bhi dekhein: Alcoholic spirits measures

United Kingdom mein, license diye gaye parisar mein sevit aakaar vajan aur maap adhiniyam (1985) ke adheen hai. sprits (jin, vhiski, ram aur vodaka) ko 25 mileegraam ya uske gunajon, ya 35 mileegraam ya uske gunajon ki maatra mein becha jaana chaahiye. ek chinh pradarshit kiya jaana chaahiye, jismein 25 mileegraam ya 35 mileeleetar ankit ho.[7]

beer aam taur par pints (568 mileeleetar) mein diye jaate hain, lekin ise kaanooni roop se aadhe-pint ya truteeya-pint mein bhi diya ja sakta hai. paramparaagat roop se, beer ke gilaas par ek mukut chinh ka upayog yeh i6git karne ke liye kiya jaata hai ki gilaas mein poorn-aakaar ka maap hai. 2008 mein, 300 varsh se adhik upayog kiye jaane ke baad, is chinh ko Europe-vyaapak chinh "CE" (Conformite Europeenne) se badal diya gaya. agrani sharaab nirmaataaon aur pab companiyon ne is nishkaasan ke virodh mein abhiyaan chalaaya.[8]

Britain ke baahar ka Europe

baar aur restaurant mein, beer aamtaur par 400 ya 500 mileeleetar ke gilaason mein diya jaata hai, lekin yeh badalti rahati hai aur kabhi kabhi 1 liter tak bhi pahunch jaati hai.

Netherland aur Belgium mein, maanak sevit lilsanar ke liye 250 aur 500 mileeleetar hai; eles ke liye 300 se 330 mileeleetar.

svaadisht banaana

alkohal madhyam roop se kai vasaayukt padaarthon aur aavashyak telon ka achha vilaayak hai. yeh visheshata maadak peya, vishesh roop se aasut peya mein svaadisht banaane ka masaala aur rang ke yaugikon ka upayog karna aasaan bana deti hai. svaad peya ki aadhaar saamagri mein praakrutik roop se maujood ho sakte hain. aisa ho sakta hai ki beer aur sharaab kinvan se pehle ke svaadisht hon. aisa ho sakta hai ki sprits aasavan ke dauraan ya baad mein svaadisht hon.

kabhi kabhi peya padaarthon ko maheenon ya varshon ok barrel, saamaanyat: American ya fraanseesi ok mein rakhakar svaadisht banaaya jaata hai.

sprits ke kai brand mein botaling ke dauraan botal mein fal ya jadi bootiyaan milaai jaati hai.

upayog

kai deshon mein, log dopahar ke bhojan aur raat ke khaane ke saath madiraapaan karte hain. adhyayan se pata chala hai ki jab sharaab peene se pehle khaana khaaya jaata hai, to sharaab avashoshan kam ho jaata hai[9] aur rakt se sharaab unmoolan ki dar badh jaati hai. teji se sharaab unmoolan ki vyavastha bhojan ke prakaar se asanbandhit prateet hoti hai. sanbhavat: alkohal chapachapaaya enjaaim aur jigr rakt pravaah mein khaadya prerana badh jaati hai.[9]'

us samay aur sthaan par jab saarvajanik shauchaalaya kam hua karte the (jaise madhyakaaleenEurope), sharaab ka upabhog jal-janit beemaariyon jaise haija se bachane ke liye kiya jaata tha. vishesh roop se, chhote beer aur foks vaain ka upayog is uddeshya ke liye kiya jaata tha. haalaanki alkohal jeevaanuon ko maarta hai, lekin in peya padaarthon mein iski kam saandrata ke seemit prabhaav hote hain. adhik mahatvapoorn yeh hai ki paani ko ubaalane (beer banaane ke liye aavashyak) aur khameer ko viksit karne (beer aur vaain ke kinvan ke liye aavashyak) se sookshm jeevaanu mar jaate hain. in peya padaarthon mein upalabdh alkohal saamagri unhein saadhaaran lakdi ya mitti ke kantenaron mein maheenon ya varshon kharaab hue bina sangraheet karne mein madad karte hain. is kaaran se, ye saamaanyat: chaalak dal, visheshakar aaranbhik adhunik kaal mein lambe jahaaji yaatraaon ke dauraan, (ya kisi ek ke liye) ke liye paani ke saath sanyojan ke mahatvapoorn srot ke roop mein jahaajon mein rakhe jaate the.

sard mausam mein, shaktishaali maadak peya, jaise vodaka ka sevan aksar shareer ko garm rakhane ke liye kiya jaata hai, sanbhavat: isliye kyonki alkohal bhojan ki oorja ko sheegra avashoshit karta hai aur use paridheeya rakt vaahikaaon (paridheeya sanvahani) mein failaata hai. yeh ek glatafhami hai kyonki "garmi" vaastav mein shareer ke andar se uske baahar sthaanaantarit hoti hai, jahaan vah turant paryaavaran mein vilupt ho jaati hai. haalaanki, keval aaraam ke liye is dhaarana ka svaagat hai, balki haaipotharmiya chinta ka vishay hai.

desh dvaara sharaab ki khapat

prati vyakti, prati varsh, (15 aayu ya usase bade) deshaanusaar alkohal ki khapat, shuddh alkohal ki liter mein khapat[10].

sharaab par ekamusht pratibandh

kuchh deshon mein maadak peya pratibandhit hai, ya ateet mein unapar rok lagaai gayi thi.

sanyukt raajya amareeka

nishedh yug ke dauraan klaindestaain brevari mein detroit police ko nireekshan karte samay ek upakaran mila.

sanyukt raajya America mein, 1920 se 1933 ke beech maadak peya ke nirmaan aur bikri par raashtreeya pratibandh lagaakar inke sevan par rok lagaane ke prayaas kiye gaye the. is avadhi ko pratibandh yug ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. us samay ke dauraan, sanyukt raajya America ke samvidhaan 18vaan sanshodhan kiya gaya jismein sampoorn sanyukt raajya America mein maadak peya ke nirmaan, bikri aur parivhan ko avaidh banaaya gaya tha.

nishedh anpekshit parinaam ka kaarak ban gaya, jiske kaaran bade paimaane par kaanoon ka apamaan kiya jaane laga, adhiktar log avaidh sroton se sharaab banaakar bechne lage. is tarah, sharaab avaidh nirmaataaon aur vikretaaon ke liye yeh ek aakarshak kaarobaar ban gaya, jiske parinaamasvaroop sangathit aparaadh viksit hone laga. parinaamasvaroop, nishedh atyant alokapriya ho gaya, jiske kaaran antat: 1933 mein 18vein sanshodhan ko nirast kar diya gaya.

raashtreeya nishedh ke pehle, 19veen sadi ke shuruaat mein, kai raajyon aur bastiyon ne apne adhikaar kshetr ke bheetar nishedh laagoo kar diya tha. 18vein sanshodhan ko nirast kiye jaane ke baad, kuchh bastiyon (sookhi County ke naam se prasiddh) ne sharaab ki bikri par pratibandh ko jaari rakha.

Europe

naurdik deshon (Norway aur Finland) mein bhi aaranbhik 20veen sadi ke dauraan sharaab nishedh ka daur aaya tha. jiske parinaamasvaroop saamaajik lokataantrikabhiyaan chalaaya gaya. nishedh ko lokapriya samarthan naheen mila aur parinaamasvaroop bade paimaane par taskari ki jaane lagi. nishedh ke ant ke baad, raajya sharaab ekaadhikaar vistrut pratibandhon aur uchch karon ke saath sthaapit kiye gaye. in pratibandhon mein se kuchh ko baad mein utha liya gaya tha. udaaharan ke liye, Finland ke suparamaarket mein keval 4.7 % ABV alkohal yukt kinvit peya padaarth bechne ki anumati hai, lekin sarkaari sapatti, di ek oopar sharaab saamagri ke liye, lekin Alko, sarkaari ekaadhikaar, aatmaaon aur sharaab bechne ki anumati di. sveedish sistamabolaaget aur naarve ke vinmonaapolet mein bhi yahi sthiti hai.

anya desh

kuchh muslim deshon, jaise Saudi arab aur Pakistan mein sharaab banaane ya bechne par pratibandh hain, kyonki islaam mein iski manaahi hai.

Bhaarat mein, Gujarat raajya mein sharaab ki bikri aur upabhog nishiddh hai. kai anya bhaarateeya raajyon mein, ateet mein kai sthaanon par bhinn-bhinn avadhiyon mein nishedh kaanoon the.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

saarvajanik sthaanon par sharaab peene par nishedh

ek Victoria, Australia ke saarvajanik sthaanon par sharaab peene par rok lagaane vaale chinh.

sanyukt raajya America aur kuchh Europeeya deshon ke adhikaansh raajyon mein saarvajanik sthaanon jaise sadkon aur paarkon mein sharaab peena kaanoonan aparaadh hai, lekin kuchh sthaanon, jaise Germany mein yeh vaidh hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

sanyukt raajya amereeka

sanyukt raajya America ke adhikaansh raajyon mein saarvajanik sthaanon (udaaharan ke liye gali mein) maadak peya ka sevan karna pratibandhit hai. iske alaava, nevaada, luisiyaana aur misoori) jaise raajya jahaan aisa koi pratibandh naheen hai, vahaan bhi uske adhikaansh nagaron aur kaauntiyon mein pratibandh dekhe ja sakte hain.

lekinnew orleens ke French quarter mein, kansaas city, misoori ke power end laait jile mein, memfis, Tennessee ke beele street par aur savaana, jaurjiya mein, raajya kaanoon 21 varsh se adhik umr vaale vyaktiyon ko sadkon mein plastic cup mein maadak peya lekar peeni ki vishesh anumati di gayi hai.

anya desh

United Kingdom aur needaralainds mein saarvajanik sthaanon par sharaab peena raashtreeya kaanoon ke tahat pratibandhit naheen hai, lekin kai shaharon aur nagaron mein saarvajanik sthaanon mein maadak peya ke khule kantenar rakhana pratibandhit hai.

Japan ke kuchh saarvajanik sthaanon jaise kuchh sadkon aur trainon mein khule kantenar ki anumati hai aur in sthaanon mein veinding masheenon, jinhein nirdisht samay par band kar diya jaata hai, dvaara maaddr jaise kuchh saaak peya bechne ki anumati hai. Japan mein saarvajanik madapaan koi mudda naheen hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

aayu pratibandh

jyaadaatar deshon mein kaanooni sharaab peene ki umr nirdhaarit hai jo naabaaligon ko maadak peya bechne se pratibandhit karti hai. is nishedh ke samaapt hone ki umr, saath ise laagoo karne ka samay, desh prati desh bhinn hote hain.

Argentina

Argentina mein, sharaab khareedne ki nyoonatam umr 18 varsh hai. yeh umr ke antargat aane vaale logon ko maadak peya padaarth bechana gair kaanooni hai.[11] haalaanki, iske upabhog ke liye koi nyoonatam umr nirdhaarit naheen hai.

Australia

Australia mein, sharaab khareedne (lekin upabhog ke liye aavashyak naheen) ki aayu 18 varsh hai. new south vels aur kveensalaind mein, 18 varsh se kam aayu ke vyakti ko sharaab ki aapoorti karna gair kaanooni hai. Victoria mein, apni niji sampatti par kisi bhi umr ke vyakti ke vyakti ko sharaab peene ki anumati hai.

Canada

Canada mein, albarta, mainitoba aur kyubek mein sharaab peene ke liye kaanooni umr 18 varsh hai aur anya praanto mein yeh 19 varsh hai.

Europe

Europe mein sharaab peene ki kaanooni umr aur kaanooni roop se sharaab khareedne ki umr donon ke liye, sharaab peene ki kaanooni umr niyantrit karne vaale kaanoon aur maadak peya padaarthon ki bikri desh prati desh bhinn hai.

Europe mein sharaab peene ki kaanooni umr aamtaur par 16 se 18 varsh hai. kuchh deshon paratadaar sanrachana hai jo majaboot maadak peya ki bikri (vishesh roop se ebeevi ke pratishat ke aadhaar par) bujurg vayaskon ko karne se pratibandhit karte hain. udaaharan ke liye, needaralainds, Germany,[12] Switzerland, Belgium aur ostriya mein, beer ya sharaab khareedne vaale ki umr 16 varsh honi chaahiye aur aasut maadak peya padaarth khareedne ke umr 18 varsh hai. Germany ka kaanoon naabaalig ke bajaay, vikretaaon ko maadak peya padaarth bechne ke liye nirdeshit karta hai. jarman kaanoon maadak peya padaarthon ke upabhog par niytrann unke maata-pita aur abhibhaavakon ke haathon mein deta hai.[13]

United Kingdom mein, sharaab khareedne ki nyoonatam umr 18 varsh hai, haalaanki 15-16 ki umr ke bachche beer, saaidar ya vaain bhojan ke saath kisi vayask ki dekharekh mein pi sakte hain.[14] 5 varsh ki umr se bachchon ko ghar mein peene ki anumati hai. kaanooni roop se dukaanadaar 18 se kam umr ke vyakti ko sharaab bech nahein sakte.

France mein, sharaab khareedne ki kaanooni umr ko 23 July 2009 ko 16 varsh se badhaakar 18 varsh kar di gayi thi.

Portugal mein, maadak peya ka sevan karne ke liye vyakti ki umr kam se kam 16 varsh honi chaahiye. Italy mein bhi aisa hi kaanoon hai, jahaan sharaab khareedne ya sharaab beche jaani vaale saarvajanik sthaan mein kaam karne ki kaanooni umr 16 varsh hai. haalaanki Italy mein sharaab peene ki nyoonatam aayu 14 varsh hai, yeh dhyaan dene yogya hai ki yeh kaanoon mushkil se hi laagoo ho paata hai. Italy mein, license keval unke liye anivaarya hai jo saarvajanik roop se, kisi baar mein sharaab bechate hain. lekin maadak peya padaarthon ki bikri pratibandhit naheen hai aur ye saamaanyat: kiraane ki dukaan aur suparamaarket mein beche jaate hain, jahaan kisi kreta se kisi aayu pramaanapatr ki maang naheen ki jaati hai.

Ireland, check ganaraajya aur Poland mein sharaab peene ki kaanooni umr 18 varsh hai.

haang kaang

Hongkong mein, sharaab khareedne, rakhane aur peene khareedne ke liye adhikaari hai aur sharaab peene ke liye 18 varsh hai.

Bhaarat

Bhaarat mein, raajyon par nirbhar karte hue, sharaab khareedne peene ki kaanooni umr 18-25 varsh hai.[1] saarvajanik roop se sharaab peena sakht mana hai.

aam taur par, Bhaarat ke baar aur pab mein chetaavani soochana pradarshit kiya jaata hai, jismein yeh likha hota hai ki keval kaanooni umr ke vyakti ko andar jaane ki anumati hai, lekin yeh kaanoon bamushkil hi maana jaata hai - adhiktar kishoron dvaara in sthaanon mein manaai jaane waali janmadin ke jashn iske saboot hain.

Japan

Japan mein, sharaab peene aur khareedne ki kaanooni umr 20 varsh hai.

Korea

Korea mein sharaab peene ki kaanooni umr 19 varsh hai. haalaanki, aam taur par uchch vidyaalaya se snaatak karne ke baad hi sharaab peena sveekaarya hai, yadyapi uchch vidyaalaya snaatak aksar 18 varsh ke hote hain.

naurdik desh

naurdik deshon (Denmark ko chhodkar) mein, sharaab peeni ki kaanooni umr 18 varsh hai, lekin ye adhikaar 20 ki umr tak seemit hain.

aaisalaind aur sveedan mein, maadak peya padaarthon khareedne aur rakhane vaale ki umr 20 varsh honi chaahiye, haalaanki 18 aur 19 varsh ke yuvaaon ko sharaab peene ki anumati hai.

Finland aur Norway mein, 22% ebeevi tak vaale maadak peya padaarth khareedna aur rakhana 18 varsh ki aayu se anumat hai. aur majaboot peyon ke liye yeh umr 20 varsh hai. sveedan aur Finland mein (lekin naarve mein naheen), 22% ebeevi se adhik majaboot peya 18 varsh ki aayu se restaurant mein order kiye ja sakte hain.

iske alaava, sveedan mein, 18 varsh ke yuva kaanooni roop se kiraane ke dukaanon mein beche jaane vaale maadak peya padaarth khareed sakte hain.

sanyukt raajya amareeka

1 January 2007 se, sanyukt raajya America mein sharaab peene ki nyoonatam aayu 21 varsh hai.
inhein bhi dekhein: Alcoholic beverage control state, Alcohol laws of Kansas, Alcohol laws of Missouri, Alcohol laws of New York, evam Alcohol laws of Oklahoma

1984 mein raashtreeya nyoonatam peya adhiniyam, jismein raajyon ke sangheeya raajamaarg kosh ko sharaab peeni ki nyoonatam aayu 21 varsh karne ka nirdesh diya gaya hai, ke aane ke turant baad sabhi raajyon mein sharaab khareedne aur rakhane (lekin peena aavashyak naheen) ki kaanooni umr 21 varsh kar di gayi.

satrah raajyon (arkaanasan, California, Connecticut, florida, keintaki, maireelaind, maisaachusets, misisipi, misoori, nevaada, new haimpashaayar, new maiksiko, New York, okalaahoma, rode aailaind, dakshin kairolina aur vaayoming) aur Columbia ke jilon mein naabaligon ke sharaab ke rakhane viruddh kaanoon hain, lekin ve naabaaligon dvaara iske upabhog ko pratibandhit naheen karte hain.

terah raajyon (alaaska, Colorado, delaaveyar, ilinois, luisiyaana, main, minesota, misoori, montaana, ohiyo, oregaun, Texas aur viskonsin) naabaaligon ko unke abhibhaavakon ya unke abhibhaavakon dvaara adhikrut kisi vyakti dvaara sharaab diye jaane par sharaab peene ki vishesh anumati deta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

kai raajyon mein dhaarmik ya svaasthya kaaranon se 21 varsh se kam umr vaale yuvaaon ko sharaab peene ki anumati hai.

sanyukt raajya America ke seema-shulk kaanoon yeh nirdhaarit karte hain ki 21 varsh se kam umr ka koi bhi vyakti desh mein kisi bhi prakaar ya kisi bhi maatra mein alkohal la naheen sakta hai.[15]

utpaadan par pratibandh

adhikaansh deshon mein, maadak peya padaarthon ke utpaadan ke liye sarkaar ki or se ek license ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur iske utpaadan par Ed kar lagta hai.

New Zealand

New Zealand un deshon mein se ek hain, jahaan vyaktigat upabhog ke liye alkohal ke kisi bhi roop ka utpaadan karna kaanooni hai, jismein sprits shaamil hain. peya padaarthon ke is prakaar ke utpaadan ke liye kisi license ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai aur na hi koi kar dena hota hai. is sthiti ne ghar mein aasavan upakaran ka upayog kaafi lokapriya bana diya hai.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom mein, seema shulk aur aabakaari vibhaag aasut license jaari karte hain.

sanyukt raajya amareeka

aasut peya ka utpaadan viniymit aur kar sahit hai.[16] alkohal, tambaakoo, shastr aur visfot bureau aur alkohal aur tambaakoo kar aur vyaapaar bureau (poorv mein ek ekal sangathan alkohal, tambaakoo aur shastr bureau ke naam se jaana jaata hai) sangheeya kaanoon aur alkohal se sambandhit niyamon ko laagoo karte hain. sharaab ke avaidh (yaani bina license ke) nirmaata ko aksar "moonashaaining" kaha jaata hai. avaidh roop se utpaadit sharaab (lokapriya naam "white laaitaning") bahut puraani naheen hai aur ismein alkohal ki ek uchch pratishat hoti hai.

sabhi alkohal yukt utpaadon ki paikejing mein saamaanya chikitsak ki or se svaasthya chetaavani prakaashit kiya jaana aavashyak hai.

adhikaansh raajyon mein, koi bhi vyakti vyaktigat upabhog (lekin bikri ke liye naheen) ke liye prati varsh prati vayask (saamaanyat:) lagbhag 100 gailan vaain aur beer bana sakta hai, lekin prati varsh prati ghar 200 gailan se adhik naheen.

bikri aur adhikaar par pratibandh

Canada

Canada ke adhikaansh praanton mein, sharaab ki bikri par sarkaar ka ekaadhikaar hai, udaaharan ke liye sharaab niyantran board ontaariyo aur british Columbia ki sharaab vitran shaakha. sharaab ki bikri mein sarkaari niyantran aur paryavekshan ka kaaran Canada mein pratibandh samaapt karne ke liye "sukhe" aur "geelon" ke beech 1920 ke dashak mein kiya gaya samjhauta tha. kuchh praant sarkaari niyantran se door hain: albarta mein niji svaamitv waali dukaanein maujood hain, jabki kyoobek mein depaaneurs aur kiraane ki dukaanon se seemit maatra mein vaain aur beer khareedi ja sakti hain.

doosari or, Canada mein vishv bhar mein alkohal par sabse adhik utpaad kar vasula jaata hai, jise "sin tax" bhi kehte hain, yeh sarkaar ki aay ka saadhan hai aur ise adhik-upabhog ko hatotsaahit karne ke liye bhi banaaya gaya hai.(Canada mein karaadhaan dekhein).

sharaab ki bikri par anya pratibandh ke praant dar praant badalate rahate hain. albarta mein, 2008 mein badlaav shuroo kiye gaye, jismein "haippi haavar", nyoonatam moolya, baar aur pab mein raat ke 1 baje ke baad ek samay mein ek vyakti dvaara peya khareedne ki seemit sankhya shaamil the.[17]

naurdik desh

Denmark ke alaava, sabhi naurdik deshon mein, sharaab ki bikri par sarkaar ka ekaadhikaar hai.

sarkaari-vikreta ko sveedan mein sistambolaaget, Norway mein vinmonopolet, Finland mein aalko, aaisalaind mein vinbau aur fairo aailaind mein rasderkaasola laindasins kaha jaata hai. is tarah ka pehla ekaadhikaar 19veen shataabdi mein 0}faalam mein tha.

sarkaaron ka daava hai ki in ekaadhikaaron ka uddeshya in deshon mein alkohal ke upabhog ko kam karna tha, jahaan "utsavon mein peena" ek praacheen parampara hai. ateet mein in upaayon ne safalta arjit ki thi, lekin Europeeya sangh mein shaamil hone ke baad, anya Europeeya deshon mein sharaab ke aayaat, vaidh ya avaidh, ko rok paana mushkil ho gaya. inheen kaaranon se ye kaanoon kam prabhaavi ho gaye. ispar aaj bhi bahas jaari hai ki kya in sarkaari-ekaadhikaaron ko banaae rakhana chaahiye.

Denmark

Denmark mein 16 saal se kam aayu ke vyaktiyon ko maadak peya (1.2 % ebeevi se adhik) bechana pratibandhit hai.[18] log kiraane ki dukaan se sabhi prakaar ke maadak peya padaarth khareed sakte hain. dukaanon mein sharaab khareedne ki kaanooni umr 16 varsh hai aur baar aur restaurant mein 18 varsh.

sadkon par maadak peya peena kaanooni hai, lekin aapki umr kam se kam 18 varsh honi chaahiye.[krupaya uddharan jodein] kabhi kabhi sthaaneeya adhikaariyon dvaara kuchh atirikt pratibandh lagaae jaate hain. saarvajanik parivhan par, aam taur par sharaab peene ki anumati hai, lekin bhaari nasha karne ki naheen.

vaain aur beer ka gharelu utpaadan viniymit naheen hai. sprits ka aasavan kaanooni hai, lekin aam naheen, kyonki is par utana hi kar vasoola jaata hai, jitna vaanijyik roop se bechne par. dainish mein sveedan aur naarve ki tulana mein sharaab par kam kar dena hota hai, lekin yeh kar adhikaansh anya Europeeya deshon ki tulana mein adhik hai.

Norway

Norway mein, 4.74% tak ya isse kam maatra alkohal yukt beer kaanooni roop se kiraane ki dukaanon mein beche ja sakte hain. majaboot beer, vaain aur sprits keval aadhikaarik sarkaari vikretaaon se khareede ja sakte hain. sabhi maadak peya license praapt baar aur restaurant mein khareede ja sakte hain, basharte unka upabhog parisar mein hi kiya jaae. 18 varsh ya isse adhik umr ka koi bhi vyakti beer aur vaain tatha 20 varsh ya isse adhik umr ka koi bhi vyakti sprits khareed sakta hai. Norway mein maadak peya par vishv mein sabse adhik shulk dena padta hai, visheshakar sprits ke liye aur yeh sabhi vastuon aur sevaaon par liye jaane vaale shulk ka 25% GST hai, jo ki sabse adhik hai. udaaharan ke liye, 700 mileeleetar ke ebsolyoot vodaka (Absolut Vodka) ki keemat vartamaan mein 275 NOK hai, jabki America mein yeh lagbhag US$54 mein upalabdh hai.

sveedan

aaranbhik 20veen shataabdi mein, sveedan mein majaboot maadak peyon par sankshipt nishedh tha, jo ki baad mein sakht niyantrit vitran mein badal gaya aur fir apekshaakrut shithil viniyman mein, jismein shanivaar ko khula hona shaamil hai.

sveedan mein, kam alkohal yukt beer, jise folkol kaha jaata hain (vajan mein 2.25 5 se 3.5 % alkohal), 18 varsh se adhik umr ke kisi bhi vyakti ko niyamit dukaanon mein becha ja sakta hai, lekin adhik maatra mein alkohal yukt peya 20 varsh se adhik umr vaale vyaktiyon ko keval sarkaari-vikreta dvaara becha ja sakta hai, ya license praapt sthaanon jaise restaurant aur baar, jahaan aayu seema 18 varsh hai, mein becha ja sakta hai. kaanoon mein kaha gaya hai ki license praapt in sthaanon se khareede gaye maadak peya ka upabhog unke parisar mein hi kiya jaana chaahiye aur in sthaanon mein kaheen aur se maadak peya khareed kar laakar peene ki anumati naheen hai. gair-alkohal vaale peya ke liye koi kaanoon naheen hai, lekin vyaktigat sthaan apne swayam ke pratibandh laga sakte hain.

sanyukt raajya amareeka

Michigan mein is suvidha dukaan ke khudara license ko do saptaah ke liye nilambit kar diya gaya tha, kyonki yahaan bachchon ko maadak peya beche gaye the.
inhein bhi dekhein: kaansaas ke alkohal kaanoon, misoori ke alkohal kaanoon, New York ke ke alkohal kaanoon, okalaahoma ke ke alkohal kaanoon

sanyukt raajya America mein, maadak peya padaarthon ki bikri raajyon, County ya pratyek raajya ke muhallon aur sthaaneeya nyaayaadhikaaron dvaara niyantrit hai. sharaab ki bikri pratibandhit karne vaale County ko draai County kaha jaata hai. kuchh raajyon mein, sharaab ki bikri blue kaanoon ke kaaran ravivaar ko sharaab bechana nishid hai.

anya sabhi sharaab pratibandhon ki tarah, sharaab beche ya rakhe jaane vaale sthaanon mein bhi, raajya dar raajya bhinnata ho sakti hai. nevaada, luisiyaana, misoori aur Connecticut jaise kuchh raajyon mein, bahut anumodak sharaab kaanoon hain, jabki anya raajyon jaise kaansaas, okalaahoma mein bahut sakht sharaab kaanoon hai.

udaaharan ke liye, adhikaansh uttari kerolina mein, beer autar vaain khudara dukaanon se khareede ja sakte hain, lekin aasut sprits keval raajya ABC (alkohal peya niyantran) mein hi upalabdh hote hain. maireelaind mein, montemeri County ko chhodkar, anya sabhi sthaanon mein aasut sprits sharaab ki dukaan mein upalabdh hote hain. jahaan unhein keval County dvaara becha jaata hai.

kai raajyon sharaab keval sharaab ki dukaan mein beche ja sakte hain. maadak peya niyantran karne vaale raajyon mein se unnees mein, sharaab ki bikri par raajya ka ekaadhikaar hai. nevaada, misauri aur luisiyaana mein, raajya ke kaanoon mein sharaab bechne ke liye koi sthaan nirdisht naheen hai.

adhikaansh raajya teen stareeya pranaali ka anusaran karte hain, jismein nirmaata seedhe khudara vikretaaon ko sharaab naheen bech sakte, lekin vitrakon ko seedhe bech sakte hain, jo khudara vikretaaon ko sharaab bechate hain. kinvan-pab (swayam beer banaane vaale pab) aur vaainari apavaad hai, jinhein unke utpaad seedhe upabhoktaaon ko bechne ki anumati hai. haalaanki sabhi ameriki raajyon mein nashe mein vaahan chalaane (saamaanyat: 0.08% ya isse adhik rakt sharaab saamagri ke saath vaahan chalaane ke roop mein nirdhaarit) ke liye kaanoon hain aur saath hi adhikaansh ameriki raajyon mein chalte vaahanon mein sharaab ke khule kantenar rakhane ki anumati naheen hai. 21veen sadi ke 1999 janaadesh ke liye sangheeya parivhan ikviti adhiniyam, jo kehta hai ki agar koi raajya sabhi chalte vaahanon ke andar sharaab ke khule kantenaron ko nishiddh naheen karta hai, to uske sangheeatyek varsh sharaab shiksha kaaryakram ke liye hastaantarit kar diya jaaega. November 2007 tak, ek keval ek raajya (misisipi) mein vaahan chalaate samay draaivaron ko sharaab (0.08 % ki seema se kam) ka upabhog karne ki anumati hai aur keval saat raajyon (arkaansan, Connecticut, delaaveyar, misisipi, misoori, varjeeniya aur pashchim varjeeniya) mein yaatriyon ko vaahan chalte samay sharaab ka upabhog karne ki anumati hai.

paanch ameriki raajyon mein beer aur 3.2 % alkohal se kam maatra vaale sharaab kiraane ki dukaanon aur gas station mein bechne ki anumati dete hain: Colorado, kaansaas, minesota, okalaahoma aur utaah. in raajyon mein, sharaab ki dukaanon mein adhik nasheele peya pratibandhit hain. okalaahoma mein, sharaab ki dukaanon mein 3.2% alkohal se adhik maatra yukt sharaab ko thande sthaanon mein rakhane ki manaahi hai. misoori mein bhi beer 3.2% alkohal yukt beer pratibandhit hain, lekin isse sambandhit svantrat alkohal kaanoon (anya raajyon ki tulana mein) is prakaar ke beer ka milna durlabh kar dete hain.

sanyukt raajya America mein raajya dvaara khule kantenar kaanoon ka sitmbar, 2007 ka maanachitr

nashe mein gaadi chalaane ke kaanoon

adhikaansh deshon nashe mein gaadi chalaane ke khilaaf kaanoon hain, jaise rakt mein alkohal ki nishchit saandrata ke saath ya atyadhik alkohal sevan kar gaadi chalaana. ullanghan ke liye dand mein chaalaan, asthaayi ya sthaayi roop se driver ke license ka hraas aur kaaraavaas shaamil hain.

kaanoon ke anusaar rakt mein alkohal saamagri ki maatra 0.0% se 0.08% tak honi chaahiye. isi tarah, nashe mein naukaayan, nashe mein cycle se chalaane aur yahaan tak nashe mein rolarableding karne par bhi pratibandh hai.

sanyukt raajya America ke kai sthaanon mein, vaahan ke yaatri dibbe mein maadak peya ka ek khula kantenar rakhana gair kaanooni hai.

svaasthya par alkohal ke prabhaav

inhein bhi dekhein: Alcohol and sex, Blood alcohol content, evam Long-term effects of alcohol

alkohal upabhog ke alpakaalik praabhaavon mein vishaaktata, nirjaleekaran aur antat: sharaab vishaakteekaran shaamil hai. alkohal ke deerghakaalik praabhaavon mein jigr aur mastishk mein chayaapachaya parivartan aur sambhaavit lat (madavyasanita) shaamil hain.

alpakaalik prabhaav

alkohal vishaaktata mastishk ko prabhaavit karta hai, jisse abhadr bhaasha, foohadta, asajagata jaisi vikrutiyaan utpann ho jaati hain. alkohal insulin ke utpaadan ko uttejit karta hai, jo glookoj chayaapachaya ko badhaata hai aur jisse rakt sharkara mein kami, chidchidaapan aur sanbhavat: madhumeh se maut ki shikaayat ho sakti hai; saamaanyat: gambhir alkohal vishaaktata ghaatak bhi ho sakti hai. 0.45 alkohal yukt rakt LD50 prastut karta hai, ya 50 % pareekshanon mein ghaatak bataai gayi maatra hai. yeh nashe ke star (0.08%) ka lagbhag chhah guna hai, lekin vaise log jo itne uchch star par alkohal ka sevan bahut kam karte hain, unhein jaldi-jaldi alkohal ki atyadhik maatra ko upabhog karne par kam sahanasheelata ke kaaran ulti aur/ya behoshi bahut jaldi aa jaati hai.[19] haalaanki, sthaayi roop se adhik sevan karne vaale log, apni uchch sahishnuta ke kaaran gambhir svaasthya khataron ke baavajood, .4 % se uchch staron par bhi sachet rahate hain.

iske alaava, alkohal haaipothaalamas se vaasopresin ke nirmaan ko seemit kar deta hai aur pityootari granthi se haarmon sraav ko bhi kam kar deta hai. alkohal ki atyadhik maatra ka upabhog karne par ganbheeranirjaleekaran ki samasya utpann ho sakti hai. isse mootr aur ulti mein jal ki saandrata badh jaati hai aur teevr pyaas ke kaaran haingaovar ho sakta hai.

hrudaya rog

ek adhyayan se pata chala hai ki ek saptaah mein teen ya isse adhik baar alkohal ki ausat maatra ka sevan karne vaale vyakti mein madyapaan na karne vaalon ki apeksha hrudaya aaghaat hone ki 35 % kam sambhaavana hoti hai aur 12 varshon ke adhyayan alkohal sevan ki maatra ek drink badh lene vaale vyaktiyon ko hrudaya aaghaat se 22 % kam jokhim hota hai.

sharaab ki 1 ya 2 ikaai (vaain ke saamaanya gilaas ka aadha ya poora) ka dainik sevan 40 varsh se adhik ke purushon aur rajonivrutti tak pahunch chuki mahilaaon mein koronari hrudaya rog ke kam jokhim se sambaddh hai.[20] haalaanki, mahilaaon dvaara maheene mein ek baar sharaab ka sevan kiye jaane se, sambhaavit surakshaatmak prabhaavon ko door karte hue, unamein hrudaya aaghaat ki aashankaaen badh jaati hain.[21]

badhti deerghaayu lagbhag poori tarah se laghu hrudaya rog ka parinaam hai.[22]

jadbuddhita

deerghakaalik saamaanya ya alpakaalik atishya (adhik sevan) ko jadbuddhita se link kiya gaya hai, yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki jadbuddhita ke 10% se 24% maamalon ka kaaran shrab ka upabhog hai aur mahilaaon ko purushon ki apeksha jyaada khatra hai.[23][24] madyavyasanita vernike-korsaakof sindrom naamak alkohal se sambandhit jadbuddhita ke prakaar se juda hua hai, jo thiyaamin (bitaamin B1) ki kami ke kaaran hota hai.[25]

mastishk par sharaab ke vishaakt prabhaav nyoorotoksik prabhaavon, poshan sambandhi apoornata se paraspar sampark, nirliptata ke nyoorotoksisiti ke kaaran hote hain.[26] choohon mein, sharaab ki vistrut khapat se "shaareerik kshati naheen hoti thi", lekin nirliptata paushanik nuksaan se juda tha.[26] sharaab nyoorotraansmeetar glootaamet mein hastakshep karta hai, aue mastishk mein glootaamet riseptars ki sankhya (aparegulating) ko badhaata hai. jab alkohal ka sevan kam kiya jaane lagta hai, to glootaamet riseptars atiskriya aur nyoorotoksik ho jaate hain.[25] nirliptata mein yogadaan dene vaale anya prabhaavon mein GABA ki suvidha, kuchh voltej samvedansheel kailshiym channel ke apareguleshan aur dopaamaain reeleej shaamil hain.[26]

55 varsh aur isse adhik aayu ke logon mein, dainik kam se saamaanya sevan (ek se teen drink) viksit ho rahe jadbuddhita ki praayikta mein 42 % ki giraavat I thi aur sanvanhani jadbuddhita ke jokhim mein 70 % kami I thi.[27] shodhakartaaon ka sujhaav hai ki alkohal mastishk ke hippokaimpas kshetr mein esiteekolin ke release ko protsaahit karta hai.[27]

Cancer

sharaab ki khapat se saat vibhinn prakaar ke Cancer ka khatra hota hai: munh ka Cancer, gale ka Cancer, pet ka Cancer, sankraman Cancer, stan Cancer, aantr Cancer, yakrut Cancer.[28] pratidin 3 ikaai alkohal (lejar ka ek pint ya vaain ka bada gilaas) ke saamaanya sevan se bhi Cancer ke viksit hone ka khatra badh jaata hai.[28] bhaari maatra mein peene vaalon ko yakrut ke sirosis ke kaaran yakrut Cancer hone ki sambhaavana adhik hoti hai.[28]

ek vaishvik adhyayan se pata chala hai ki sabhi Cancer maamalon mein 3.6% alkohan sevan ke kaaran hote hain, jiske parinaamasvaroop 3.5 % vaishvik mrutyu hoti hai.[29] Britain ke ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki Britain mein alkohal se 6% Cancer nidhan hote hain, jo ki prativrsh 9,000 logon ki mrutyu ke baraabar hai.[28]

jo mahilaaen niyamit roop se sharaab ka upabhog karti hain, unamein oopari paachan path, malaashaya, yakrut aur stan ke Cancer ka khatra adhik hota hai.[30][31] purushon aur mahilaaon donon mein, do ya isse adhik drinks ka sevan karne par agnaashaya ke Cancer ka khatra 22 % badh jaata hai.[32]

red vaain mein rejaveraatrol hota hai, jiske prayogashaala sel mein kuchh Cancer-rodhi prabhaav hote hainvirodhi Cancer prabhaav mein jo kuchh hai, haalaanki, ab tak kiye gaye adhyayan ke aadhaar par, vahaaain manushya naheen hai majaboot saboot hai ki laal rang mein Cancer sakta hai sharaab ke khilaaf ki raksha karna.[33]

madyavyasanita

sharaab ki aanuvanshik pravrutti hai aanshik roop se maana ja raha karne ke liye, pravrutti aise vyaktiyon ke saath sharaab ke liye ho sakta hai ek pratikriya jaiv raasaayanik alag hai, haalaanki is vivaadit hai. sharaab ki lat bhi kuposhan ho sakti hai kyonki yeh paachan aur sabse poshak tatvon ki chayaapachaya ko badal sakte hain. gambhir thiamine kami riboflavin, folet ki kami ke kaaran aam hai, vitaamin bi 6 aur seleniym aur sindrom hai Korsakoff netrutv kar sakte hain karne ke liye. maansapeshiyon ki ainthan, michli, bhookh ki kami, tantrika sambandhi vikaar aur avasaad ke kuchh saamaanya lakshan hain. yeh bhi ostiyoporosis ke liye netrutv kar sakte hain aur haddi karne ke liye di (vitaamin A ki kami ke kaaran vitaamin di kailshiym avashoshan bhang hone mein madad karta hai).

madhumeh

vruddh mahilaaon dvaara kam maatra mein pratidin sharaab ka sevan kiye jaane par unamein rakt sharkara star mein kami ki vajah se madhumeh ko rokane ki kshamata samaapt ya bahut kam ho jaati hai.[34] haalaanki, shodhakartaaon ne is baat par dhyaan diya tha ki adhyayan mein shuddh ithenaul ka upayog ho aur pratidin liye jaane vaale maadak peya mein cheeni sahit, yojya shaamil ho, jo ki iske prabhaav ko kam karein.[34]

madhumeh ke rogiyon ko cheeni yukt peya, meethe vaain aur sharaab ka sevan naheen karna chaahiye.[35]

sadama

ek adhyayan se pata chala hai ki niyamit roop se saamaanya maatra mein sharaab ka sevan karne vaalon ki tulana mein aajeevan sharaab se door rahane vaale logon ko sanbhavat: 2.36 guna jyaada sadme ka shikaar hone ki sambhaavana hoti hai. bhaari maatra mein sharaab peene vaale logon ko saamaanya maatra mein sevan karne vaalon ki tulana mein 2.88 guna adhik khatra hota hai.[36]

deerghaayu

vruddh dvaara alkohal ka sevan kiye jaane par ve dirghaayu hote hain, sanbhavat: isse koronari hrudaya rog mein kami aati hai.[22]

48 varsh se adhik aayu vaale doctoron par kiye gaye ek adhyayan mein pata chala ki pratidin alkohal ki 2 ikaai ke sevan (vaain ka ek niyamit gilaas) jke parinaamasvaroop ve deerghaayu hue aur iskeemik hrudaya rog aur shvasan sambandhi rogon se hone vaale mrutyu ki dar kam hui.[37] kul nidhan mein keval 5 % nidhan sharaab ke sevan ke kaaran hue the, lekin ye aankadein partidin 2 ikaai se adhik ka sevan karne vaalon mein badhe hain.[37]

mrutyu dar

rog niyantran ke liye ameriki keindron ki ek report mein anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki America mein 2001 ke dauraan 75,754 mrutyu shaarab ke uchch aur madhyam sevan ke kaaran hui thi. kam upabhog ka asar kuchh faayademand hai, isliye 59,180 mauton ke liye sharaab ko jimmedaar thaharaaya gaya tha.[38]

Britain mein, prativrsh 33,000 mauton ke liye bhaari maatra mein sevan ko jimmedaar thaharaaya jaata hai.[39]

sveedan mein kiye gaye ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki 29 % se 44 % "apraakrutik" maut (jo beemaari ke kaaran naheen hue the) sharaab se sambandhit the; mauton ke kaaranon mein aatmahatya, chakkar aana, yaataayaat durghatana, dam ghutana, nasha aur hatya shaamil hain.[40]

ek vaishvik adhyayan se pata chala ki vaishvik star par sabhi Cancer mein se 3.6 % alkohal sevan ke kaaran hote hain, jiske parinaamasvaroop 3.5% vaishvik Cancer mautein hoti hain.[29] Britain ke ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki Britain mein 6 % Cancer se hone waali mauton ka kaaran sharaab hai, jo ki prativrsh 9,000 se adhik hai.[28]

alkohal maanyataaen

alkohal maanyataaen maadak peya ka sevan karne ke dauraan mahasoos kiye jaane vaale prabhaavon aur anubhavon par logon ka vishvaas aur vyavahaar hai. kaafi had ve maanate hain ki sharaab se vyakti ka vyavahaar, kshamata aur bhaavanaaen prabhaavit hoti hain. kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki agar alkohal maanyataaen badli jaae, to alkohal ka durupayog kam ho sakta hai.[41]

alkohal maanyataaen yeh pehchaan karaati hai ki vishaaktata sharaab peene vaale ke sthaan aur samay ki avadhaarana ko prabhaavit karne ka asal shaareerik kaaran hai, jo manoyantr kshamataaon ko kam karta hai, santulan aur anya prabhaavon mein baadha pahunchaata hai.[42] jis dhang aur tareeke se vishaaktata ke shaareerik prabhaavon se alkohal maanyataaen paraspar sampark karti hain, unase vishisht vyavahaar mein parivrtit hota hai, yeh spasht naheen hai.

yadi kisi samaaj ka maanana hai ki vishaaktata ke kaaran yaun vyavahaar, upadravi vyavahaar, ya aakramakata badhti hai, tab log aisa dikhaane lagte hain ki ve nashe mein hain. lekin agar ek samaaj maanata hai ki vishaaktata se aaraam milta hai shaant vyavahaar badhta hai, tab aamtaur par yeh in parinaamon ki or ishaara karta hai. alkohal maanyataaen ek hi samaaj ke bheetar bhinn hoti hai, isliye ye parinaam nishchit naheen hain.[43]

log saamaajik maanyataaon ke anuroop hote hain aur kuchh samaajon ko maanana hai ki sharaab peene se asanyamata ho sakti hai. haalaanki, jis samaaj ke log maanate hain ki alkohal se asanyamata naheen hoti hai, us samaaj mein vishaaktata ke kaaran asanyamata aur galat vyavahaar adhik hote hain.[42]

alkohal maanyataaen sharaab ki vaastavik khapat ke anupasthiti mein kaam kar sakte hain. America mein kai dashakon ke anusandhaan ke baad yeh dikhaaya gaya ki purush yaun kriyaaon ke liye tab adhik uttejit hote hain, jab ve sochate hain ki ve sharaab pi rahe hain, tab bhi jab ve sharab na pi rahe hon. mahilaaen yaun kriya ke liye tab adhik uttejit hoti hain jab unhein bhram ho jaata hai ki unke peya padaarth mein alkohal mila hua hai- haalaanki unki shaareerik uttejana ka ek maap yeh dikhaata hai ki ve us dauraan kam uttejit hote hain.

purush prayogashaala mein tab adhik aakraamak hote hain, jab ve taunik pi rahe hon, lekin unhein vishvaas hota hi ki unke peya mein alkohal ki maatra hai. aur ve tab kam aakraamak ho jaate hain, jab unhein lagta hai ki ve taunik jal pi rahe hain, lekin vaastav mein unke taunik jal mein alkohal mila hota hai.[41]

sharaab aur dharm

kuchh dharm - vishesh roop se islaam, jain dharm, bahaai vishvaas, din ke sannyaasi ke baad-yeeshu maseeh ka church, saatavein din sadasya maseeh ke aagaman ka church, vaigyaanik, maseeh ka church, sanyukt peintekostal church international, theraavaada, bauddh dharm ke adhikaansh mahaayaana vidyaalaya, isaai dharm ke kuchh protesteint moolyavarg aur hindu dharm ke kuchh sanpradaaya - kai kaaranon se sharaab ke sevan ko rokate, hatotsaahit, ya pratibandhit karte hain.

iyukerist ya samaan dharm ko maanane vaale samooh mein kai isaai moolyavarg vaain ka upayog karte hain aur saamaanyat: sharaab ki anumati dete hain. anya moolyavarg samaan dharm ko maanane vaale samooh mein akinvit angoor ke ras ka upayog karte hain aur apni ichha se ya to alkohal ka sevan karte hain ya iska ekamusht nishedh karte hain.

yahoodi dharm mein kiddush saath hi fasah samaaroh, purim aur anya dhaarmik samaarohon ke liye shabat par vaain ka upabhog karte hain. sharaab peene ki anumati hai. kuchh praacheen yahoodi granthon, jaise talmood avakaash (jaise purim) ke dauraan aayojan ko adhik aanandamayi banaane ke liye saamaanya sevan ko protsaahit karte hain.

bauddh granth davaaon aur alkohal se parahej ki salaah dete hain, kyonki ve satarkata ka nirodh karte hain.

haalaanki, kuchh butaparast dharmon mein sharaab aur maadakata ko dekhne ka najariya poori tarah se alag hai. ve sakriya roop se prajanan kshamata badhaava dete hain. aisa maana jaata tha ki sharaab yaun ichha badhaata hai aur yaun sambandh banaane ke liye kisi vyakti se sampark karna aasaan banaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, naurs butaparasti sharaab ko naurs puraan ka saar maanati hai. is dharm mein maadakata ek mahatvapoorn prajanan sanskaar tha.

itihaas

duniya bhar ke logon dvaara maanak svachhata/ chikitsa kaaranon ke liye aahaar mein, iske aaraam aur khushi ke prabhaavon ke liye, manoranjan prayojanon ke liye, kalaatmak prerana ke liye, uttejak yaun ichha ke roop mein aur anya kaaranon ke liye sharaab ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. kuchh peya prateekaatmak aur dhaarmik mahatva ke saath alkohal ke upayog rahasya ka sujhaav dete hain, uda. vaain aur madyapaan ke Bhagwan, diyoniss(jinhein bachus bhi kaha jaata tha) ke unmaadapoorn rasmon mein greeko-roman dharm dvaara; isaai iyukerist mein; aur yahoodi shaabat aur tyohaaron (vishesh roop se fasah) mein.

kinvit peya

henan praant, uttari cheen, mein jiaahu ke niolithik gaaainv mein mitti ke bartanon jaar mein avashoshit aur sanrakshit raasaayanik vishleshan ke nishaan ne khulaasa kiya ki 9,000 varsh pehle chaaval, shahad aur fal ke mishrit khameereekrut peya ka utpaadan kiya jaata tha. yeh lagbhag vahi samay hai ki jau beer aur angoor vaain madhya poorv mein banaaya jaana aarambh kiya gaya tha. mitti ke bartanon par aur kala mein hai ki mesopotaamiya ki kala mein pai gayi vyanjan vidhiyaan yeh dikhaati hain ki log bade tankiyon aur ghadon se beer peene ke liye stro ka upayvyaktiyon ka upayog karte the. hindu ayurvedik granthon mein maadak peya ke upabhog ke laabh aur unase hone vaale vishaaktata aur maadak rog donon par varnan upalabdh hain. Bhaarat aur cheen mein adhikaansh log, aaj bhi apni fasal ke kuchh bhaag ko khameereekrut karte hain aur maadak utpaadon ka aanand uthaate hain. haalaanki, bauddh dharm ke anuyaayi, jo 5veen aur 6veen shataabdi isa poorv mein Bhaarat aae the aur dakshin aur poorvi Asia mein fail gaye the, hinduon aur sikhon ke anuyaayi ban jaane ke baavajood, aaj bhi isse parahej karte hain. beer aur vaain janmasthal kahe jaane vaale mesopotaamiya aur misr mein, islaam aaj sabse prabhaavashaali dharm hai aur yeh dharm sharaab peena ya maadak peya rakhana pratibandhit karta hai.

praacheen yoonaan mein vaain ka upabhog subah ke naashte ya sangoshthiyon mein kiya jaata tha aur 1li sadi E.poo. mein yeh adhiktar roman naagrikon ke bhojan ka hissa tha. haalaanki, donon yoonaani aur roman aam taur par aasut vaain (1 bhaag vaain aur 1 bhaag paani se lekar 1 bhaag vaain aur 4 bhaag paani tak badalti kshamata ke saath) ka upabhog karte the. kaana mein ek shaadi mein paani ko vaain parivrtit kar new taistamaint ke itihaas mein yeeshu ko pehli chamatkaarik shraddhaanjali thi aur antim super ne vaain ke is upayog ko adhikaansh isaai paranparaaon mein iyukerist sanskaar ka anivaarya hissa bana diya (isaai dharm aur sharaab dekhein).

madhya yug ke dauraan Europe mein, tripl kinvan ki prakriya ke kaaran - beer ka upabhog poora parivaar karta tha - purush sabse adhik, uske baad mahilaaen aur fir bachche. us samay ke ek dastaavej mein yeh ullekhit hai ki nan ko pratidin yavasura ke 6 pints ka bhatta diya jaata tha. saaidar aur khali vaain bhi vyaapak roop se upalabdh the, jabki angoor vaain par uchch vargon ka visheshaadhikaar tha.

15veen sadi mein Europe vaasiyon ke America pahuainchane ke kaal ke dauraan, kai sthaaneeya sabhyataaon mein maadak peya ka chalan joron par tha. jeet ke baad ke ejtek dastaavej ke anusaar, sthaaneeya "vaain" (palk) ka upabhog dhaarmik samaarohon mein pratibandhit tha, lekin 70 varsh se adhik aayuvarg ke liye iski anumati thi. dakshin America ke mool nivaasi kasaava ya makka (com, cheecha) se beer jaisa ek utpaad banaante the, jise staarch se sharkara mein badalne ke liye kinvan karne se pehle chabaaya jaata tha. is chabaane ki takaneek ka upayog praacheen Japan mein chaaval aur anya staarch yukt fasal se saaki banaane ke liye kiya jaata tha.

2100 isa poorv ya isse pehle ke sumeriyaai aur misr granthon mein alkohal ke aushadheeya upayog ka ullekh tha. hibroo baaibal mein marne vaalo aur udaas logon ko maadak peya dena anushansit hai, taaki ve apne dukh ko bhool jaaen (kahaavat 31:6-7).

aasut peya

12veen sadi mein Europe mein ise pehli baar darj kiya gaya aur aaranbhik 14veen sadi tak yeh sampoorn mahaadveep mein fail chuka tha.[44] yeh poorv ki or bhi faila, mukhyat: mangol ke kaaran aur 14vein sadi ke kuchh samay baad cheen mein iski shuruaat hui.[krupaya uddharan jodein] peraaselasasane alkohal ko iska aadhunik naam diya, jise usane arabi shabd se liya tha, jiska arth hai "sookshmata se vibhaajit", jo aasavan ka sandarbh deta hai.

ameriki itihaas mein maadak peya

aaranbhik 19veen sadi mein, America ko haardikta ke saath peene ki parampara viraasat mein mili thi. kai vibhinn prakaar ke maadak peya padaarthon ka upabhog kiya jaata tha. is bhaari maatra mein sevan ka ek kaaran pashchimi seema par makai ki bahutaayat upaj thi. bahutaayat ne saste vhiski ki vyaapak utpaadan ko protsaahit kiya. ise dauraan maadak peya ameriki aahaar ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa ban gaye. madhya 1820 mein, ameriki saalaana prati vyakti sharaab ke saat gailan piya karte the.[45][46]

19 veen shataabdi ke dauraan, ameriki sharaab atyadhik maatra mein peete the aur sharaab ko do vishisht tareekon se peete the.

ek tareeka aamtaur par pratidin thodi maatra mein aur niyamit roop se ghar par ya akele mein peena tha. doosra tareeka saampradaayik samaaroh mein peena tha. chunaavon, adaalat ke satr, milishiya mastars, avakaash samaaroh, ya dostaana utsav ke liye kisi saarvajanik sthaan mein logon ke samooh ikattha hote the. pratibhaagiyon tab tak piya karte the, jab tak ki ve nasha na chadh jaae.

rasaayan aur vish vigyaan

maadak peya ki sakriya saamagri, ithenaul (CH3CH2OH), upabhog ke liye sadaiv kinvan dvaara - carbohydrate ke chayaapachaya - okseejan ke abhaav mein kuchh khameer prajaatiyon dvaara utpaadit ki jaati hai. alkohal-utpaadan ke antargat khameer ke sanvardhan ki prakriya ko kinvaasavan kaha jaata hai. isi prakriya se seetoo mein kaarban daaioksaaid ka nirmaan kiya jaata hai aur iska upayog peya ko kaarbonet karne ke liye ho sakta hai. haalaanki, is vidhi mein khameer ka avashesh niklata hai aur audyogik paimaane par saamaanyat: kaarboneshan alag se kiya jaata hai.

(100 yoos proof) maatra vaale ithenaul yukt lagbhag 50 pratishat se adhik saandrata vaale peya jvalanasheel taral hote hain aur unamein aasaani se aag lag jaati hai. kuchh mohak peya ko unka svaad jaanboojhkar kiye gaye prajvalan jaise fleming dau॰ pepar se praapt hota hai. uchch maatra mein ithenaul yukt sprits ko maatr ek chingaari se jalaaya ja sakta hai, uda. garam shot glaas mein sprit ko milaakar.

yakrut mein, enjaaim alkohal eseetaildihaaid mein okseedaaijd ithenaul ko dihaaidrognaaij hota hai, jo baad mein eseetaildihaaid dihaaidrognaaij dvaara haanirhit esitik esid mein okseedaaijd ho jaata hai. ithenaul ka pehle eseetaildihaaid aur fir mein esitik esid mein chapaachapaya kiya jaata hai. esitik esid ko koenjaaim A ke saath khameereekrut kiya jaat hai, jisse esitl CoA banta hai. esitl CoA, saaitrik esid saaikal mein esitl moeti ko le jaata hai, jo kaarban daaioksaaid mein esitl moeti ko okseedaaij karke oorja ka utpaadan karta hai. esitl CoA ka upayog baayosinthesis mein bhi kiya ja sakta hai. esitl CoA sharkara aur vasa ke chayaapachaya ke saath saamaanya madhyavarti hai aur glookoj ko todkar kar banaae gaye glaaikolisis ka utpaad hai.

anya sharaab ke saath tulana kiye jaane par, manushyon mein 1400 migra/kigra (100 kigra vajan ke vyakti ke liye lagbhag 20 shot) aur 9000 migra/kigra (jeev, chooha) ke LD50 ke saath, ithenaul kam vishaila prateet hota hai. fir bhi, maadak peyon ke aakasmik adhikta, visheshakar saandrit kism, ka upabhog karna, khaaskar mahilaaon, kam vajan vaale vyaktiyon aur bachchon ke liye jokhim bhara hai. in logon ke shareer mein paani ki bahut kam maatra hoti hai, isliye alkohal kam ghulata hai. 50 se 100 migra/daily ki saandrata vaale rakt alkohal ko kaanooni madiraapaan maana ja sakta hai (nyaayaadhikaar ke anusaar kaanoon badal sakte hai). prabhaav ki seema 22 migra/daily hai.[47]

avasaad (nyooro-raasaayanikl nirodhaatmak) banaane ke liye alkohal gaama eminobyootrik esid (GABA) risepatars ko prabhaavit karti hai. alkohal GABAA riseptar par iske prabhaav mein anya haaipnotiks jaise baarbiturets aur beinjodaaijepaain donon ke samaan hota hai, haalaanki aushadheeya profaail samaan naheen hai. iske kaaran kai anya shaamak-haaipnotik davaaon ki tarah chidchidaapan, enteekaaainvalseint, krutrim nindraavastha aur shaamak kriyaaen hoti hain. saath hi, alkohal baarbiturets aur beinjodaaijepaainas ke saath asahishnu hai.[48]

sharaab ke atyadhik sevan se haingaovar kahe jaane waali nasha se prerit vilanbit hoti hai (laitin mein, nasha aur haingaovar ke roop mein kraipula ka sandarbh diya jaata hai). ithenaul ke nasha sahit kai kaarak, eseetaildihaaid, pratyaksh vishaakt prabhaav aur kongenars kahe jaane vaale ashuddhataaon ka nasha aur nirjaleekaran mein yogadaan dete hain. haingaovar sharaab ke utsaahi prabhaav ke baad shuroo hota hai, jise raat aur subah mein maadak peya ke upabhog dvaara vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki, rakt alkohal saandrata ab bhi paryaapt ho sakti hai aur isse adhik maatra draaivaron aur anya khatarnaak upakaranon ke parichaalakon ke liye pratibandhit hai. samay ke saath haingaovar ka prabhaav kam hota jaata hai. haingaovar ke ilaaj ke liye kai upachaar sujhaae gaye hain, jinmein se adhiktar mithya-vaigyaanik hote hain.

rasaayan shaastr mein, alkohal un sabhi kaarbanik yaugik ke liye saamaanya shabd hai, jinmein haaidroksil samooh (-OH) kisi kaarban parmaanu se bandha hota hai, jo ki kisi anya kaarban parmaanu aur uske baad haaidrojan se bandha ho sakta hai. anya alkohal jaise propaleen glaaikol aur sugar alkohal khaadya ya peya padaarthon mein maujood ho sakte hain, lekin ye alkohal unhein alkohalik naheen banaate hain. mithaanaul (ek kaarban), propaanaul (do aaisomar dene vaale teen kaarban) aur butaanaul (chaar kaarban, chaar aaisomar), ye sabhi saamaanyat: paae jaane vaale alkohal hain aur inmein se kisi bhi roop ka sevan kabheen naheen kiya jaata hai. alkohal sangat eldihaaid aur sangat kaarboksilik esid mein vishaakt hote hain. in chayaapachaya utpaadon ke kaaran vishaaktata aur amlaraktata hoti hai. ithenaul ke alaava anya alkohalon ke maamale mein, eldihaaids aur kaarbiksilik esid vishaakt aur amlaraktata ghaatak ho sakte hain. iske vipreet, ithenaul ke ghaatak parinaam mukhya roop se atyadhik maatra mein sevan karne se hote hain aur jo shuruaati behoshi ya puraani lat (maadakata) se sambandhit hain.

maadak peya padaarthon ki kachchi saamagri

kuchh peya padaarthon ke naam kinvit saamagri ke srot dvaara nirdhaarit kiye gaye hain. saamaanyat:, staarch-ki bhaari maatra vaale srot (anaaj ya aaloo) se kinvit peya, jismein sabse pehle staarch ko ko todkar sharkara mein badla jaata hai (udaaharan ke liye, galaakar), ko beer kehte hain, yadi mishr ko aasavit kiya jaata hai, to use sprit kehte hain. vaain khameereekrut angoor se banaaya jaata hai.

braandi aur vaain keval angoor se hi bante hain. agar koi maadak peya kisi anya fal se banaaya jaata hai, to use fal braandi ya fal beer ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. fal ke prakaar ko nirdisht kiya jaana chaahiye, jaise (udaaharan ke liye) "cheri braandi" ya "ber vaain".

sanyukt raajya America aur Canada mein,saaidar ka matlab aksar akinvit seb ke ras se hota hai (saaidar par lekh dekhein), jabki kinvit saaidar ko hard saaidar kaha jaata hai. akinvit saaidar ko meetha saaidar bhi kaha jaata hai. Britain mein, saaidar ko maadak peya maana jaata hai; Australia mein yeh aspasht hai.

beer saamaanyat: jau se banaaya jaata hai, lekin kabhi kabhi ismein anya anaaj bhi milaae jaate hain. vhiski (ya vhiski) kabhi-kabhi bhinn anaajon ko milaakar banaaya jaata hai, visheshakar aayarish vhiski mein kai bhinn anaaj milaae jaate hain. vhiski ki shaili (skauch, raai, baurbon, makai) aam taur par praathamik anaaj ke upayog ko darshaati hai, jismein atirikt anaajon ko saamaanyat: mishrit kiya jaata hai (adhikaanshat: jau aur kabhi-kabhi jai). jahaan tak ameriki vhiski ka sambandh hai, borabaun (makai) aur raai vhiski ke kinvan mein kam se kam 51 % sambandhit ghatak hone chaahiye, jabki makai vhiski mein (borabaun ke theek vipreet) kam se kam 81 % honi chaahiye - sabhi French A.O.si.(Appellation d'Origine Controléae). ke samaan ameriki kaanoon dvaara.

do aam aasut peya vodaka aur jin hain. vodaka ko kisi bhi krushik mool (sabse saamaanya anaaj aur aaloo hai) ke srot se aasavit kiya ja sakta hai, lekin vodaka ki mukhya visheshata yeh hai ki ise iski srot saamagri se milne vaale svaad ko poori tarah se aasavit kar banaaya jaata hai. halaanki, kuchh aasavak aur visheshagyon ka mat hai ki aaloo vodaka mein malaai ka svaad milta hai, jabki raai vodaka mein raai ke svaad ko pahachaana ja sakta hai. anya vodaka mein khattaapan maujood hota hai. jin ko bhi isi prakaar aasavit kiya jaata hai, jismein jadi bootiyon aur anya paudya utpaadon ka svaad hota hai - visheshakar junipr bereej, lekin ismein enjal root, nadyapaan, ilaayachi, svarg ke anaaj, balgeriyaai pankhudi gulaab aur kai anya shaamil hain.

thande aasavan dvaara banaae jaane vaale peya ka sabse achha udaaharan eppalajaik hai, jise sard mausam mein aasaani se banaaya ja sakta hai. haalaanki donon aasavan aur thande aasavan mein paani ki maatra ko kam karte hain, lekin inmein samaanata naheen hai, kyonki thande aasavan mein aasavan ki tarah kam karne ke bajaay bhaari maatra ke jahareele alkohal ko kam karne par dhyaan diya jaata hai.

sanghatak saamagri

anaaj

srot kinvit peya ka naam aasut peya ka naam
jau beer, yavasura, jau vaain skauch vhiski, aayarish vhiski, shochoo (mugeejochoo) (Japan)
raai raai beer, kvaas raai vhiski, vodaka (Poland), roggenakorn (Germany)
makai chicha, makai beer, teshuina baurban vhiski; aur vodaka (kabhi-kabhi)
jvaar burukutu (Nigeria), pito (Ghana), (merisa dakshini soodaan), bilibili (chaad, madhya afreeki ganaraajya, Cameroon) motaai, gaaoling, baijiu ke kuchh anya prakaar (cheen).
gehoon gehooain ki beer vodaka, gehoon ki vhiski, vaijkorn (Germany)
chaaval beer, brem (baali), huaangjiyu aur chaujiyu (cheen), rooau gaao (viytanaam), sek (Japan), sonti (Bhaarat), maikagiyoli (Korea), tuaak (borniyo dweep), thon/9} (Nepal) aaila (Nepal) Rice baijiyu (cheen), shochu (komejochu) aur avaamori (Japan), soju (Korea)
baajara baajare ka beer (sab-sahaara Africa), tongba (Nepal, Tibet)
anaaj se bana hua shochu (sobaajochu) (Japan)

falon ka ras

srot kinvit peya ka naam aasut peya ka naam
angoor ka ras, vaain braandi, kognek (France), varamaauth, aarmaagnak (fraans) braintavin (Germany), pisko (chili aur peroo), raakiya (baalkan, Turkey), singaani (boleeviya), arak (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan), torkoyapalinka (Hungary)
seb ka ras saaidar (yooes: "hard saaidar"), eflevin eppalajaik (ya eppal braandi), kaalvaados, saaidar
naashapaati ke ras ka pairi ya naashapaati saaidar, poire (fraans) poire Williams[[, naashapaati braandi, io-de- vi (France), pailinka]] (Hungary)
ber ka ras hai ber vaain silvovitj, juika, pailinka, umeshu, pailinka
anaanaas ka ras tepaache (Mexico)
kele ya plenaten chuoi haut (viytanaam), urgaavaaga (yugaanda, ravaanda), mbege (milet maalt ke saath; tanjaaniya), kaaseekisi (sorgham maalt ke saath; kaango lokataantrik ganaraajya)
gauki gauki jiu (cheen) gauki jiu (cheen)
naariyl taadi (Sri Lanka) arak, lambaanog (Sri Lanka, Bhaarat, fileepeens)
cheeni ke saath adarak, kishmish ke saath adarak adarak yavasura, adarak beer, adarak vaain
mirika rubra yaangamei jiu (cheen) yaangamei jiu (cheen)
khali khali vaain raaki/aujo/paastis/saambuka (Turkey/grees/France/Italy), sipauro /sikaudiya (grees), graipa (Italy), trestar (Germany), mark (fraans), jivaaniya (saaipras), egvaaradeinte (Portugal), teskovina (romaaniya), arak (Iraq)

sabjiyaan

srot kinvit peya ka naam aasut peya ka naam
adarak ke jad ka ras adarak beer (botsavaana)
aaloo ya anaaj aaloo beer vodaka: aaloo ka upayog adhikaanshat: Poland aur Germany mein kiya jaata hai, anyatha anaaj ya aaloo . skaindinaaviya ka lokapriya, adhik asaradaar peya akvaavit, aaloo ya anaaj ka bana hota hai. Ireland mein, poitin (ya poteen), ek prakaar ki paaramparik sharaab hai, jo aaloo ka bana hota hai aur jo 1661 se 1997 tak pratibandhit tha.
shakarakand shochoo (imojochoo) (Japan), sojoo (Korea)
kasaava/ mainiok/yuka nihaamaanchi (dakshin America), kaasiri (sab-sahaara Africa), chicha (ikvaador)
ganne ka ras, ya gud baasi, betsa-betsa (kshetreeya) ram (kairibiyn), pinga ya kachaaka (braajeel), egvaaradiyente, gvaaro
vanakumaari ka ras palk takeela, mejkal, raaisila

anya

srot kinvit peya ka naam aasut peya ka naam
taad ka saar koyol vaain (madhya America), tembo (sab-sahaara Africa), (taadi) bhaarateeya upamahaadveep)
areinga pinnaata, naariyl, borraasus flaiblifer ka saar tuaak (indoneshiya) arak
shahad meed, tej (ithiyopiya) aasut meed (meed braandi ya shahad braandi)
doodh kumis, kefir, blaand
cheeni kilijoo aur meed ya sima (Finland) shochoo (kokuto shochoo){/0e }: bhoor Japan (banaaya se brown shugar)

inhein bhi dekhein

saaaincha:Alcohealth

  • alkohal aur drags itihaas society
  • alkohal tulyata
  • alkopaup
  • sharaab ka nasha
  • alkohal bureau, tambaakoo, faayaraaarmas aur visfotak (eteeef)
  • alkohal ke saath Pak kala
  • aasut peya
  • sharaab peena
  • sharaab peene ki sanskruti
  • sharaab sthaapana
  • sharaab peene ka khel
  • maadakata
  • ithenaul chayaapachaya
  • alkohal ka itihaas
  • sharaab peene ki kaanooni umr
  • alkohal ki khapat ke aadhaar par deshon ki soochi
  • alkohal ke deerghakaalik prabhaav
  • alkohal ki alpaavadhi prabhaav
  • gairkaanooni sharaabaghar

sandarbh

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  45. [[George Will |George F. Will]] (2009-10-29). "A reality check on drug use". Washington Post. Washington Post. pp. A19. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/10/28/AR2009102803801.html.
  46. Rorabaugh, W.J. (1981). The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. Oxford University Press, USA. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780195029901.
  47. http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/reprint/28/4/570.pdf
  48. Galanter, Marc; Kleber, Herbert D. (1 July 2008). The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment (4th san॰). United States of America: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc. pa॰ 114. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-1585622764. http://books.google.com/?id=6wdJgejlQzYC.

baahari links

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