lokatantr

lokatantr (shaabdik arth "logon ka shaasan", sanskrut mein lok, "janta" tatha tantr, "shaasan",) ya prajaatantr ek aisi shaasan vyavastha hai jismein janta apna shaasak khud chunati hai. yeh shabd lokataantrik vyavastha aur lokataantrik raajya donon ke liye prayukt hota hai. yadyapi lokatantr shabd ka prayog raajaneetik sandarbh mein kiya jaata hai, kintu lokatantr ka siddhaant doosare samoohon aur sangathanon ke liye bhi sangat hai. saamaanyat: lokatantr vibhinn siddhaanton ke mishran se bante hain, par matadaan ko lokatantr ke adhikaansh prakaaron ka charitragat lakshan maana jaata hai.

anukram

lokatantr ke prakaar

lokatantr ki paribhaasha ke anusaar yeh "janta dvaara, janta ke liye, janta ka shaasan hai". lekin alag-alag deshakaal aur paristhitiyon mein alag-alag dhaaranaaon ke prayog se iski avadhaarana kuchh jatil ho gayi hai. praacheenakaal se hi lokatantr ke sandarbh mein kai prastaav rakhe gaye hain, par inmein se kai kabhi kriyaanvit naheen hue.

pratinidhi lokatantr

pratinidhi lokatantr mein janta sarkaari adhikaariyon ko seedhe chunati hai. pratinidhi kisi jile ya sansadeeya kshetr se chune jaate hain ya kai samaanupaatik vyavasthaaon mein sabhi matadaataaon ka pratinidhitv karte hain. kuchh deshon mein mishrit vyavastha prayukt hoti hai. yadyapi is tarah ke lokatantr mein pratinidhi janta dvaara nirvaachit hote hain, lekin janta ke hit mein kaarya karne ki neetiyaan pratinidhi swayam tay karte hain. yadyapi dalagat neetiyaan, matadaataaon mein chhavi, pun: chunaav jaise kuchh kaarak pratinidhiyon par asar daalte hain, kintu saamaanyat: inmein se kuchh hi baadhyakaari anudesh hote hain. is pranaali ki sabse badi khaasiyat yeh hai ki janaadesh ka dabaav neetigat vichlanon par rok ka kaam karta hai, kyonki niyamit antaraalon par satta ki vaidhata hetu chunaav anivaarya hain. (Arvind Pande)

udaar lokatantr

ek tarah ka pratinidhi lokatantr hai, jismein svachh aur nishpaksh chunaav hote hain. udaar lokatantr ke charitragat lakshanon mein, alpasankhyakon ki suraksha, kaanoon vyavastha, shaktiyon ke vitran aadi ke alaava abhivyakti, bhaasha, sabha, dharm aur sampatti ki svatantrata pramukh hai.

pratyaksh lokatantr

pratyaksh lokatantr mein sabhi naagrik saare mahatvapurn neetigat faisalon par matadaan karte hain. ise pratyaksh kaha jaata hai kyonki saiddhaantik roop se ismein koi pratinidhi ya madhyasth naheen hota. sabhi pratyaksh lokatantr chhote samudaaya ya nagar-raashtron mein hain. udaaharan -Switzerland

Bhaarat mein lokatantr ke praacheenatam prayog

praacheen kaal me Bhaarat mein sudrudh vyavastha vidyamaan thi. iske saakshya hamein praacheen saahitya, sikkon aur abhilekhon se praapt hote hain. videshi yaatriyon evam vidvaanon ke varnan mein bhi is baat ke pramaan hain.

praacheen ganataantrik vyavastha mein aajkal ki tarah hi shaasak evam shaasan ke anya padaadhikaariyon ke liye nirvaachan pranaali thi. yogyata evam gunon ke aadhaar par inke chunaav ki prakriya aaj ke daur se thodi bhinn jaroor thi. sabhi naagrikon ko vote dene ka adhikaar naheen tha. rigved tatha kautilya saahitya ne chunaav paddhati ki pushti ki hai parantu unhonne vote dene ke adhikaar par roshani naheen daali hai.

vartamaan sansad ki tarah hi praacheen samay mein parishdon ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha. jo vartamaan sansadeeya pranaali se milta-julata tha. ganaraajya ya sangh ki neetiyon ka sanchaalan inheen parishdon dvaara hota tha. iske sadasyon ki sankhya vishaal thi. us samay ke sabse prasiddh ganaraajya lichhavi ki keindreeya parishad mein 7707 sadasya the. vaheen yaudheya ki kendreeya parishad ke 5000 sadasya the. vartamaan sansadeeya satr ki tarah hi parishdon ke adhiveshan niyamit roop se hote the.

kisi bhi mudde par nirnaya hone se poorv sadasyon ke beech mein is par khulkar charcha hoti thi. sahi-galat ke aakalan ke liye paksh-vipaksh par jordaar bahas hoti thi. uske baad hi sarvasammati se nirnaya ka pratipaadan kiya jaata tha. sabki sahamati na hone par bahumat prakriya apanaayi jaati thi. kai jagah to sarvasammati hona anivaarya hota tha. bahumat se liye gaye nirnaya ko 'bhooyisikkim' kaha jaata tha. iske liye voting ka sahaara lena padta tha. tatkaaleen samay mein vote ko 'chhand' kaha jaata tha. nirvaachan aayukt ki bhaanti is chunaav ki dekh rekh karne wala bhi ek adhikaari hota tha jise shalaakaagraahak kehte the. vote dene ke liye teen pranaaliyaan theen.

(1) goodhk (gupt roop se) – arthaat apna mat kisi patra par likhkar jismein vote dene vaale vyakti ka naam naheen aata tha.

(2) vivrutak (prakat roop se) – is prakriya mein vyakti sambandhit vishay ke prati apne vichaar sabke saamane prakat karta tha. arthaat khule aam ghoshana.

(3) sankarnajalpak (shalaakaagraahak ke kaan mein chupake se kehna) - sadasya in teenon mein se koi bhi ek prakriya apnaane ke liye svatantr the. shalaakaagraahak poori mustaidi evam imaandaari se in voton ka hisaab karta tha.

is tarah ham paate hain ki praacheen kaal se hi hamaare desh mein gauravashaali lokatantreeya parampara thi. iske alaava suvyavasthit shaasan ke sanchaalan hetu anek mantraalayon ka bhi nirmaan kiya gaya tha. uttam gunon evam yogyata ke aadhaar par in mantraalayon ke adhikaariyon ka chunaav kiya jaata tha.

mantraalayon ke pramukh vibhaag the-

(1) audyogik tatha shilp sambandhi vibhaag

(2) videsh vibhaag

(3) janaganana

(4) kraya vikraya ke niyamon ka nirdhaaran

mantrimandal ka ullekh hamein 'arthashaastr' 'manusmruti', 'shukraneeti', 'mahaabhaarat', ityaadi mein praapt hota hai. yajurved aur braahman granthon mein inhein 'ratni' kaha gaya. mahaabhaarat ke anusaar mantrimandal mein 6 sadasya hote the. manu ke anusaar sadasya sankhya 7-8 hoti thi. shukr ne iske liye 10 ki sankhya nirdhaarit ki thi.

inke kaarya is prakaar the:-

(1) purohit- yeh raaja ka guru maana jaata tha. raajaneeti aur dharm donon mein nipun vyakti ko hi yeh pad diya jaata tha.

(2) uparaaj (raajapratinidhi)- iska kaarya raaja ki anupasthiti mein shaasan vyavastha ka sanchaalan karna tha.

(3) pradhaan- pradhaan athva pradhaanamantri, mantrimandal ka sabse mahatvapoorn sadasya tha. vah sabhi vibhaagon ki dekhbhaal karta tha.

(4) sachiv- vartamaan ke raksha mantri ki tarah hi iska kaam raajya ki suraksha vyavastha sambandhi kaaryon ko dekhna tha.

(5) sumantr- raajya ke aay-vyaya ka hisaab rakhana iska kaarya tha. chaanakya ne isko samarhatta kaha.

(6) amaatya- amaatya ka kaarya sampoorn raajya ke praakrutik sansaadhanon ka niyman karna tha.

(7) doot- vartamaan kaal ki inteleejeinsi ki tarah doot ka kaarya guptachar vibhaag ko sangathit karna tha. yeh raajya ka atyant mahatvapoorn evam samvedansheel vibhaag maana jaata tha.

inke alaava bhi kai vibhaag the. itna hi naheen vartamaan kaal ki tarah hi panchaayati vyavastha bhi hamein apne desh mein dekhne ko milti hai. shaasan ki mool ikaai gaanvon ko hi maana gaya tha. pratyek gaanv mein ek gram-sabha hoti thi. jo gaanv ki prashaasan vyavastha, nyaaya vyavastha se lekar gaanv ke pratyek kalyaanakaari kaam ko anjaam deti thi. inka kaarya gaanv ki pratyek samasya ka niptaara karna, aarthik unnati, raksha kaarya, samunnat shaasan vyavastha ki sthaapana kar ek aadarsh gaanv taiyaar karna tha. graamasabha ke pramukh ko graamani kaha jaata tha.

saara raajya chhoti-chhoti shaasan ikaaiyon mein banta tha aur pratyek ikaai apne mein ek chhote raajya si thi aur sthaanik shaasan ke nimitt apne mein poorn thi. samast raajya ki shaasan satta ek sabha ke adheen thi, jiske sadasya un shaasan-ikaaiyon ke pradhaan hote the.

ek nishchit kaal ke liye sabka ek mukhya athva adhyaksh nirvaachit hota tha. yadi sabha badi hoti to uske sadasyon mein se kuchh logon ko milaakar ek kaaryakaari samiti nirvaachit hoti thi. yeh shaasan vyavastha ethens mein klaaistheneej ke samvidhaan se milti-julati thi. sabha mein yuva evam vruddh har umr ke log hote the. unki baithak ek bhavan mein hoti thi, jo sabhaagaar kahalaata tha.

ek praacheen ullekh ke anusaar aparaadhi pehle vichaaraarth vinichchayamahaamaatr naamak adhikaari ke paas upasthit kiya jaata tha. nirparaadh hone par abhiyukt ko vah mukt kar sakta tha par dand naheen de sakta tha. use apne se oonche nyaayaalaya bhej deta tha. is tarah abhiyukt ko chh: uchch nyaayaalayon ke sammukh upasthit hona padta tha. keval raaja ko dand dene ka adhikaar tha. dharmashaastr aur poorv ki najeeron ke aadhaar par hi dand hota tha.

desh mein kai ganaraajya vidyamaan the. maurya saamraajya ka udaya in ganaraajyon ke liye vinaashakaari siddh hua. parantu maurya saamraajya ke patan ke pashchaat kuchh naye lokataantrik raajyon ne janm liya. yatha yaudheya, maanav aur aarjuneeyan ityaadi.

praacheen Bhaarat ke kuchh pramukh ganaraajyon ka byora is prakaar hai:-

shaakya- shaakya ganaraajya vartamaan basti aur Gorakhpur jila (uttar pradesh) ke kshetr mein sthit tha. is ganaraajya ki rajdhani kapilvastu thi. yeh saat deevaaron se ghira hua sundar aur surakshit nagar tha. is sangh mein assi hajaar kul aur paanch lakh jan the. inki raajasabha, shaakya parishad ke 500 sadasya the. ye sabha prashaasan aur nyaaya donon kaarya karti thi. sabhaabhavan ko sanyaagaar kehte the. yahaan visheshagya evam vishisht jan vichaar-vimarsh kar koi nirnaya dete the. shaakya parishad ka adhyaksh raaja kahalaata tha. Bhagwan buddh ke pita shuddhodan shaakya kshatriya raaja the. kausal ke raaja prasenajit ke putr vidkghabh ne is ganaraajya par aakraman kar ise nasht kar diya tha.

lichhavi- lichhavi ganaraajya ganga ke uttar mein (vartamaan uttari Bihar kshetr) sthit tha. iski rajdhani ka naam vaishaali tha. Bihar ke mujaffarapur jile ke basaadh gram mein iske avashesh praapt hote hain. lichhavi kshatriya varn ke the. varddhamaan mahaaveer ka janm isi ganaraajya mein hua tha. is ganaraajya ka varnan jain evam bauddh granthon mein pramukh roop se milta hai. vaishaali ki raajya parishad mein 7707 sadasya hote the. isi se iski vishaalata ka anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai. shaasan kaarya ke liye do samitiyaan hoti theen. pehli nau sadasyon ki samiti vaideshik sambandhon ki dekhbhaal karti thi. doosari aath sadasyon ki samiti prashaasan ka sanchaalan karti thi. ise ishtakul kaha jaata tha. is vyavastha mein teen prakaar ke visheshagya hote the- vinishchaya mahaamaatr, vyaavahaarik aur sootraadhaar.

lichhavi ganaraajya tatkaaleen samay ka bahut shaktishaali raajya tha. baar-baar is par anek aakraman hue. antat: magadharaaj ajaatashatru ne is par aakraman karke ise nasht kar diya. parantu chaturth shataabdi E. mein yeh pun: ek shaktishaali ganaraajya ban gaya.

vajji- lichhavi, videh, kundagraam ke jnyaaatruk gan tatha anya paanch chhote ganaraajyon ne milkar jo sangh banaaya usi ko vajji sangh kaha jaata tha. magadh ke shaasak nirntar is par aakraman karte rahe. ant mein yeh sangh magadh ke adheen ho gaya.

ambashth- Punjab mein sthit is ganaraajya ne sikndar se yuddh na karke sandhi kar li thi.

agreya- vartamaan Agrawal jaati ka vikaas isi ganaraajya se hua hai. is ganaraajya mein sikandar ki senaaon ka datakar mukaabala kiya. jab unhein laga ki ve yuddh mein jeet haasil naheen kar paayeinge tab unhonne swayam apni nagari ko jala liya.

inke alaava arisht, autumvar, kath, kunind, kshudrak, paataanaprasth ityaadi ganaraajyon ka ullekh bhi praacheen ganthon mein milta hai.

lokatantr ki avadhaarana

pratyek raajya chaahe vah udaaravaadi ho ya samaajavaadi ya saamyavaadi, yahaan tak ki sena ke general dvaara shaasit Pakistan ka adhinaayakavaadi bhi apne ko lokataantrik kehta hai. sach poochha jaae to aaj ke yug mein lokataantrik hone ko daava karna ek fashion sa ho gaya hai.

lokatantr ki poornat: sahi aur sarvamaanya paribhaasha dena kathin hai. krainstan ne theek hi kaha hai ki lokatantr ke sambandh mein alag-alag dhaaranaaen hai. linset ki paribhaasha adhik vyaapak prateet hoti hain uske anusaar, “alokatantr ek aisi raajaneetik pranaali hai jo padaadhikaariyon ko badal dene ke niyamit saanvidhaanik avsar pradaan karti hai aur ek aise rachanaatantr ka praavadhaan karti hai jiske tahat janasankhya ka ek vishaal hissa raajaneetik prabhaar praapt karne ke ichhuk pratiyogiyon mein se manonukool chayan kar mahattvapoorn nirnayon ko prabhaavit karti hai.” maikfarsan ne lokatantr ko paribhaashit karte hue ise 'ek maatr aisa rachanaatantr maana hai jismein sarkaaron ko chayanit aur praadhikrut kiya jaata hai athva kisi anya roop mein kaanoon banaae aur nirnaya liye jaate hain.' shooptar ke anusaar, 'lokataantrik vidhi raajaneetik nirnaya lene hetu aisi sansthaagat vyavastha hai jo janta ki saamaanya ichha ko kriyaanvit karne hetu tatpar logon ko chayanit kar saamaanya hit ko saadhane ka kaarya karti hai. vaastav mein, lokatantr moolat: naagrik aur raajaneetik svatantrata ke liye sahabhaagi raajaneeti se sambaddh pranaali hai. lokatantr ki avadhaarana ke sambandh mein pramukh siddhaant nimnalikhit hain:

1. lokatantr ka puraatan udaaravaadi siddhaant
2. lokatantr ka abhijnavaadi siddhaant
3. lokatantr ka bahulavaadi siddhaant
4. pratibhaagi lokatantr ka siddhaant
5. lokatantr ka maarksavaadi siddhaant athva janta ka lokatantr

lokatantr ka puraatan udaaravaadi siddhaant

lokatantr ki udaaravaadi parampara mein svatantrata, samaanata, adhikaar, dharm nirpekshata aur nyaaya jaisi avadhaaranaaon ka pramukh sthaan raha hai aur udaaravaadi chintak aarambh se hi in avadhaaranaaon ko moort roop dene waali sarvottam pranaali ke roop mein lokatantr ki vakaalat karte rahe hain. nrupatiyon aur saamanti prabhuon se mukti ke baad samaaj ke shaasan-sanchaalan ki drushti se lokatantr ko svaabhaavik raajaneetik pranaali ke roop mein sveekaar kiya gaya. maikfarsan ka kehna hai ki paashchaatya jagat mein lokatantr ke aagaman ke pehle hi chayan ki raajaneeti, pratiyogi raajya vyavastha aur maarkit ki raajyavyavastha jaisi avadhaaranaaen viksit ho chuki theen. hakeekat mein is arth mein udaar raajya ka hi lokatantreekaran ho gaya, na ki lokatantr ka udaareekaran. lokataantrik bhaavana ke aanrabhik chinh taumasamoor (yootopiya, 1616) aur vinstainale jaise angrej vichaarakon aur angrej ativishuddhataavaad (pyooritainijnm) ke saahitya mein paaya ja sakta hai, kintu lokataantrik bhaavana ki sahi shuruaat saamaajik sanvida ke siddhaant ke janm ke saath hui, kyonki naagrikon ke saamaajik anubandh ki antarnihit bhaavana hi sabhi vyaktiyon ki samaanata hai. Thomas haubs ne apni pustak 'leviyaathan' (1651) mein pramukh lokataantrik siddhaant ki vakaalat karte hue likha ki sarkaar ka nirmaan janta dvaara ek saamaajik sanvida ke tahat hota hai. John lauk ka kehna tha ki sarkaar janta ke dvaara aur usi ke hit ke liye honi chaahiye. Adam smith ne mukt baajaar ka pratimaan is lokataantrik aadhaar par hi prastut kiya ki pratyek vyakti ko utpaadan karne, khareedne aur bechne ki svatantrata hai. prasiddh upayogitaavaadi daarshanik mil aur beintham ne poori tarah lokatantr ka samarthan kiya aur upayogitaavaad ke maadhyam se ise prabhaavi bauddhik aadhaar pradaan kiya. unke anusaar, lokatantr upayogitaavaad arthaat adhiktam logon ke adhiktam sukh ko adhiktam sanrakshan pradaan karta hai, kyonki log apne shaasakon se tatha ek doosare se sanrakshan ki apeksha rakhate hain aur is sanrakshan ko sunishchit karne ke sarvottam tareeke hain, pratinidhimoolak lokatantr, samvaidhaanik sarkaar, niyamit chunaav, gupt matadaan, pratiyogi daleeya raajaneeti aur bahumat ke dvaara shaasan. J. S. mil ne beintham dvaara lokatantr ke paksh mein prastut tark mein ek aur bindu jodte hue kaha ki lokatantr kisi bhi anya shaasan-pranaali ki tulana mein maanavajaati ke naitik vikaas mein sarvaadhik yogadaan karta hai. usaki drushti mein lokatantr naitik aatmotthaan aur vaiyaktik kshamataaon ke vikaas evam vistaar ka sarvochch maadhyam hai. is sambandh mein yeh ullekhya hai ki beintham aur mil donon mein koi bhi saarvabhaum vayask mataadhikaar athva ek vyakti ek mat ke pakshadhar naheen the. 1802 tak beintham ne seemit mataadhikaar ki vakaalat ki aur 1809 mein sirf sampann vargon ke gruhasvaamiyon ke liye seemit mataadhikaar ka naara diya aur antatogatva 1817 mein saarvabhaum mataadhikaar ka aahvaan kiya, lekin is adhikaar ko mardon tak hi seemit rakha. isi prakaar mil bhi saarvabhaum vayask mataadhikaar ke paksh mein nahi tha, kyonki use aashanka thi ki ek varg ke log bahusankhyak hone ki sthiti apna prabhutv kaayam kar sakte hai aur anya vargon ke hit ke viruddh sirf apne hit ke niyam-kaanoon bana sakte hain. aage chalakar usane apni pustak 'riprejeinteintiv gavarnameint' (pratinidhimoolak sarkaar, 1816) mein usane kuchh logon ke liye ek se adhik matadaan ki vakaalat ki lekin khairaat paane vaale akinchanon, nirksharon, divaaliyon, kar naheen chukaane vaalon ko, arthaat un sabhi logon ko jo sanyukt roop se shramik varg ka nirmaan karte hain, isse vanchit rakha. vah sirf ek aisi pratinidhimoolak sarkaar ka himaayati tha jo aadhaarbhoot samaanataaon mein dakhalaandaaji nahi karti aur mukt baajaar aur hastakshep ki neeti apna kar chalti hai. baad ke udaaravaadi vichaarak lokatantr ka samarthan karte rahe aur pashchimi Europe tatha uttari America ne iski sveekaaryata ko aur aage badhaane ka kaam kiya.

lokatantrake sambandh mein puraatan udaaravaadi mat ko samay-samay par anek vichaarakon dvaara chunautiyaan milti rahi hain. prathamat:, lokatantr ki is maanyata par prashn khade kiye gaye hain ki pratyek vyakti yeh jaanta hai ki uske liye sarvottam kya hai. Lord braais, Graham vaals ityaadi vichaarak maanate hain ki manushya utana vivekasheel, tatasth, jaankaar athva sakriya naheen hai jitna ki prajaatantr ke sanchaalan ke liye use maan liya jaata hai. dviteeyat:, lokatantr janta ke shaasan ki aadhaarashila par tika hota hai, kintu yeh spashtat: batalaana aasaan naheen hai ki 'shaasan' aur 'janta' ke bilkul sahi arth kya hai. isliye sarkaar ke aadhaar ke roop mein lokamat ek mithk hai. truteeyat: lokatantr se apeksha ki jaati hai ki vah saamaanya hit ka kaam karega, lekin saamaanya hit jaisi koi cheej naheen bhi ho sakti hai. kisi bhi samaaj mein saamaanya hit vibhinn logon ke liye vibhinn arth rakh sakta hai. chaturthat:, puraatan udaaravaadi siddhaant samooh manevijnyaaan, saamoohik utpeedn aur pratyaayan tatha janottejak netrutv jaise kaarakon ki upeksha kar deta hai. panchamat:, lokatantr mein daleeya pranaali praay: abhijaatya varg ka khel ban jaati hai athva unke dvaara niyantrit hoti hai jo saadhan sampann hai aur ve hi mahattvapoorn muddon par nirnaya lete hain. fir, neeti-nirdhaaran ki prakriya bhi kaafi jatil hai. udaaravaadiyon ne anaavashyak roop se ise saral, paaradarshi aur nyaayasangat maan liya hai. aur sabse badi truti is siddhaant mein yeh hai ki yeh raajaneetik samaanata kintu aarthik vishmata par aadhaarit hai.

lokatantr ka abhijnavaadi siddhaant

beesaveen sadi mein raajaneetik vichaarakon ne prashn uthaana shuroo kiya ki kya janasaadhaaran pratidin ke jeevan mein raajaneeti mein koi bhoomika nibha sakte hain? kya saamaanya naagaarik, jo apne jeevikopaarjan mein lage rahate hain, raajaneetik bhoomika nibhaane ke liye samay aur shakti laga sakte hain? kya janasamooh bina kisi pratibandh ke chunaavi lokatantr ke maadhyam se apni bhaavanaaon ka khula pradarshan karta hai to svatantrata nasht ho jaaegi? in prashnon ke uttar mein hi lokatantr ke abhijnavaadi aur bahulavaadi siddhaant viksit hue hain.

abhijn (eleet) pad ka prayog kisi samooh ke aise alpasankhyak varg ke liye hota hai jo kuchh kaarakon ki vajah se samudaaya mein vishisht haisiyat rakhate hain. yeh alpasankhyak varg samaaj mein satta ke vitran mein agrani bhoomika mein hota hai. raajaneetik shreshtheevarg, presthas ke anusaar, saamudaayik maamalon mein apne sankhya-bal ke anupaat mein kaheen jyaada satta ka upabhog karta hai.

prajaatantr ke sabandh mein abhijn siddhaant ka abhyudaya dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad hua is siddhaant ke pravarttakon mein vilfredo paireto, gretaanomoska, Robert mishels aur ameriki lekhak James barnahaam tatha si. right mils pramukh hain. is siddhaant ka mukhya aadhaar yeh maanyata hai ki samaaj mein do tarah ke log hote hain- gine chune vishisht leg aur vishaal janasamooh. vishisht log hamesha shikhar tak pahuainchate hain kyonki ve saari arhataaon se sampann sarvottam log hote hain. abhijn varg vishesh roop se raajaneetik abhijn varg, saare raajaneetik krutyon ka nishpaadan karta hai, satta par ekaadhikaar kar leta hai aur satta se jude saare laabh uthaata hai. bahusankhyak samooh abhijn varg dvaara manamaane dhang se niyantrit aur nirdeshit hota hai. sangathit alpasankhyak hi hamesha asangathit janasamooh ko shaasit aur nirdeshit karta hai. Robert mishels ne 'alpatantr ke lauh kaanoon' jaisi ukti ka prayog karte hue kaha hai ki saamaanya vargon ko abhijn varg ki adheenata sveekaar karni hi chaahiye kyonki janasankhya ka ek vishaal bhaag udaaseen karmanya aur sv-shaasan mein aksham hota hai. lokatantr ke abhijn siddhaant ki mukhya visheshataae hain :

  • (1) log samaan roop se yogya naheen hote, at: abhijn aur gair-abhijn ka nirmaan aparihaarya hai,
  • (2) apni uchchatar yogyataaon ke bal par abhijnavarg satta-niyantrak evam prabhavishnu ban jaata hai,
  • (3) abhijnavarg anvarat ek jaisa naheen rahata. is varg mein nae log shaamil hote hain aur puraane log baahar ho jaate hai,
  • (4) bahusankhyak janasamudaaya, jo gair-abhijnavarg ka nirmaayak hai, mein adhikaansh bhaavashoonya, aalasi aur udaaseen hote hain, isliye ek aisa alpasankhyak varg ka hona aavashyak hai jo netrutv pradaan kare aur
  • (5) aaj ke yug mein shaasak abhijnavarg mein mukhya roop se buddhijeevi, audyogik prabandhak aur naukarashaah hote hain.

lokatantr ke abhijn siddhaant ka suvyavasthit pratipaadan sarvapratham Joseph shunptar ne apni pustak 'kaipitlijm, soshalijm end demokresi' (poonjeevaad, samaajavaad aur lokatantr, 1942) mein kiya. baad mein saartori, Robert daal, iksataain, remand aron, kaarl main hiyumand, Sydney varba aadi ne apni rachanaaon mein is mat ka samarthan kiya. lokatantr ki yeh avadhaarana is maanyata par aadhaarit hai ki janasankhya ka vishaal bhaag aksham aur tatasth hota hai aur vah yogyata aur kshamata ke aadhaar par kuchh logon ka chunaav karta hai jo raajaneetik dal ka niyantrit aur sanchaalit karte hain. bahusankhyak log jeevika kamaane mein vyast rahate hain. unhein raajaneetik maamalon mein na to abhiroochi hoti hai, na samajh. isliye ve abhijnavarg se kuchh logon ka chayan kar lete hain aur unke anuyaayi ban jaate hain. abhijn siddhaant ke anusaar aaj ke jatil samaaj mein kaaryakshamata ke liye visheshajnyaata aavashyak hai aur visheshagyon ki sankhya hamesha kam hi hoti hai. at: raajanaitik netrutv aise chuninda saksham logon ke haath mein hona aavashyak hai. yeh siddhaant logo ki atishabhaagita ko bhi khatarnaak maanata hai, kyonki taanaashaahi pravrutti ka hitlar jaisa koi taakatavar neta satta praapt karne ke liye janasamooh ko laamaband kar lokatantr ko hi khatm kar de sakta hai jiska seedha arth hai maulik svatantrataaon ka ant. isliye unka daava hai ki lokataantrik aur udaaravaadi moolyon ko bachaae rakhane ke liye janasamooh ko raajaneeti se alag rakhana jaroori hai. abhijn siddhaant ke anusaar aam janta ke dvaara vaastavik shaasan ho hi naheen sakta. shaasan hamesha janta ke liye hota hai, janta ke dvaara kabhi nahi, kyonki janta jinhein pratinidhi chunati hai ve abhijnavarg ke hi hote hain. doosare shabdon mein lokatantr ka arth hai abhijn vargaan ke beech pratidvandvita aur janta dvaara yeh nirnaya ki kaunasa abhijn oopar shaasan karega. is prakaar, lokatantr maatr ek aisi kaaryapranaali hai jiske dvaara chhote samoohon mein se ek janta ke nyunatakam atirikt samarthan se shaasan karta hain abhijnavaadi siddhaant yeh bhi maanata hai ki abhijn vargon- raajaneetik dalon, netaaon, bade vyaapaari gharaanon ke kaaryapaalakon, svaichhik sangathanon ke netaaon aur yahaan tak ki shramik sangathanon ke beech mataikya aavashyak hai taaki lokatantr ki aadhaarbhoot kaaryapranaali ko gair jimmadaar netaaon se bachaaya ja sake. isse yeh spasht hota hai ki baahya taur par to abhijn varg siddhaant lokatantr ke vichaar ko adhik vyavahaaravaadi aur aanubhavik banaane ka daava karti hai, lekin antat: yeh lokatantr ko ek aise roodhivaadi raajaneetik siddhaant mein badal deta hai jo udaaravaadi athva nav-udaaravaadi yathaasthitivaad se santusht ho jaata hai aur iske sthaayitv ko banaae rakhana chaahata hai.

abhijnavaad ki kai vichaarakon ne aalochna ki hai jinmein si. bi. maikfarsan, greem dankan, bairi holdan, Robert daal aadi pramukh hain. is siddhaant ke viruddh mukhya aapattiyaan nimnalikhit hain:

  • (1) abhijnavaad lokatantr ka arth hi vikrut kar deta hai aur iski aadhaarbhoot visheshataaon ki upeksha kar ise svechhaachaari bana deta hai. yadi janta ka kaam pratinidhiyon ko chunana bhar hi hai to shaasan sanchaalan mein unke paas bolne-kehne ko adhikaar naheen rah jaata aur aisi sthiti mein pranaali alokataantrik ban jaati hai.
  • (2) yeh siddhaant lokatantr ki paramparaagat puraatan avadhaarana ke naitik uddeshya ko samaapt kar deta hai puraatan avadhaarana ke anusaar lokatantr ka lakshya maanavajaati ka unnayan hai, lekin abhijn siddhaant is naitik paksh ki avhelna kar deta hai aur poori sthiti alpasankhyak abhijnavarg ke shaasan ki nishkriya sveekruti ho jaati hai.
  • (3) abhijn siddhaant sahabhaagita, jo lokataantrik shaasan ka kendreeya tattv hai, ka mahattv ghata deta hai aur daava karta hai ki sahabhaagita sambhav hai hi naheen. is tarah janta dvaara shaasan asambhav ho jaata hai.
  • (4) abhijn siddhaant ek saamaanya vyakti ko raajaneetik drushti se aksham aur nishkriya roop mein chitrit karta hai, ek aisa vyakti jo apna jeevan-nirvaah karta hai, shaam mein apne parivaar ya mitron ke beech athva media ke saadhanon ke upayog mein apna samay bitaata hai aur shreshthi samoohon mein se kisi ek ko samay-samay par chunane ke atirikt kuchh nahi karta.
  • (5) abhijn siddhaant lokataantrik prakriya ke dvaara maulik parivartan laane ke badle pranaali ke sthaayitv banaae rakhane par hi vishesh bal deta hai. usaka mukhya uddeshya lokataantrik pranaali ko kaayam rakhana hai. vah saamaajik aandolan ko lokatantr ke liye khatra aur abhijnavarg dvaara vyavasthit kaanooni prakriya ka vightanakaari maanata hai.

lokatantr ka bahulavaadi siddhaant

lokatantr ka bahulavaadi siddhaant bhi jan saamaanya ke badle samoohon ki bhoomika par bal deta hai. kuchh vichaarakon ne lokatantr sambandhi aise siddhaanton ka niroopan kiya hai jo abhijn siddhaant aur bahulavaadi siddhaant ka mishran hai. lekin yeh bhi sahi hai ki bahulavaadi siddhaant ki utpatti abhijn siddhaant ki aanshik pratikriya ke roop mein hui hai. abhijn siddhaant ek aisi sthiti ke nirmaan se santusht hai jismein satta aise abhijnavarg mein nihit hoti hai jo mahattvapoorn nirnaya leta hai, lekin bahulavaadi ek aisi pranaali par jor deta hai jo udaaravaadi lokatantr mein abhijnavaad ki pravrutti ko nishprabhaavi kar dega aur sahi janaakaanksha ko prakat karega.

bahulavaad ki avadhaarana vaise to puraani hai, kintu beesaveen sadi mein aadhunik udaaravaadi chintan ka yeh ek mahattvapoorn ang ban gaya. saamaanya arth mein bahulavaad satta ko samaaj mein ek chhote se samooh tak seemit karne ke badle use prasaarit aur vikendreekrut kar deta hai. aadhunik audyogik aur praudyogik kaal mein, bahulavaadiyon ke anusaar, satta vikhandit ho gayi hai aur ismein pratiyogi saarvajanik aur niji samoohon ki saajhedaari badh gayi hai. uchch sthaanon par aaseen logon ke paas poorv ki bhaanti satta naheen rah gayi hai, kyonki ve mukhya roop se paraspar virodhi svaarthon ke beech madhyasth ki bhoomika nibhaane lage. vibhinn samooh apne netrutv ke maadhyam se madhyasthata karte hain aur iske jariye vyakti ka bhi pratinidhitv ho jaata hai. yadyapi audyogik aur praudyogik ekeekaran aur praudyogik abhiyaachanaaon ke kaaran satta kuchh hi vyaktiyon mein kendrit ho gayi hai lekin alpasankhyak kintu vruhattar, hit-samoohon ke beech pratiyogita saarvajanik hit ke paksh mein jaati hai. bade vyaapaari gharaanon, shram aur sarkaar ke beech pratiyogita ne pratyek samooh ko apni satta ka durupayog karne par lagaam kasi hai. is prakaar, naagrikon ke beech sampatti, shiksha aur satta mein asamaanata ko nimn prabhaavit kar diya jaata hai kyonki sangathan aur samooh aasha se adhik pratinidhitv pradaan karte hai aur isse lokatantr adhik vaastavik banta hai aur is arth mein adhik vyavahaarya bhi siddh hota hai. Bhaarat ka hi udaaharan lein. yahaan Mahendra Singh tikait ka kisaan sangathan aur narmada bachaao aandolan aise jan aandolan hain jo laakhon gareeb aur ashikshit logon ki aavaaj ban jaate hain. aur lokatantr ko nishchaya hi adhik vaastavik banaate hain. yeh sahi hai ki abhijnavarg aur unke samaachaar media unki aalochna karte hain aur unhein pragati ka baadhak bataate hain aur yada kada sarvochch nyaayaalaya bhi unhein apne aandolanon ko rok dene ke liye baadhya karta hai, kintu is sab ke baavajood aise janaandolan bhaarateeya lokatantr ko adhik saarthak aur pratinidhimoolak banaate hain. lokatantr ki bahuvaadi avadhaarana ka vikaas mukhya roop se America mein hua. iske pranetaaon mein S. M. linset, Robert daal, vi. presthas, ef. hantar aadi pramukh hain. unka tark hai ki raajaneetik satta utani saral naheen hai jitni dikhaai padti hai, yeh vibhinn samoohon, sangathanon, vargon aur sanghon samet abhijn varg jo aamtaur par samaaj ko netrutv pradaan karta hai ke beech banti hui hai. vibhinn svaarth samooh apni maangon ko seedhe taur par to prastut karte hi hain, vibhinn raajaneetik dalon ke maadhyam se bhi pesh karte hain. bahulavaadi lokatantr ki ek paribhaasha is prakaar di gayi hai. yeh ek aisi raajaneetik pranaali hai jismein neetiyaan vibhinn samoohon ke beech paarasparik paraamarsh aur vichaaron ke aadaan pradaan ke dvaara nirdhaarit ki jaati hai kyonki koi bhi samooh ya abhijnavarg itna sashakt nahi hai ki vah akele sarkaar par itna dabaab daal sake ki vah usaki saari maaaingon ko poora kar sake.

bahulavaadi satta ki is saajhedaari ka anumodan karte hain ki isse laabh yeh hota hai ki koi bhi saamaajik samooh sarkaar ki neeti- nirdhaaran ki prakriya par is kadar haavi naheen ho paata ki vah anya vargon ke hiton ki anadekhi kar sake. lekin, bahulavaadi siddhaantakaaron ki ek maanyata yeh bhi thi ki sabhi naagrikon ko raajaneetik kshetr mein apne hiton ko sanghatit karne aur unhein saadhane ke liye vaidhaanik avsar aur aarthik sansaadhan praapt hain. is avsar ke bagair naagaarik kisi prastaavit kadam ka samarthan ya virodh naheen kar sakte. bahulavaadi vichaarak raajaneeti ko vyaktiyon ke badle samoohon ke beech nishchayon ki prakriya maanate hain aur ghoshana karte hain ki lokatantr sarvottam tareeke se tabhi kaam karta hai jab naagrik apne vishesh hiton ke samarthak samooh se jud jaate hain. ve is baat par vishesh bal dete hain ki kisi samaaj mein vyaktiyon ki sakriya sahabhaagita honi chaahiye aur apne sankalp ko kriyaanvit karne ke liye vibhinn samoohon se jud jaana chaahiye. saath hi, saare samoohon aur unke sadasyon ko yeh sveekaar karna chaahiye ki chunaav raajaneetik nirnayon mein vishaal samudaaya ki sahabhaagita ka ek kaaragar hathiyaar hai. isi tarah, abhijn varg ke saare samooh aur sadasya paarasparik pratiyogita ke dvaara lokatantr ko sambhav banaate hain. isse spasht hai ki bahulavaadi siddhaant vaastav mein abhijnavaad ka poornat: virodh naheen karta kyonki iske pravartakon ke anusaar abhijnavarg ka astitv ek hakeekat hai aur ve usaki avasthiti se santusht hai. yahi kaaran hai ki bahulavaadi siddhaanton kabhi-kabhaar abhijnavarg siddhaanton se aanshik roop mein hi bhinn samjha jaata hai. mahaan ameriki raajaneetik vichaarak Robert daal lokatantr ki abhijnavaadi aur bahulavaadi abhidhaaranaaon ko sanyukt karte hue apni lokataantrik abhidhaarana ko bahutantr ki sanjnyaa deta hai. uske anusaar, janta samoohon aur abhijnavarg ke raajaneetijnyaon donon ke maadhyam se sakriya hoti hai. usane anek aise samudaayon ka havaala diya hai jo sarkaar ke neeti-nirdhaaran ko prabhaavit karte hain- jaise, vyaapaari gharaane aur udyogapati, saudaagar, shramik sangathan, kisaan sangathan, upabhokta, matadaata ityaadi. aisa naheen hai ki unki poori kaaryasoochi kriyaanvit ho hi jaati hai. saare samooh samaan roop se sashakt naheen hote aur anek samooh apni manonukoolaneetiyon ko manavaane ki apeksha pratikoolaneetiyon ki rokathaam mein jyaada prabhaavi hote hain.

bahulavaadi sinddhaant ke viruddh uthaai jaane waali aapattiyon mein nimnalikhit pramukh hain:

  • (1) bahulavaadi siddhaant is maanyata par aadhaarit hai ki alag-alag samoohon ke beech hiton ke takaraav ke falasvaroop un hiton athva unke ansh ko protsaahan milta hai jo sveekaar kiye jaane ke yogya hote hain. lekin kabhi-kabhi aisa dekha jaata hai ki is takaraav ke kaaran yathaasthiti athva gatyaavarodh ke haalaat ban jaate hain. kabhi-kabhi to aur badatar sthiti ho jaati hai jab ek samooh-vishesh apni sampoorn kaarya soochi ko manava leta hai jiske falasvaroop anya samooh aakroshit ho uthate hain.
  • (2) bahulavaadi siddhaant ka sootr-vaakya hai ki log apne hiton ki seedhe taur par poorti chaahate hain. lekin yeh sarvatha aur sarvada satya naheen hota. log raashtravaadi athva anya abhipreranaaon se bhi sanchaalit ho sakte hain.
  • (3) Michael maavagolis ke anusaar bahulavaadi siddhaant samaaj ke sansaadhanon ko sanvarddhit ya punarvitrit karne ke tareeke khojane mein aksham hai. nateejatan, nimnajaatiyon, mahilaaon, aadivaasiyon tatha paramparaagat roop se samaaj ke anya vanchit tabakon ko saadhan sampann vargon ki bhaanti raajaneeti mein sahabhaagita ke samaan avsar naheen mil paate.
  • (4) maavagolis ka yeh bhi kehna hai ki bahulavaadiyon ke paas yathochit aarthik aur paryaavaraneeya moolya par saamaajik samaanata aur vikaas ki koi yojana naheen hai.

lokatantr ka sahabhaagita siddhaant

raajaneeti kriyaakalaap mein sahabhaagita lokatantr ka mool tattv hai, lekin khaaskar poonjeevaadi lokatantron mein yeh praay: chunaavon mein matadaan tak hi seemit rahata hai. lokatantr ka sahabhaagita siddhaant sanvarddhit bhaageedaari ko ek aadarsh bhi maanata hai aur krutyaatmak aavashyakta bhi. is siddhaant ke pramukh prastaavakon mein 1960 ke dashak se Carol perlamain, si. bi. maikfarsan aur N. paulaint jaas jaise vaamapanthi vichaarak pramukh rahe hain. sahabhaagi lokatantr ki do pramukh visheshataaen nimnalikhit hain:

(1) nirnaya lene ki prakriya ka is roop mein vikendreekaran ki un nirnayon se prabhaavit hone vaale logon tak neeti nirdhaaran kiya ja sake.
(2) neeti-nirdhaaran mein saamaanyajan ki pratyaksh hissedaari. sahabhaagita siddhaant ke samarthakon ke anusaar lokatantr vaastavik arth pratyek vyakti ki samaan sahabhaagita hai, na ki maatr sarkaar ko sthaayi banaae rakhana jaisa ki abhijnavaadi athva bahulavaadi siddhaantakaar maan lete hain. sachche lokatantr ka nirmaan tabhi ho sakta hai jab naagrik raajaneetik drushti se sakriya hon aur saamoohik samasyaaon mein nirantar abhiroochi lete rahein. sakriya sahabhaagita is liye aavashyak hai taaki samaaj ki pramukh sansthaaon ke paryaapt vinimay hon aur raajaneetik dalon mein adhik khulaapan aur uttaradaayitv ke bhaav hon.

sahabhaagi lokatantr ke siddhaantakaaron ke anusaar yadi neetigat nirnaya lene ka jimma keval abhijn varg tak seemit rahata hai to uske lokatantr ka vaastavik svaroop baadhit hota hai. isliye ve ismein aam aadmi ki sahabhaagita ki vakaalat karte hain. unka maanana hai ki yadi lokataantrik adhikaar kaagaj ke pannon athva samvidhaan ke anuchhedon tak hi seemit rahe to un adhikaaron ka koi arth naheen rah jaata, at: saamaanya logon dvaara un adhikaaron ka vaastavik upabhog kiya jaana aavashyak hai. lekin yeh upabhog bhi tabhi sambhav hai jabki vyakti svatantr aur samaan ho. yadi logon ka vishvaas ho ki neetigat nirnayon mein kaaragar sahabhaagita ke avsar vaastav mein vidyamaan na hain to ve nishchaya hi sahabhaagi baneinge. aisi sthiti mein ve prabhaavi dhang se saajhedaari bhi kar sakeinge. jis lokatantr mein, chaahe vah raajaneetik ho ya praavidhik ya shilpataantrik abhijnavarg ka varchasv hota hai vah naagrikon ke liye santoshaprad nahi hota aur aamalog sahabhaagita ke dvaara hi us varg ke varchasv ko samaapt kar sakte hain. sahabhaagita siddhaant ke samarthakon ka yeh bhi kehna hai ki aaj ke audyogik aur praudyogik samaajon mein shiksha ka star ooaincha ho gaya hai aur bauddhik tatha raajanaitik chetna se sampann samaaj mein abhijn aur gair-abhijn ke beech ki khaai kam hui hai. isliye kaaryakshamata aur vikaas ki drushti se adhikaansh maamalon mein saamaanya logon ki sahabhaagita koi baadha naheen rah gayi hai. sach poochha jaae to satta ka vikeernan hi atyaachaar ke viruddh sabse majaboot suraksha-kavach hai. sahabhaagita par aadhaarit lokatantr hi naagrikon ko tatasthata, ajnyaaan aur alagaav se bacha sakta hai aur lokatantr ki buniyaadi jarooraton ko poora kar sakta hai.

prashn hai, aam naagrik ki raajaneetik sahabhaagita kaise ho ? iske siddhaantakaaron ne iske nimnalikhit tareeke bataae hain:

  • 1. chunaavon mein matadaan
  • 2. raajaneetik dalon ki sadasyata
  • 3. chunaavon me abhiyaan kaarya
  • 4. raajaneetik dalon ki gatividhiyon mein shirkat
  • 5. sanghon, svaichhik sangathanon aur gair-sarkaari sangathanon jaise dabaav tatha lobbying samoohon ki sadasyata aur sakriya saajhedaari
  • 6. pradarshanon mein upasthiti
  • 7. audyogik hadtaalon mein shirkat (visheshakar jinke uddeshya raajaneetik hon athva jo saarvajanik neeti ko badalne athva prabhaavit karne ko abhipret hon)
  • 8. savinya avajnyaa aandolan mein bhaageedaari, yatha- kar chukaane se inkaar ityaadi
  • 9. upabhokta parishd ki sadasyata
  • 10. saamaajik neetiyon ke kriyaanvayan mein sahabhaagita
  • 11. mahilaaon aur bachchon ke vikaas, parivaar niyojan, paryaavaran sanrakshan, ityaadi saamudaayik vikaas ke kaaryon mein bhaageedaari, ityaadi.

maikfarsan ki tippani hai ki aaj ke raashtra kshetr aur janasankhya ki drushti se vishaalakaaya hain aur yeh sambhav naheen hai ki saare naagrik rojamarre ke raajaneetik vimarsh ya neeti nirdhaaran mein shaamil hon, fir bhi yadi kuchh sharto ko sveekaar kar liya jaae to sahabhaagita ka anupaat nishchit roop se badhaaya ja sakta h. ye sharte hain:

(1) yadi raajaneetik dal “apratyaksh lokatantra” ke siddhaant ke anusaar lokataantrik ho,
(2) yadi raajaneetik dal sachche arth mein sansadeeya dhaaainche ke antargat kaarya karte hon, aur
(3) yadi raajaneetik dal ke kriya kalaap shramik sangathanon, svaichhik sansthaaon tatha aise hi anya nikaayon se sanpoorit hote hon.

David held ne sahabhaagita siddhaant par aapatti uthaate hue kaha ki yeh puraatan/abhijn bahulavaadi jaise siddhaanton se behtar to hai, lekin isse yeh spasht naheen ho paata ki kaise aur kyon sirf sahabhaagita maanaveeya vikaas, jo lokatantr ka ek mahattvapoorn lakshya hai, ke uchchatar star ko praapt kar sakegi. is baat ka koi saakshya athva tark sangat aadhaar naheen milta ki sahabhaagita naagrikon ko saamaanya hit ke prati adhik sahayogasheel aur pratibaddh banaaegi. held is kendreeya maanyata ko bhi aavashyak roop se satya naheen maanata ki aam log apne jeevan ko prabhaavit karne vaale muddon par neeti nirdhaaran karne aur nirnaya lene mein adhik uttaradaayi banana chaahate hain. yadi ve saamaajik-aarthik maamalon aur neetiyon ke nirdhaaran mein bhaag lena naheen chaahein to unhein iske liye baadhya karna uchit naheen maana ja sakta. fir bhi maan liya jaae ki aam log apne lokataantrik rujhaan ko yadi ek seema se aage le jaana chaahein aur buniyaadi svatantrata aur adhikaar ke maamale mein dakhalandaaji karne lage to lokatantr ka kya hashr hoga, aise prashnon par sahabhaagita siddhaant ke samarthakon ne paryaapt dhyaan naheen diya hai. cook aur maurgan ke anusaar sahabhaagi lokatantr ko asli jaama pahanaana utana aasaan naheen hai jitna oopari taur par prateet hota hai. udaaharanaarth, sahabhaagi ikaai ke samyak aakaar aur krutya kya hon fir, naagrikon ki sakriya sahabhaagita ke bal par sthaaneeya staron par liye gaye nirnayon ko sampoorn raashtra ke hit ke saath kis prakaar samanvit evam samekit kiya jaaega? ek sthaaneeya sahabhaagi ikaai ke neetigat maamale doosari ikaai ke virodhi bhi to ho sakte hain. fir ek baat yeh bhi hai ki adhiktam sambhav sahabhaagita ke bal par liye gaye nirnaya aavashyak naheen ki sarvaadhik kaaragar nirnaya hon hi. sahabhaagita siddhaant ke samarthak kaaryakshamata evam prabhaav ke muddon par paryaapt dhyaan naheen dete.

lokatantr ka maarksavaadi siddhaant

aam dhaarana ke vipreet lokatantr ke vichaar ko maarks aur pashchavarti maarksavaadi vichaarakon ne bhi sveekaar kar liya hai. itna avashya hai ki unki lokatantr-sanbadhi abhidhaarana paashchaatya udaaravaadi lokataantrik abhidhaaranaaon se poornat: bhinn hai. choonki maarksavaadiyon ka maanana hai ki poonjeevaadi vyavastha mein lokataantrik adhikaar sahi arth mein aam janta ke paas na hokar sirf saadhan-sampann varg ke haath mein hota hai, isliye ve ek aise lokatantr ki sthaapana chaahate hain jo 'janta ka lokatantr' (peepals demokresi) ho. maarksavaadi lokatantr mein utpaadan ke saadhanon par svaamitv ko khatm karne aur sarvahaaraavarg dvaara arthavyavastha ko niyantrit karne ke pashchaat samaajavaadi lokatantr ki sthaapana hoti hai.

maarks udaaravaadi samvaidhaanik lokatantr ka aalochak tha kyonki uske anusaar poonjeevaadi lokatantr ka aadhaar ek aisi aarthik pranaali hoti hai jismein utpaadan ke saadhan hamesha poonjeepati varg ke niyantran mein hote hain. yahi poonjeepati varg apni dhan-shakti ke bal par raajaneetik vyavastha ki niyantran mein rakhakar sarkaar aur raajya-tantr ko apne adheen rakhata hai. raajya satta, adhikaar aur visheshaadhikaar poornat: usi varg ke paas hote hain aur shramikvarg ke paas sirf naam ki svatantrata aur adhikaar hote hain. raajya ka adhikaari varg, nyaayaalaya aur police bal bhi tatasth na hokar prabhutaasampann varg ke hi hit saadhak hote hain. isliye, lokatantr ek aisi shaasan-pranaali ka roop akhtiyaar kar leta hai jo shaasak varg ki satta aur visheshaadhikaar ko badhaava dene aur uchch varg ke hiton ko saadhane ke kaam aata hai.

iske baavajood, maarks aur engels ne yeh sveekaar kiya hai ki sampann poonjeepati varg dvara niyantrit udaaravaadi burjuaa lokatantr bhi kisi had tak apne naagrikon ko vaastavik adhikaar dene ke aitihaasik daave kar sakta hai aur shramik varg iska istemaal apne ko sangathit kar sarvahaara ki kraanti ke liye kar sakte hain. udaaravaadi lokatantron mein aam mataadhikaar ka upayog sarvahaaraavarg ki kraantikaari aandolan ki prushthabhoomi taiyaar karne mein kiya ja sakta hai. maarksavaadi yeh avashya maanate hain ki kuchh sthitiyon mein hinsak kraantikaari aandolan ki aavashyakta naheen ho sakti hai lekin aisi sthitiyon ki sambhaavana atyalp hai. agar samaajavaadi kraanti ke lakshya ko poora karne ke liye sansadeeya maarg apnaaya bhi jaata hai to yeh anya prakaar ke sangharshon mein ek atirikt sahaayak upakaran hi ho sakta hai.

maarksavaadi vishleshan ke anusaar vaastavik lokatantr sarvahaara ke adhinaayakavaad ko kaayam karne ke liye sarvahaaraavarg ki kraanti ke pashchaat hi sambhav hai kyonki udaaravaadi bujuaar lokatantr ka aadarsh pratibhaagita ka ho sakta hai, lekin yathaarth mein saadhanaheen shramik varg ki sahabhaagita usamein naheen ho paati. apni rachana 'the kritik of the gotha program' (gotha kaaryakram ki sameeksha- 1875) mein maarks aur engels ne apni avadhaarana ko spasht karte hue likha tha 'poonjeevaadi aur saamyavaadi samaaj ke beech mein hi ek ka doosare mein roopaantaran ki avadhi nihit hoti hai. isi se mel khaati ek raajaneetik sankraman ki avadhi bhi hoti hai jismein raajya sarvahaara varg ke adhinaayakavaad aur saamyavaad mein bhed kiya hai. ve ise ek madhyavarti kaal maanate hain. iski parinti saamyavaadi samaaj ki sthaapana mein hoti hai. yeh samajhna jaroori hai ki kaarl maarks aur engeinls ne adhinaayakavaad pad ka prayog kis arth mein kiya hai. unki drushti mein pratyek raajya shaasak saamaajik varg ka adhinaayakavaad raha hai. poonjeevaadi vyavastha mein yeh varg sampann audyogik aur vyaapaari burjuaa ka tha jabki unki apni avadhaarana wala raajya kraanti ke turant baad sarvahaara ke niyantran wala raajya hoga aur tab samaajavaadi punanirmaan ki prakriya shuroo hogi jiska ant ek vargaheen samaaj ki sthaapana mein hoga. isliye, unki drushti mein lokatantr aur sarvahaara adhinaayakavaad ek hi saath chaleinge, theek vaise hi jaise ki poonjeevaadi vyavastha mein udaaravaadi lokatantr vyavahaaryat: lokatantr bhi aur udyogapatiyon evam vyaapaarik gharaanon ke burjuaa varg ka adhinaayakavaadi shaasak bhi. iseeliye, maarks aur engels ka kehna tha ki kraanti aur shramik varg ke aadhiptya ke pashchaat ki pranaali 'janta ke lokatantr' ki pranaali hogi. janta se unka taatparya muththeebhar sampann burjuaa ke sthaan par janasaamaanya ki vishaal aabaadi se tha. maarks dvaara pratipaadit 'janta ka lokatantr' ki pramukh visheshataaen nimnalikhit hain:

  • (1) janta ka lokatantr tattvat: ek aisa lokatantr hai jismein shramik varg ka ek vishaal bhaag raajanaitik evam neetigat nirnaya ke adhikaar alpasankhyak abhijnavarg se apne haath mein le leta hai. is tarah, raajakeeya evam aarthik vyavastha ke adhikaar alpasankhyak udyogapatiyon aur vyaapaarik gharaanon ke paas naheen rah jaate.
  • (2) janta ke lokatantr mein utpaadan ke saadhanon - bhoomi, kal kaarakhaanein ityaadi par janta ka svaamitv hota hai, raajya saari utpaadak poonjeegat parisanpattyin ko apne niyantran mein le leta hai aur utpaadan-kshamata mein duratagati se vruddhi hoti hai. ismein pratyek naagrik ke liye niyojan ke samaan avsar hote hain.
  • (3) samaajavaadi lokatantr mein kaaryakaari aur vidhaayi krutyon ka samekeekaran ho jaata hai aur kraanti ke pashchaat saare kaarmik seedhe taur par chune jaate hain tatha police aur sainya bal ka sthaan naagrik sena le leti hai. saare sarkaari sevak shramik ke roop mein samaan vetan paate hain.
  • (4) saamaajik star par viraasat ka chalan samaapt ho jaata hai, sabhi bachche ni:shulk shiksha praapt karte hain, gaanvon aur shaharon ke beech aabaadi ka nyaayasangat vitran hota hai aur sabhi naagrikon ki buniyaadi jarooraton ko poora karne ke liye utpaadak shaktiyon ke sanvardhan ke liye purajor koshish ki jaati hai.
  • (5) maarksavaadi vishleshan ke anusaar janta ka lokatantr poonjeevaad aur saamyavaad ke beech ki sthiti hai. vyaktigat sampatti aur vargon ke unmoolan ke pashchaat jab samaajavaadi samaaj ka nirmaan ho jaata hai to vah kramash: poorn saamyavaad ki or agrasar hone lagta hai. poorn saamyavaad ki avastha mein raajya vyavastha ka ant ho jaata hai aur uske sthaan par vaastavik arth mein ek prakaar ka sv-shaasan kaayam ho jaata hai.

samaajavaadi samaajon ki rachana ne maarksavaadi vichaaron ko aur aage badhaaya, lenin jisne roos mein 1917 mein pratham samaajavaadi raajya ki sthaapana ki ne maarksavaadi chintan ki nai vyaakhyaaen prastut ki. usane sarvahaara ke adhinaayakavaad ko sveekaar kiya aur samaajavaadi kraanti ke iske mahattv par bal diya, lekin usane iske saath yeh bhi jod diya ki sarvahaara varg ka adhinaayakavaad vishaal sarvahaara sangathan ya saamyavaadi dal dvaara hi prayog mein laaya ja sakta hai. usane lokatantr ki teen avasthaaen bataai: poonjeevaadi lokatantr, samaajavaadi lokatantr aur saamyavaadi lokatantr. uske anusaar lokatantr raajya ka ek svaroop hai aur varg-vibhaajit samaaj mein sarkaar adhinaayakavaadi aur lokataantrik donon hoti hai. yeh ek varg ke liye lokatantr hai to doosare ke liye adhinaayakavaad. burjuaa varg chunki apne hit saadhan mein poonjeevaadi pranaali ko niyantrit aur sanchaalit karta hai, isliye use satta se bedakhalakar samaajavaadi lokatantr ko sthaapit karna aavashyak hai. lenin sveekaar karta hai ki nav sthaapit samaajavaadi raajya utana hi damanaatmak hota hai jitna ki poonjeevaadi raajya. sarvahaara varg ke shaasan ko laagu karne ke liye yeh aavashyak bhi hai. choonki burjuaa kaafi shaktishaali hota hai, isliye samaajavaadi lokatantr ke aaranbhik daur mein sarvahaara varg ke liye aavashyak ho jaata hai ki vah balapoorvak poonjeevaadi varg ka unmoolan kar de. sarvahaara ke adhinaayakavaad ke samaksh do lakshya hote hain:

  • (1) kraanti ko bachaana, aur
  • (2) ek nai saamaajik-aarthik vyavastha ko sanghatit karna

lenin ke anusaar yeh kaarya mukhya roop se saamyavaadi dal ko karna padta hai.

is tarah, lenin ki drushti mein poonjeevaadi lokatantr mein sachcha lokatantr naheen hota, jabki sarvahaara ke adhiaanaayakavaad mein poorvaapeksh adhik lokatantr hota hai, kyonki yeh bahusankhyak sarvahaara varg ka shaasan hai. usaka yeh bhi daava tha ki antat: sachche saamyavaad ki praapti ke saath lokatantr anaavashyak ho jaaega, kyonki us samaaj ke sandarbh mein iska koi arth naheen rah jaaega.

maarks, engels aur lenin ke baad anek vichaarakon ne maarksavaad ki anek vyaakhyaaen prastut ki hai. inmein Edward barnastaain, kaarl kautski, roja lukjamavarg aadi pramukh hain. Edward barnastaain ka daava hai ki poonjeevaad ki maarksavaadi vyaakhya galat hai aur sarvahaara ka adhinaayakavaad na to aavashyak hai, na vaanchhaneeya. uske anusaar, raajaneetik lokatantr aur udaaravaadi svatantrataaen adhik mahattvapoorn hai. lenin ki yeh maanyata sahi naheen hai ki sarvahaara ka adhinaayakavaad aavashyak hai. barnastaain ka tark hai ki jab tak sarvahaara varg bahumat haasil naheen kar leta, samaajavaadi kraanti asambhav hai aur yadi vah bahumat haasil kar leta hai to adhinaayakavaad ki jaroorat hi naheen rahati. uske anusaar lokatantr aavashyak hai aur maarksavaadi samaajavaadi siddhaant ke saath lokataantrik parampara ko jodkar hi samaajavaad ki sthaapana ho sakti hai. maarksavaadi kraantikaari roja lakjamabarg ne lenin ki lokatantr- virodhi neeti ke sambandh mein aapatti uthaate hue kaha hai ki isse vishaal janasamudaaya ka adhinaayakavaad naheen, vishaal janasamudaaya par adhinaayakavaad sthaapit ho jaata hai.

lokatantr ki aavashyakta

• bahusankhyak janasamudaaya, jo gair-abhijnavarg ka nirmaayak hai, mein adhikaansh bhaavashoonya, aalasi aur udaaseen hote hain, isliye ek aisa alpasankhyak varg ka hona aavashyak hai jo netrutv pradaan kare.

• abhijn siddhaant ke anusaar aaj ke jatil samaaj mein kaaryakshamata ke liye visheshajnyaata aavashyak hai aur visheshagyon ki sankhya hamesha kam hi hoti hai. at: raajanaitik netrutv aise chuninda saksham logon ke haath mein hona aavashyak hai.

• lokatantr maatr ek aisi kaaryapranaali hai jiske dvaara chhote samoohon mein se ek janta ke nyunatakam atirikt samarthan se shaasan karta hain abhijnavaadi siddhaant yeh bhi maanata hai ki abhijn vargon- raajaneetik dalon, netaaon, bade vyaapaari gharaanon ke kaaryapaalakon, svaichhik sangathanon ke netaaon aur yahaan tak ki shramik sangathanon ke beech mataikya aavashyak hai taaki lokatantr ki aadhaarbhoot kaaryapranaali ko gair jimmadaar netaaon se bachaaya ja sake.

• sahabhaagita siddhaant ke samarthakon ke anusaar lokatantr vaastavik arth pratyek vyakti ki samaan sahabhaagita hai, na ki maatr sarkaar ko sthaayi banaae rakhana jaisa ki abhijnavaadi athva bahulavaadi siddhaantakaar maan lete hain. sachche lokatantr ka nirmaan tabhi ho sakta hai jab naagrik raajaneetik drushti se sakriya hon aur saamoohik samasyaaon mein nirantar abhiroochi lete rahein. sakriya sahabhaagita is liye aavashyak hai taaki samaaj ki pramukh sansthaaon ke paryaapt vinimay hon aur raajaneetik dalon mein adhik khulaapan aur uttaradaayitv ke bhaav hon.

• sahabhaagi lokatantr ke siddhaantakaaron ke anusaar yadi neetigat nirnaya lene ka jimma keval abhijn varg tak seemit rahata hai to uske lokatantr ka vaastavik svaroop baadhit hota hai. isliye ve ismein aam aadmi ki sahabhaagita ki vakaalat karte hain. unka maanana hai ki yadi lokataantrik adhikaar kaagaj ke pannon athva samvidhaan ke anuchhedon tak hi seemit rahe to un adhikaaron ka koi arth naheen rah jaata, at: saamaanya logon dvaara un adhikaaron ka vaastavik upabhog kiya jaana aavashyak hai.

• lokatantr raajya ka ek svaroop hai aur varg-vibhaajit samaaj mein sarkaar adhinaayakavaadi aur lokataantrik donon hoti hai. yeh ek varg ke liye lokatantr hai to doosare ke liye adhinaayakavaad. burjuaa varg chunki apne hit saadhan mein poonjeevaadi pranaali ko niyantrit aur sanchaalit karta hai, isliye use satta se bedakhalakar samaajavaadi lokatantr ko sthaapit karna aavashyak hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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