lohas dhaatukarm

lohas dhaatukarm (Ferrous metallurgy) mein pratham sthaan loh utpaadan ka aata hai. Bhaarat ati praacheen kaal mein loh utpaadan mein agrani raha hai. Delhi ka lohastanbh is baat pratyaksh pramaan hai. Bhaarat ki loh ayask ki khadaanein vishv ki shreshthatam evam vishaalatam khadaanon mein se hain. anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki Bhaarat ke bhoogarbh mein lagbhag 10 arab tan loh ayask vidyamaan hai.

anukram

loh utpaadan

loh utpaadan ke liye mukhyat: chaar kachche padaarthon ki aavashyakta padti hain :

(1) loh ayask, (2) idhann, (3) gaalak flaks (flux) tatha (4) ooshmasah padaarth (refractory materials)

loh ayaskon vargeekaran unke raasaayanik sangathan ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai. hemaitaait (hematite), maignetaait (magnetite), limonaait (Iimonite) tatha sideraait (siderite) lohe ke pramukh ayask hain. pratham teen ayaskon mein loh apne oksaaid ke roop mein tatha chauthe mein kaarbonet ke roop mein vidyamaan rahata hai. vishv ka adhikaansh lohautpaadan hemaitaait loh ayask dvaara hi hota hai.

aadhunik loh-utpaadan-vidhi mein idhann ke roop mein kok ka hi adhik upayog kiya jaata hai. ek vishesh prakaar ke koyale ko lagbhag 1,000° sein. taap par kaarbaneekrut karke kok taiyaar kiya jaata hai. kuchh vishesh prakaar ke bhatton mein kaath koyale ka bhi upayog kiya jaata hai. gaalakon ka upayog loh ayask tatha idhann mein vidyamaan vijaateeya padaarthon ko door karne mein kiya jaata hai. loh utpaadan mein jin gaalakon ka upayog kiya jaata hai unamein choona patthar tatha dolomaait pramukh hain. ooshmasah padaartha loh ayask ko dravit karanevaali bhatthiyon mein astar dene ke upayog mein aate hain, jisse atyadhik taap ke kaaran bhatthiyon ko koi haani na pahuainche. loh utpaadan mein adhiktar agnish iton ka hi upayog hota hai, parantu aajkal kaheen kaheen kaarban ki iton ka bhi upayog kiya jaane laga hai.

lauh-ayask mein saamaanyat: loh ki maatra 30 se 65 prati shat tak hoti hai. ismein adhiktar silika tatha ailyoomina vijaateeya padaarth ke roop mein vidyamaan rahate hain. kabhi kabhi iske saath hi choona bhi paryaapt maatra mein mishrit rahata hai. ayask mein vijaateeya padaarthon ki upasthiti se na keval lohe ki maatra ghatati hai varan‌ un padaarthon ko nishkaasit karne ke liye adhik maatra mein idhann tatha gaalak ki aavashyakta padti hai. isse loh dravit karanevaali bhatthiyon ki utpaadanakshamata mein kami to ho hi jaati hai, saath hi saath utpaadanavyaya mein bhi vruddhi ho jaati hai. kabhi kabhi vijaateeya padaarthon mein silika, ailyoomina tatha choone ka anupaat is prakaar hota hai ki ayask nyoonaadhik aatmagaalak (self-fluxing) ban jaata hai aur tab baahya gaalak ki aavashyakta bahut kam ho jaati hai.

vaatyaabhatti

loh ayask ko dravit karke loh dhaatu banaane ka kaarya jin bhatthiyon mein kiya jaata hai unhein vaatya bhatthi (Blast Furnace) kehte hain. aadhunik vaatyaabhatthi, 100 foot ya isse bhi adhik ooainchi hoti hai aur iska aakaar vruttaakaar hota hai. vishaal vaatyaabhatthi ke jvalan kshetr (bosh) ka vyaas 30 foot tak hota hai. vaatyaabhatthi ko chaar mukhya bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai. bhatthi ka sheersh bhaag 'prabhaar vinyaas' (Charging Arrangement) kahalaata hai. is vinyaas ke dvaara bhatthi mein loh ayask, idhann tatha gaalak ka prabhaar uchit roop se kiya jaata hai. is vinyaas mein 'dohare shakashanku' (double cup and cone) ki vyavastha rahati hai, jisse dooshit gaisein prabhaar ke samay bhatthi se baahar naheen nikalne paateen. prabhaar vinyaas ki kul ooainchaai sampoorn bhatthi ki lagbhag 20 pratishat hoti hai.

prabhaar vinyaas ke neeche ke hisse ko 'staik' (Stack) kehte hain. yeh bhaag oopar se neeche ki or kramash: chauda hota jaata hai aur iski kul ooainchaai sampoorn bhatthi ki lagbhag 60 pratishat hoti hai. iska nichla bhaag dhalavaaain lohe ke bane 12 ya 16 drudh stambhon par aadhaarit hota hai, jisse bhatthi ke nimn bhaag ki aavashyakta padne par kholkar marammat ki ja sake. aadhunik bhatthi mein staik ke nichle paaainch foot tatha sheersh ke 10 foot bilkul oordhvaadhar hote hain. staik ke neeche bhatthi ka jo bhaag padta hai use jvalanakshetr kehte hain. jvalanakshetr oopar se neeche ki or patala hota jaata hai. is prakaar yeh dekha ja sakta hai ki bhatthi ka sarvaadhik vyaas us sthaan par hota hai jahaaain staik aur jvalanakshetr aapas mein milte hain. jvalanakshetr ki ooainchaai bhatthi ki kul ooainchaai ki lagbhag 10 prati shat hoti hai. bhatthi ke sabse nichle khand ko chulleetal ya choolha (Hearth) kehte hain. yeh bhaag jvalanakshetr (udar) ke neeche avasthit hota hai aur dravit dhaatu tatha dhaatumal (slag) ke aadhaanapaatr (container) ka kaarya karta hai. iski ooainchaai bhi bhatthi ki ooainchaai ka lagbhag 10 prati shat hoti hai.

choolhe ka oopari bhaag jahaaain jvalanakshetr se milta hai vahaaain bhatthi ke chaaron or chhidr bane hote hain, jinmein hava tontiyaaain (Tuyeres) lagaai jaati hain. in totiyon ke dvaara bhatthi ke andar uchch dabaav par vaayu ka jhonka (blast) bheja jaata hai. iseeliye in bhatthiyon ko vaatyaabhatthi ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. bhatthi ki baahya aakruti ispaat ki moti chaddaron se bani hoti hai, jiske andar vibhinn prakaar ki agnish iton ka astar diya jaata hai, jisse uchch taap ke kaaran bhatthi ke dhaaainche ko koi haani na pahuainche. bhatthi ke nimn bhaag mein jahaaain taap atyadhik hota hai, deevaaron ko sheetal rakhane ke liye agnish iton ke star mein 'sheetalan' patt (cooling plates) laga diye jaate hain, jinmein sada sheetal jal pravaahit hota rahata hai. dravit dhaatu tatha mal ko nikaalne ke liye choolhe mein toti-chhidr (tap hole) tatha malachhidr (slage hole) bane hote hain.

vaatyaabhatthi ke 'bharan' (charge) mein adhikaansh loh ayask, idhann tatha gaalak (choon-patthar) hi rahate hain. in teenon padaarthon ki maatra unke raasaayanik tatha bhautik gunon ke aadhaar par nirdhaarit ki jaati hai. sampoorn bhatthi ko prabhaar-vinyaas dvaara prabhaar se bhaarit kar diya jaata hai. choolhe ke chaaron lagi hui havaatonti se uchch daab (25-30 pound prati varg inch) par vaayu ka jhonka bhatthi ke andar bheja jaata hai. aadhunik bhatthiyon mein vaayu ke jhonke ko andar bhejane ke poorv 700° -800° sein. tak garam kar liya jaata hai. jaise hi yeh vaayu ka jhonka prabhar ke kok ke sampark mein aata hai vah jalne lagta hai aur is tarah bhatthi mein ooshma utpann hoti hai. is prakaar vaatyaabhatthi ka kaaryaaranbh hota hai. jaise jaise thos prabhaar neeche ki or agrasar hota hai vaise vaise kramash: taap mein vruddhi hoti hai. bhatthi ke sheersh bhaag ka taap 200° -250° sein. hota hai aur dheere dheere yeh badhta hua hava tonti ke dharaatal ke nikat 1,850° sein. tak ho jaata hai. sheersh bhaag se havaatonti ke dharaatal tak prabhaar ko pahuainchane mein lagbhag 12-14 ghante lag jaate hain, jabki neeche se uthati hui gas ko sheersh tak pahuainchane mein ek seinkad se bhi kam samay lagta hai

jaise jaise prabhaar neeche sarakata hai vah adhikaadhik uchch taap kshetr mein pahuainchata hai aur usaki aardrata lupt ho jaati hai. yeh kriya staik ke sheersh se 10 foot neeche tak hoti hai, jahaaain ka taap lagbhag 400° sein. hota hai. jab prabhaar aur neeche utarata hai tab vah aur adhik uchch taap ke sampark mein aata hai. is kshetr mein kaarban monoksaaid (CO) dvaara loh oksaaid ke avakaran ki teevrata badh jaati hai. 50 foot neeche pahuainchate pahuainchate lagbhag sampoorn loh oksaaid avakrut ho jaata hai aur vah spanj ke roop mein ho jaata hai. tatpashchaat‌ choona patthar ka vightan hokar choona (CaO) tatha kaarban daaioksaaid milte hain. yeh choona vijaateeya padaarthon se milkar ghaatumal banaata hai. ab prabhaar neeche utar kar pragalan kshetr (smelting zone) mein aa jaata hai. yahaaain spanj loha tej dahakate hue kok ke sampark mein aata hai, at: usamein kaarban ka pravesh hota hai. lagbhag 1,350° sein. taap par loh dravit hone lagta hai. is taap par choona patthar ki gaalak kriya bhi ati teevr ho jaati hai. bhatthi ke jvalanakshetr mein atyadhik taap hone se kuchh mainganeej, fausforas tatha silikn ke oksaaid bhi avakrut hokar dhaatu mein mil jaate hain. isi kshetr mein loh kaarban se santrupt ho jaata hai aur tab usaka taap dravanaank se kaafi ooaincha pahuainch jaata hai. is prakaar dravit ghaatu tatha mal bhatthi ke tal mein ekatrit hote rahate hain aur inhein samay samay par tonti tatha mal chhidron se baahar nikaala jaata hai.

kaath koyale ka upayog

aadhunik vaatya bhatthi mein idhann ke roop mein dhaatukarmeeya koyale (metallurgical coal) ka upayog kiya jaata hai, parantu kaheen-kaheen dhaatukarmeeya koyale ke sthaan par kaath koyale ka vyavahaar bhi hota hai. kaath koyale ka dalan saamarthya (crushing strength) dhaatukarmeeya koyale ki tulana mein paryaapt kam hota hai. isliye kaath koyale se chalanevaali bhatthiyaaain bhi paryaapt chhoti hoti hai. kaath koyale ki bhatthiyon se kachche lohe ke utpaadan ki vidhiyaaain tatha unka siddhaant vaatyaabhatthiyon ke samaan hi hai. antar itna hi hai ki inse jo loha niklata hai usamein apadravyon ki maatra kam hoti hai aur lohe ki kism achhi hoti hai, parantu in bhatthiyon ki utpaadanakshamata aadhunik vaayaabhatthiyon ki apeksha bahut kam hoti hai. isliye aajkal inka upayog kam ho gaya hai.

vidyut‌-loh-bhatthi

aadhunik kaal mein vidyut‌ bhatthiyon ka upayog badhta ja raha hai. ye bhatthiyaaain aise pradeshon mein adhik laabhakaari siddh hui hain jahaaain dhaatukarmeeya koyale ki kami athva abhaav hai. vaatyaabhatthiyon mein idhann ka upayog loh ayask ko tapt karne tatha use avakrut karne mein kiya jaata hai. vidyudvidhi mein prabhaar ko garam karne ka kaarya vidyut‌ se hota hai aur keval avakaran ke liye kaarbaneeya padaarthon ka upayog hota hai. is vidhi ka mahatva is drushti se aur bhi badh jaata hai ki ismein koyala, kok athva kaath koyale mein se kisi bhi avakaarak ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai. vaatyabhatthiyon ki tulana mein ismein keval 40-45 prati shat hi avakaarak lagta hai. iska parinaam yeh hota hai ki utpaadit lohe mein avakaarak se praapt honevaale apadravya kam hote hain aur in apadravyon ke nishkaasan ke liye kam gaalak ki aavashyakta padti hai.

nimn koopak bhatthi

nimn koopak bhatthi (Low Shaft Furnace) ko vaatyaabhatthi ka chhot roop kehna chaahiye. in bhatthiyon ki rachana tatha kaaryavidhi vaatyaabhatthiyon ke samaan hi hoti hai. in bhatthiyon ka laabh yeh hai ki inmein bahut hi nimn prakaar ke aise kachche padaarth upayog mein laae ja sakte hain jinka upayog saamaanya vaatyaabhatthiyon mein naheen kiya ja sakta. ismein dhaatukarmeeya koyale ko hi upayog mein laana aavashyak naheen hai. in bhatthiyon ke nirmaan mein aaranbhik pooainji bhi kam lagti hai. isliye jin sthaanon par thodi maatra mein hi loh ayask ityaadi kachche padaarth praapt hain vahaaain inke dvaara loh utpaadan kiya ja sakta hai.

ispaat utpaadan

aadhunik jagat‌ mein injeeniyri kaaryon ke liye jitne prakaar ke saamaanon ki aavashyakta padti hai un sabko kachche lohe se poora naheen kiya ja sakta. isliye kachche lohe ko upachaarit karke use 'ispaat' ka roop diya jaata hai. ispaat ko moolat: loh aur kaarban ki mishradhaatu kehna chaahiye. ismein gandhak tatha fausforas ityaadi avaanchhaneeya apadravya bhi rahate hain, jinhein ek nishchit maatra se kam naheen kiya ja sakta. silikn tatha maiganeej jaise apadravya ispaat ko kuchh vishisht gun pradaan karte hain. isliye aavashyakataanusaar inki maatra ghataai-badhaai jaati hai.

shuddh lohe ka vyaavasaayik roop pitvaaain loha (wrought iron) hai. ismein apadravyon ke roop mein dhaatumal hi mile hote hain. yeh bahut mrudu tatha tanya hota hai, isliye isse aujaar ityaadi bahut si vastueain naheen banaai ja sakateen. shuddh lohe ko drudh tatha kathor banaane ke liye usamein ek nishchit maatra mein kaarban milaaya jaata hai. is loh-kaarban ke mel se bane padaarth ko ispaat kehte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein