litho chhapaai

myunik ka maanachitr : litho chhapaai ka prastar tatha usaki darpan chhabi (mirror imej)
myunik mein maanachitron ki chhapaai ke liye prayukt ek litho press
titliyaaain (1923)

litho chhapaai (Lithography) patthar par chikni vastu se lekh likhkar athva dijaain banaakar, uske dvaara chhaap utaarane ki kala hai. lithograifi shabd yoonaani bhaasha ke litho (patthar) evam graifi (likhna) shabdon ke milne se bana hai. patthar ke sthaan par yadi jasta, ailuminiym ityaadi par uparyukt vidhi se lekh likhkar ya dijaain banaakar chhaapa jaae to use bhi lithograifi kaheinge.

lithochhapaai ko satah ya samatal likhaavat (Planographic) prakram (process) bhi kehte hain. ismein mudraneeya aur amudraneeya kshetr ek hi tal par hote hain, parantu dijaain chikni syaahi se bane hone ke kaaran aur baaki satah nam rakhi jaane ke kaaran, syaahi-rolar syaahi ko syaahi graahi dijaain par hi nikshipt kar paata hai. amudraneeya kshetr ki nami, ya aardrata, syaahi ko pratikrshit karti hai. is prakaar lithochhapaai chiknaai aur paani ke vidvesh siddhaant par aadhaarit hai. is prakram ka aavishkaar beveriya mein elauis jenefeldar (Alois Senefelder) ne 6 November 1771 E. ko kiya tha. sau varshon se adhik kaal tak prayog aur parakh hote rahane ke baad aadhunik photo ofset litho chhapaai ke roop mein usaka vikaas hua.

litho chhapaai mein aarekhan aur mudran donon ki vidhiyaaain sannihit hai. samatal likhaavat mudran dvaara printon (prints) ko chhaapane ki do pramukh vidhiyaaain hain : svalithochhapaai (autolithography) aur ofset fotolithochhapaai. svalithochhapaai nakshaanavees (draftsman), ya kalaakaar dvaara prastar, dhaatu ki plate, ya antaran kaagaj (transfer paper) par ankit mool lekhan, ya aarekhan se aarambh hota hai. dijaain mein sarjak ke man ki chhaap aur kalaakaar ke vyaktigat sparsh ki chhaap hoti hai. is shilp ke vyaapaarik paksh ke anek vibhaag hain aur aise shilpi kam hote hain jo apne vibhaag ke alaava doosare vibhaag ki bhi jaankaari rakhate hon. at: sahaj kalaatmak preranaaeain vyarth jaati hain. iska arth yeh naheen ki ofaset lithochhapaai mein kalaapaksh ka abhaav hota hai, parantu yeh maan lene ki baat hai ki ismein kalaapaksh kramash: gaun ho raha hai, khaas kar us sthiti mein jabki fotograafi svalithochhapaai ka sthaan le rahi hai. litho chhapaai ka aarambh patthar se chhaapane ke roop mein hua aur aaj bhi usaka mahatva kam naheen hua hai, parantu fotograufaset ko, jo chhapaai ka paroksh prakram hai aur jismein sheeghrata, sastaapan aur yathaarthata ke liye chhapaai ke kaam mein prakaashayaantrik (photomechanical) vidhiyon ka upayog hota hai, tyaaga naheen ja sakta.

varnalithochhapaai aur fotolithochhapaai

rangeen chhapaai ke liye, visheshakar vigyaapan mein, varnalithochhapaai (bina fotograafi ke) uttam vidhi hai. (1) vibhinn aakaar ke utkeern (stippled) binduon se, ya (2) daanedaar patthar, ya plate par ankani (crayon), ya khadiya se aarekh karke aur aarekhan ke samay khadiya par dabaav ke badlaav se prabhaavit daanon ka kshetr aur unke ton ki gaharaai nirdhaarit karke, haath ki lithochhapaai mein chikne patthar par rangon ka kramasthaapan utpann kiya jaat hai. chitrakaar yaantrik aabha (tint), ya chhaayaakaari maadhyam, ya un sabhi vidhiyon ke sanyojan ka bhi upayog kar sakta hai, jinmein fotograafi, ya fotograafi vidhi se nirmit binb bhi sammilit hain.

antaran kaagaj -

fotograafi ki madad ke bina lithograifik pratibinb banaane ka praacheenatam prakram antaran kaagaj hai. aaj bhi anek bhaarateeya aur videshi lithograifik chhapaai ke sansthaan dhaatu ki pleton par lithograifik pratibinbon ko banaane ke liye prakaashayaantrik prakram ka prayog naheen karte. sam bunaavat aur upayukt aadhaari kaagaj par anek padaarthon, jaise aata, staarch, jiletin, sares, plaastar ov pairis, ya gach (stucco), saada safed, kaanbojya (gamboge) aadi ke saath paani, gond aur chaashni (syrup) se banaae hue sanyojan, ki parat se vibhinn prakaar ke antaran kaagaj banaae jaate hain.

antaran kaagaj anek prakaar ke hote hain, jaise

  • drav antaran arthaat syaahi ya litholekh syaahi dvaara aarekhan ya lekhan ke liye prayukt honevaala kaagaj,
  • litholekhi khadiya se bane aarekhan ke liye daanedaar ya khadiya antaran kaagaj,
  • taaainba plate, ya ispaat plate antaran kaagaj tatha (nù) prastar, jasta ya ailuminiym pleton par antaran ke liye upayukt antaran kaagaj.

prakaash lithochhapaai (fotolithograafi) - nyoonaadhik svachaalit prakaar ke bhautik aur raasaayanik prakramon ka yeh sanyojit roop hai. chhapaai ki satah par pehla pratibinb banaane mein fotograafi ka sahaara liya jaata hai. rangeen mool ke bade, ya chhote aakaar ka punarutpaadan negetiv camere mein taiyaar hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain