lipiyon ki soochi

yahaaain vishv ki 'lekhan paddhatiyon' ya lipiyon ki vargeekrut soochi di gayi hai. yeh vargeekaran lipiyon ke kisi vishesh gun ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai jo unakoanya lipiyon se alag karta hai.

pehle lipi ka naam diya gaya hai, iske baad us lipi mein likhi jaane waali bhaashaaon ke naam koshtak mein diye gaye hain.

vishv ki vibhinn lipiyon mein 'vikipidiya' shabd ka niroopan

anukram

chitraatmak/bhaavachitraatmal lipiyaaain (Pictographic/ideographic writing systems)

  • Aztec – Nahuatl – Although some proper nouns have phonetic components.[1]
  • Mixtec – Mixtec
  • Dongba – Naxi – Although this is often supplemented with syllabic Geba script.
  • Ersu Shāabā – Ersu
  • Míakmaq hieroglyphic writing – Míakmaq – Does have phonetic components, however.
  • Nsibidi – Ekoi, Efik/Ibibio, Igbo
  • Testerian – used for missionary work in Mexico
  • Other Mesoamerican writing systems with the exception of Maya Hieroglyphs.

There are also symbol systems used to represent things other than language, or to represent constructed languages. Some of these are

  • Blissymbols – A constructed ideographic script used primarily in Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC).
  • iConji – A constructed ideographic script used primarily in social networking
  • Isotype (picture language)
  • Sona language
  • A wide variety of notations

Linear B and Asemic writing also incorporate ideograms.

shabd-chinh lekhanapaddhati (Logographic writing systems)

vyanjan-aadhaarit shabd-chihnaatmak lipiyaaain

  • Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Demotic – writing systems of Ancient Egypt
    • Egyptian hieroglyphs
      • List of Egyptian hieroglyphs by common name: A-L
      • List of Egyptian hieroglyphs by common name: M-Z

aksharadhaarit shabdachihnaatmak lipiyaaain (Syllable-based logographies)

  • Anatolian hieroglyphs – Luwian
  • Cuneiform – Sumerian, Akkadian, other Semitic languages, Elamite, Hittite, Luwian, Hurrian, and Urartian
  • Chinese characters (Hanzi) – Chinese, Japanese (called Kanji), Korean (called Hanja), Vietnamese (called Han tu, obsolete)
    • Jurchen script – Jurchen
    • Khitan large script – Khitan
    • Tangut script – Tangut
    • Zhuang script – Zhuang
    • Chữ Nôam – Vietnamese (for vernacular Vietnamese, now obsolete)
  • Eghap (or Bagam) script
  • Mayan – Chorti, Yucatec, and other Classic Maya languages
  • Yi (classical) – various Yi/Lolo languages
  • Shui script – Shui language

aksharaatmak (silaibareej)

In a syllabary, graphemes represent syllables or moras. (Note that the 19th century term syllabics usually referred to abugidas rather than true syllabaries.)

  • Afaka – Ndyuka
  • Alaska script – Central Yup'ik
  • Cherokee – Cherokee
  • Cypriot – Mycenean Greek
  • Geba – Naxi
  • Kana – Japanese**Hiragana –
    • Katakana –
    • Man'yōaagana
  • Kikakui – Mende
  • Kpelle – Kpelle
  • Linear B – Mycenean Greek
  • Nü Shu – Chinese
  • Vai – Vai
  • Woleaian – Woleaian (a likely syllabary)
  • Yi (modern) – various Yi/Lolo languages

ardh-aksharaatmak lipiyaaain (anshat: aksharaatmak tatha anshat: varnaatmak

  • Paleohispanic semi-sillabaries – Paleohispanic languages
    • Tartessian or Southwestern script – Tartessian or Southwestern language
    • Southeastern Iberian script – Iberian language
    • Northeastern Iberian script – Iberian language
    • Celtiberian script – Celtiberian language
  • Old Persian Cuneiform – Old Persian
  • Zhuyin fuhao – phonetic script for Chinese languages, and principal script for several Formosan languages.
  • Eskayan – Bohol, Philippines (a syllabary apparently based on an alphabet; some alphabetic characteristics remain)
  • Bamum script – Bamum (a defective syllabary, with alphabetic principles used to fill the gaps)

khandayukt lipiyaaain (Segmental scripts)

abajaad (Abjads)

An abjad is a segmental script containing symbols for consonants only, or where vowels are optionally written with diacritics ("pointing") or only written word-initially.

  • Aramaic
  • Arabic – Arabic, Azeri, Punjabi, Baluchi, Kashmiri, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish (vowels obligatory), Sindhi, Uighur (vowels obligatory), Urdu, and the languages of many other peoples of the Near East
  • Hebrew Square Script – Hebrew, Yiddish, and other Jewish languages
  • Jawi – Arabic, Malay
  • Manichaean script
  • Nabataean – the Nabataeans of Petra
  • Pahlavi script – Middle Persian
    • Parthian
    • Psalter
  • Phoenician – Phoenician and other Canaanite languages
  • Proto-Canaanite
  • Sabaean
    • South Arabian – Sabaic, Qatabanic, Himyaritic, and Hadhramautic
  • Sogdian
  • Samaritan (Old Hebrew) – Aramaic, Arabic, and Hebrew
  • Syriac – Syriac
  • Tifinagh – Tuareg
  • Ugaritic – Ugaritic, Hurrian

shuddh varnaatmak lipiyaaain

A true alphabet contains separate letters (not diacritic marks) for both consonants and vowels.

raikhik gairalakshanaatmak varn lipiyaaain (Linear nonfeatural alphabets)

Map of the writing systems in Europe.

Linear alphabets are composed of lines on a surface, such as ink on paper.

  • Uyghur Arabic alphabet (Uyghur Ereb Yéaziqi) – Avestan
  • Armenian – Armenian
  • Avestan alphabet – Avestan
  • Beitha Kukju – Albanian
  • Borama – Somali
  • Caucasian Albanian alphabet – Old Udi language
  • Coptic – Egyptian
  • Cyrillic – Eastern Slavic languages (Belarusian, Russian, Ukrainian), eastern South Slavic languages (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian), the other languages of Russia, Kazakh language, Kyrgyz language, Tajik language, Mongolian language. Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are changing to the Latin alphabet but still have considerable use of Cyrillic. See Languages using Cyrillic.
  • Eclectic Shorthand
  • Elbasan – Albanian
  • Fraser – Lisu
  • Gabelsberger shorthand
  • Georgian – Georgian and other Kartvelian languages
  • Glagolitic – Old Church Slavonic
  • Gothic – Gothic
  • Greek – Greek
  • International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Kaddare – Somali
  • Latin aka Roman – originally Latin language; most current western and central European languages, Turkic languages, sub-Saharan African languages, indigenous languages of the Americas, languages of maritime Southeast Asia and languages of Oceania use developments of it. Languages using a non-Latin writing system are generally also equipped with Romanization for transliteration or secondary use.
  • Manchu – Manchu
  • Mandaic – Mandaic dialect of Aramaic
  • Mongolian – Mongolian
  • Neo-Tifinagh – Tamazight
  • N'Ko – Maninka language, Bambara, Dyula language
  • Ogham (Irish pronunciation: [oːaam]) – Gaelic, Britannic, Pictish
  • Old Hungarian (in Hungarian magyar rováaasíaaráaas or széaakely-magyar rováaasíaaráaas) – Hungarian
  • Old Italic – a family of connected alphabets for the Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian, Messapian, South Picene, Raetic, Venetic, Lepontic, Camunic languages
  • Old Permic (also called Abur) – Komi
  • Old Turkic – Turkic
  • Old Uyghur alphabet – Uyghur
  • Osmanya – Somali
  • Runic alphabet – Germanic languages
  • Ol Cemet' – Santali
  • Tai Lue – Lue
  • Vah – Bassa
  • Zaghawa – Zaghawa

lakshanaatmak raikhik varnaatmak lipiyaaain (Featural linear alphabets)

A featural script has elements that indicate the components of articulation, such as bilabial consonants, fricatives, or back vowels. Scripts differ in how many features they indicate.

  • Gregg Shorthand
  • Hangul – Korean
  • Shavian alphabet
  • Tengwar (a fictional script)
  • Visible Speech (a phonetic script)
  • Stokoe notation for American Sign Language
  • SignWriting for sign languages

digdarshi varnaatmak (Manual alphabets)

Manual alphabets are frequently found as parts of sign languages. They are not used for writing per se, but for spelling out words while signing.

  • American manual alphabet (used with slight modification in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Paraguay, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand)
  • British manual alphabet (used in some of the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Australia and New Zealand)
  • Catalonian manual alphabet
  • Chilean manual alphabet
  • Chinese manual alphabet
  • Dutch manual alphabet
  • Ethiopian manual alphabet (an abugida)
  • French manual alphabet
  • Greek manual alphabet
  • Icelandic manual alphabet (also used in Denmark)
  • Indian manual alphabet (a true alphabet?; used in Devanagari and Gujarati areas)
  • International manual alphabet (used in Germany, Austria, Norway, Finland)
  • Iranian manual alphabet (an abjad; also used in Egypt)
  • Israeli manual alphabet (an abjad)
  • Italian manual alphabet
  • Korean manual alphabet
  • Latin American manual alphabets
  • Polish manual alphabet
  • Portuguese manual alphabet
  • Romanian manual alphabet
  • Russian manual alphabet (also used in Bulgaria and ex-Soviet states)
  • Spanish manual alphabet (Madrid)
  • Swedish manual alphabet
  • Yugoslav manual alphabet

anya araikhik varn (Other non-linear alphabets)

These are other alphabets composed of something other than lines on a surface.

  • Braille (Unified) – an embossed alphabet for the visually impaired, used with some extra letters to transcribe the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic alphabets, as well as Chinese
  • Braille (Korean)
  • Braille (American) (defunct)
  • New York Point – a defunct alternative to Braille
  • International maritime signal flags (both alphabetic and ideographic)
  • Morse code (International) – a trinary code of dashes, dots, and silence, whether transmitted by electricity, light, or sound) representing characters in the Latin alphabet.
  • American Morse code (defunct)
  • Optical telegraphy (defunct)
  • Flag semaphore – (made by moving hand-held flags)

aaboogeeda (Abugidas)

inhein varnaakshari (alfaasilaibari) bhi kehte hain. ye 'khandaatmak' (segmental) lipiyaaain hai jinmein svar chihnon ko darshaane ke liye vyanjan par koi daayaakritikl chinh lagaaya jaata hai ya koi anya parivartan/parivrdhan kar diya jaata hai. Bhaarat tatha dakshin-poorv Asia ki praay: sabhi lipiyaaain isi shreni mein aati hain. ye sabhi aitihaasik roop se braahmi parivaar ki hain.

braahmi parivaar ki aaboogeeda lipiyaaain

A Palaung manuscript written in a Brahmic abugida
  • Anga Script – Angika
  • Ahom
  • Assamese – Assamese/Assamiya/Ôaaxôaamiya
  • braahmi lipi – prakrut, sanskrut
  • Balinese
  • Batak – Toba and other Batak languages
  • Baybayin – Ilokano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Bikol languages, Visayan languages, and possibly other Philippine languages
  • baangla lipibaangla bhaasha, maithili bhaasha
  • Buhid
  • Burmese – Burmese, Karen languages, Mon, and Shan
  • Cham
  • Dehong – Dehong Dai
  • devanaagarihindi, samskrut, maraathi, nepaali, tatha uttari Bhaarat evam Nepal ki anekon bhaashaaeain
  • Gujarāati – Gujarāati, Kachchi
  • Gurmukhi script – Punjabi
  • Hanuno'o
  • Javanese
  • Kaganga – Rejang
  • Kaithi
  • Kannada – Kannada, Tulu
  • Kawi
  • Khmer
  • Lao
  • Limbu
  • Lontara' – Buginese, Makassar, and Mandar
  • Malayalam
  • Mithilāakshara {syn. Vaidehī lipi / Tirahutā / Tirhutā } Used to write Maithili
  • Modi – Marathi
  • Nepal – Nepal Bhasa, Sanskrit
  • Oriya
  • Phags-pa – Mongolian, Chinese, and other languages of the Yuan Dynasty Mongol Empire
  • Ranjana – Nepal Bhasa, Sanskrit
  • Śaaāaaradā
  • Siddham used to write Sanskrit
  • Sinhala
  • Sourashtra
  • Soyombo
  • Sundanese
  • Syloti Nagri – Sylheti
  • Tagbanwa – Languages of Palawan
  • Tai Dam
  • Tai Tham – Khüan, and Northern Thai
  • Tamil
  • Telugu
  • Thai
  • Tibetan
  • Tirahutā / Tirhutā {syn. Vaidehī lipi / Mithilāakshara } used to write Maithili
  • Tocharian
  • Varang Kshiti – Ho

anya aaboogeeda lipiyaaain

  • Canadian Aboriginal syllabics – Cree syllabics (for Cree), Inuktitut syllabics (for Inuktitut), and other variants for Ojibwe, Carrier, Blackfoot, and other languages of Canada
  • Ethiopic – Amharic, Ge'ez, Oromo, Tigrigna
  • Kharoṣaṭahī – Gandhari, Sanskrit
  • Mandombe
  • Meroitic – Meroë
  • Pitman Shorthand
  • Pollard script – Miao
  • Sorang Sompeng – Sora
  • Thaana – Dhivehi
  • Thomas Natural Shorthand

antim vyanjan-daayaakritik abugida (Final consonant-diacritic abugidas)

  • Róang – Lepcha

svaradhaarit aaboogeeda lipiyaaain (Vowel-based abugidas)

  • Boyd's Syllabic Shorthand
  • Japanese Braille – Japanese
  • Pahawh Hmong – Hmong

lipiyaaain jinhein abhi tak samjha naheen ja saka hai (Undeciphered systems)

  • Byblos syllabary – the city of Byblos
  • Isthmian (apparently logosyllabic)
  • Indus – Indus Valley Civilization
  • Quipu – Inca Empire (probably numerical only)
  • Khitan small script – Khitan
  • Cretan hieroglyphs
  • Linear A (a syllabary) – Minoan
  • Mixtec – Mixtec (perhaps pictographic)
  • Olmec – Olmec civilization (possibly the oldest Mesoamerican script)
  • Phaistos Disc (a unique text, very possibly not writing)
  • Proto-Elamite – Elam (nearly as old as Sumerian)
  • Rongorongo – Rapa Nui (perhaps a syllabary)
  • Proto-Sinaitic (likely an abjad)
  • Zapotec – Zapotec (another old Mesoamerican script)
  • Banpo symbols – Yangshao culture (perhaps proto-writing)
  • Jiahu symbols – Peiligang culture (perhaps proto-writing)

paanduliyaaain jinhein abhi tak samjha naheen gaya hai

  • Voynich manuscript
  • Rohonc Codex
  • Codex Seraphinianus
  • Hamptonese
  • Dorabella cipher

anya

Asemic writing is generally meaningless, though it sometimes contains ideograms or pictograms.

dhvanyaatmak varnamaala waali liyiyaaain (Phonetic alphabets)

This section lists alphabets used to transcribe phonetic or phonemic sound; not to be confused with spelling alphabets like the ICAO spelling alphabet.

vishisht varnamaalaaeain

Alphabets may exist in forms other than visible symbols on a surface. Some of these are:

Tactile alphabets

  • Braille
  • Moon type
  • New York Point
  • Night writing

Manual alphabets

  • Fingerspelling

For example:

  • American Sign Language
  • American manual alphabet
  • Korean manual alphabet
  • Cued Speech

Long-Distance Signaling

  • International maritime signal flags
  • Morse code
  • Flag semaphore
  • Optical telegraphy

Alternative alphabets

  • Gregg Shorthand
  • Initial Teaching Alphabet
  • Pitman Shorthand
  • Quikscript

Fictional writing systems

  • Ath (alphabet)
  • Aurebesh
  • Cirth
  • D'ni
  • Goa'uld
  • Hymmnos
  • Klingon
  • On Beyond Zebra!
  • Quenya
  • Sarati
  • Sindarin
  • Tengwar
  • Unown

pashuon dvaara upayog ke liye

  • yurkish (Yurkish) lipi maanavetar praaimets ke saath 'baatcheet' karne ke liye leksigraamon (lexigrams) ka prayog karti hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. Smith, Mike (1997). The Aztecs. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-631-23015-7.