lingaayat dharm

veerashaiv sampradaaya, ya lingaayat mat, hindu dharm ke antargat dakshin Bhaarat mein prachalit ek mat hai.[1][2] is mat ke upaasak lingaayat (kannad: ಲaaಿaaಂaaಗaaಾaaಯaaತaaರaaು) kahalaate hain. yeh shabd kannad shabd lingavant se vyutpann hai. ye log mukhyat: panchaachaaryaganon evam basav ki shikshaaon ke anugaami hain.

parichay

'veerashaiv' ka shaabdik arth hai - 'jo Shiv ka param bhakt ho'. kintu samay beetane ke saath veerashaiv ka tatvajnyaaan darshan, saadhana, karmakaand, saamaajik sanghatan, aachaaraniym aadi anya sanpradaayon se bhinn hote gaye. yadyapi veerashaiv desh ke anya bhaagon - Maharashtra, Andhra, tamil kshetr aadi - mein bhi paae jaate hain kintu unki sabse adhik sankhya Karnataka mein pai jaati hai.

shaiv log apne dhaarmik vishvaason aur darshan ka udgam vedon tatha 28 shaivaagamon se maanate hain. veerashaiv bhi vedon mein avishvaas naheen prakat karte kintu unke darshan, karmakaand tatha samaajasudhaar aadi mein aisi vishishtataaeain viksit ho gayi hain jinki vyutpatti mukhya roop se shaivaagamon tatha aise antardrushti yogiyon se hui maani jaati hai jo 'vachanakaar' kahalaate hain. 12veen se 16 veen shati ke beech lagbhag teen shataabdiyon mein koi 300 vachanakaar hue hain jinmein se 30 striyaaain rahi hain. inmein sabse prasiddh naam baasav ka hai jo kalyaan (Karnataka) ke jain raaja vijjal (12veen shati) ka pradhaan mantri tha. vah yogi mahaatma hi na tha balki karmath sanghatanakarta bhi tha jisne veerashaiv sanpradaaya ki sthaapana ki. vaasav ka lakshya aisa aadhyaatmik samaaj banaana tha jismein jaati, dharm ya streepurush ka bhedabhaav na rahe. vah karmakaand sambandhi aadanbar ka virodhi tha aur maanasik pavitrata evam bhakti ki sachaai par bal deta tha. vah maatr ek ishvar ki upaasana ka samarthak tha aur usane pooja tatha dhyaan ki paddhati mein saralata laane ka prayatn kiya. jaati bhed ki samaapti tatha striyon ke utthaan ke kaaran samaaj mein adbhut kraanti utpann ho gayi. jnyaaanayog bhaktiyog tatha karmayog - teenon vachanakaaron ko maanya hain kintu bhakti par sabse adhik jor diya jaata hai. vaasav ke anuyaayiyon mein bahut se harijn the aur usane antarjaateeya vivaah bhi sampann karaae.

veerashaivon ka sanpradaaya 'shakti vishishtaadvait' kahalaata hai. param chaitanya ya param sanvid desh, kaal tatha anya gunon se pare hai. para sanvid ki shakti hi is vishv ka utpaadak kaaran hai. vishv ya sansaar mithya (bhram maatr iloojan) naheen hai. ek lambi aur bahumukhi prakriya ke parinaamasvaroop bahuroopadhaari sansaar ki utpatti hoti hai. manushya mein ham jo kuchh dekhte hain vah vishishteekaran evam aatmachetana ka vikaas hai kintu yeh aatmachaitanya hi param chaitanya ke saath punarmiln ke prayaas ka prerak kaaran hai. saadhana ke parinaam svaroop jab ishvar ka sachcha bhakt samaadhi ki sarvochch sthiti ko praapt hota hai tab samarasaikya ki sthiti arthaat‌ ishvar ke pratyek svaroop ke saath poorn ekta ki sthiti utpann hoti hai. yahi manushya ke paramaanand ya moksh ki sthiti hai. ise poorn vilyan na maankar milan ke paramaanand mein baraabari se hissa grahan karna samajhna adhik achha hoga.

veerashaivon ne ek tarah ki aadhyaatmik anushaasan ki parampara sthaapit kar li hai jise 'shatasthal shaastr' kehte hain. yeh maanav ki saadhaaran chetna ka angasthal ke pratham prakram se lingasthal ke sarvochch kram par pahuainch jaane ki sthiti ka soochak hai. saadhana arthaat‌ aadhyaatmik anushaasan ki samoochi prakriya mein bhakti aur sharan yaane aatmaarpan par bal diya jaata hai. veerashaiv mahaatmaaon ki kabhi kabhi 'sharan' ya shivsharan kehte hain yaane aise log jinhonne Shiv ki sharan mein apne aapko arpit kar diya hai. unki saadhana shivyog kahalaati hai.

veerashaivavaad moolat: advaitavaadi darshan hai kintu yat: paramaatma kriya aur dhyaan se pare hai aur hamaare vaastavik anubhav ki duniya ke astitv ki vyaakhya ichha tatha kriya ke bina naheen ki ja sakti, isliye Shiv ke shakti siddhaant ki kalpana ki gayi. ishvar se ekta sthaapit karne ke liye aadhyaatmik aakaankshi apni ek ya teenon shaktiyon ka prayog karta hai. premashakti ke prayog ka naam bhaktiyog, chintanashakti ke prayog ka jnyaaanayog tatha karm shakti ke prayog ka naam karmayog hai. inheen ke jariye parameshvar ke saath antim roop se ekta sthaapit hoti hai.

ismein sandeh naheen ki veerashaivon ke bhi mandir, teerthasthaan aadi vaise hi hote hain jaise anya sanpradaayon ke, antar keval un devi devataaon mein hota hai jinki pooja ki jaati hai. jahaaain tak veerashaivon ka sabandh hai, devaalayon ya saadhana ke anya prakaaron ka utana mahatva naheen hai jitna isht ling ka jiski pratima shareer par dhaaran ki jaati hai. aadhyaatmik guru pratyek veerashaiv ko isht ling arpit kar uske kaan mein pavitra shadakshar mantra 'om‌ nam: shivaaya' fooaink deta hai. pratyek veerashaiv snaanaadi kar haath ki gadeli par isht ling ki pratima rakhakar chintan aur dhyaan dvaara aaraadhana karta hai. kehne ki aavashyakta naheen ki pratyek veerashaiv mein satyaparaayanata, ahinsa, bandhutvabhaav jaise uchch naitik gunon ke hone ki aasha ki jaati hai. vah niraamish bhoji hota hai aur sharaab aadi maadak vastuon se parahej karta hai. baasav ne is sambandh mein jo nidesh jaari kiye the, unka saaraansh yeh hai - chori na karo, hatya na karo aur na jhooth bolo, na apni prashansa karo na doosaron ki ninda, apni patni ke siva anyash sab striyon ko maata ke samaan samajho.

ved, upanishd aur shaivaagam to sab sanskrut mein hai at: veerashaiv vachanakaaron ne unka saar aur shaashvat satvon ka sthoolaansh kannad bhaasha evam saahitya mein samaavisht kar usaki sanbruddhi ki.

sandarbh

  1. A. K. Ramanujan, san (1973). speeking of Shiv. UNESCO. Indian translation series. Penguin classics. Religion and mythology. Penguin India. pa॰ 175. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780140442700.
  2. "Lingayat." Encyclopæadia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopæadia Britannica Online. 09 Jul. 2010.

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