ling

maanav purush aur stri ka vaahya drushya

jeevavijnyaaan mein ling (Sex, Gender) se taatparya un pahachaanon ya lakshanon se jinke dvaara jeevajagat mein nar ko maada se pruthak pahachaana jaata hai. jantuon mein asankhya jantu aise hote hain jinhein keval baahya chihnon se hi nar, ya maada naheen kaha ja sakta. nar tatha maada ka nirnaya do prakaar ke chihnon, praathamik (primary) aur gaun (secondary) laingik lakshanon (sexual characters), dvaara kiya jaata hai. vaanaspatik jagat mein nar tatha maada ka bhed, viksit praaniyon ki bhaaainti, pruthak-pruthak naheen paaya jaata.

anukram

shabdaarth

aaj hindi mein ling yaani liङag shabd ka arth nar shishn se lagaaya jaata hai lekin mool sanskrut mein iska arth chinh, prateek athva lakshan (yaani pehchaan) ke arth mein hai . kanaad muni krut vaisheshik darshan granth mein yeh shabd kai baar aata hai .

ling ka vikaas

janan ka itihaas dekha jaae to gyaat hoga ki sansaar ke aadi jeevon ki utpatti alaingik (asexual) dhang se hui; jaise protojoaa (Protozoa) tatha protofaaita (Protophyta) ke anek roopon mein nar tatha maada dvaara milkar srushti naheen hui. in jeevon ki utpatti shareer vikhandan (fission), mukulan (budding) tatha beejaanu nirmaan (spore formation) dvaara hui. vikaas ke doosare charan mein nar tatha maada ke atyant sookshm lakshan prakat hone lage. protojoaa shreni ke kuchh anya jeev sanyugman (conjugation) dvaara santaanotpaadan karne lage. ismein ek hi prakaar ke do jeev aapas mein milkar ekaakaar hone par fir vibhaajit hokar anek sankhya mein utpann hone lage, jaise vaulvauks (Volvox) ke nivhon (colonies) mein dekha jaata hai. iske pashchaat ling vikaas ki teesari avastha I, jismein ek hi praani ke andar nar tatha maada donon jananaang viksit hue, jaise, keinchuaa (earth-worm), jonk (leech) aadi mein. ling vikaas ki antim avastha mein nar tatha maada jananaang sarvatha pruthak ho gaye, jaisa kutton, bandaron, gaaya, bakariyon tatha manushyon aadi mein dekha jaata hai. praathamik laingik lakshanon ke antargat nar mein vrushan (testes) tatha maada mein andaashaya (ovaries) aate hain. gaun laingik lakshanon mein un angon tatha lakshanon ki ganana ki jaati hai, jinse nar aur maada ko unki aakaariki (morphology) dvaara hi pruthak pehchaan liya jaata hai, jaise kuchh kasheruki (vertebrate) jantuon mein maithunaangon (copulatory organs) ko spashtat: pruthak dekha ja sakta hai. nar praani mein shishn (penis) tatha maada mein bhag (vulva) maithunaang hote hain. katipya anya jeevon mein gaun laingik lakshanon ke antargat mooainchh, daadhi, sundar tatha bhadkeele pankh, sir ki kalagi, seeng, stan, prabhutv jamaana, madhur svar, maatrutv ki ichha, aakraman kshamata aadi aate hain. isi prakaar vanaspati jagat mein bhi foolon ki sugandh, rang, bhadkeelaapan, falotpaadan aadi laingik lakshan hote hain.

ling ka nirdhaaran

praaniyon mein ling ka nirdhaaran teen prakaar se hota hai :

(1) nishechan (fertilization) ke pehle hi,

(2) nishechan ke samay tatha

(3) nishechan ke baad.

kintu, saamaanyat: ling ka nirdhaaran nishechan ke hi samay hona maana jaata hai. nar ke shukraanu (sperm) ka maada ke andaashaya se sanyukt hona nishechan kaha jaata hai. vaataavaran mein nishechit ande, ya yugmanaj (fertilized egg or Zygote) ki kramash: vruddhi hoti rahati hai.

nar tatha maada ka nirdhaaran kuchh jatil prakriyaaon dvaara hota hai. vaigyaaniko ne is sambandh mein kai siddhaant upasthit kiye hain. in siddhaanton mein nimnalikhit do siddhaant apekshaakrut adhik prasiddh hain : (1) gunasootr, ya kromosom siddhaant tatha (2) haurmon siddhaant.

kromosom siddhaant

aanuvanshik vigyaan (Genetics) ke anusaar praaniyon ke shareer mein jo koshikaaeain (cells) pai jaati hain, unamein kuchh aisi rachanaaeain hoti hai jo vishesh prakaar ke ranjakon aur abhiranjakon (dyes and stains) ko grahan kar leti hain, in rachanaaon ko kromosom kaha jaata hai. aanuvanshik vigyaan mein visheshakar yugmakon, ya ling koshikaaon (gametes or sex-cells) mein paae jaane vaale kromosomon par hi vichaar kiya jaata he. bhinn-bhinn praaniyon ki janan koshikaaon mein kromosomon ki sankhya is prakaar pai gayi hain :

praani ka naam --- kromosomon ki sankhya

saaikan (Sycon) spanj -- 26

haaidra (Hydra) --- 30 - 32

lanbriks (Lumbricus) vansh ki jonk --- 32

yooniyo (Unio) seep --- 32

taaraameen (Starfish) --- 36

jheenga (Squilla) machhali --- 48

bichhi (Buthus) --- 24

ek machhali (Scyllium) --- 24

byoofotod (Bufo toad) --- 24 - 26

kachhapagan (Chelonia) --- 56

magar (Crocodile) --- 32

bhed (Sheep) --- 60

ghoda (Horse) --- 60 - 66

bandar (Monkey) --- 48

maanav (Humans) --- 46

netriks (Natrix) --- 40

kapotavansh ya kolanba (Columba) --- 66

murga (Fowl) --- 18 - 20

chamagaadad (Bat) --- 24

leepas (Lepus) vansh ka kharagosh --- 28 - 36

kutta (Dog) --- 50 - 78

lomadi (Fox) --- 38

billi (Cat) --- 66

chaupaae (Cattle) --- 38 - 60

bakara (Goat) --- 60

bhainsa (Buffalo) --- 48 - 56

sooar (Pig) --- 38 - 40

chinpainji (Chimpanzee) --- 48

ooaint (Camel) --- 70

san 1901-2 mein maikklang (Macclung) naamak vidvaan ne kromosom ka pata lagaaya. usi ne kuchh siddhaant bhi banaae, jo kaalaantar mein vaigyaanik anusandhaanon dvaara pusht hote gaye. is siddhaant mein yeh maana jaata hai ki pratyek praani ke kuchh vishisht kromosomon ki sankhya par usaka ling nirbhar karta hai. kromosomon ki rachana ko yadi adhik shaktishaali sookshmadarshi, jaise ilektraun sookshmadarshi dvaara dekha jaae to usamein bhi kuchh bahut hi sookshm rachanaaeain dikhaai padegi. inko jeen (Genes) kaha jaata hai aur yeh vishvaas kiya jaata hai ki ye hi janak ke aanuvanshik (hereditary) gunon ko unki santaanon tak pahuainchaate hain. jantuon aur vanaspatiyon ke kromosomon tatha jeenon ko lekar bahut adhik anusandhaan aur prayog hue hain.

yeh paaya gaya hai ki pratyek praani ki janan koshikaaon mein paae jaanevaale kromosomon mein kuchh aise hote hain, jinhein alingasootr (Autosomes) kehte hain. ye nar tatha maada donon mein ek prakaar ke hi hote hain aur sada yugm (pair) mein rahate hain. kuchh doosare prakaar ke kromosom bhi paae jaate hain, jinhein ling nirdhaarak (Sex determiner) kaha jaata hai. ab tak jitne prakaar ke kromosom paae gaye hain, unhein ex (X), vaai (Y), dablyoo (W), jed (Z) tatha O (O) ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. maana jaata hai ki nar tatha maada ka nirdhaaran inheen linganirdhaarak kromosomon ki sam tatha visham sankhya dvaara hota hai, jaise manushyon mein ling ka nirdhaaran is prakaar hota hai :

21 aling sootr + 1 ex + 1 vaai = purush; tatha

21 aling sootr + 2 ex = stri.

kromosomon ki sankhya ke anusaar nar tatha maada ko vishmayugmaki (heterogamous) ya samayugmaki (homogamous) kaha jaata hai. kisi praani mein nar samayugmaki hoti hai, to kisi mein maada. pakshiyon, titliyon, machhaliyon, jalasthalachar (amphibians) aadi mein maada vishmayugmaki hoti hai. in praaniyon mein linganirdhaarak kromosomon ko jed (Z) tatha dablyoo (W) naam diya jaata hai, jabki anya praaniyon tatha vanaspatiyon mein inhein ex (X) tatha vaai (Y) ke naam se sambodhit kiya jaata hai.

anek praaniyon mein ex tatha vaai hi nar ya maada ling ka nirdhaaran karte hain. jab ex wala shukraanu maada ke ande se sanyukt hota hai, tab yugmanaj ko do ex ex (XX) milte hain aur vah maada banta hai. kintu jab shukraanu ka vaai maada ke ande ke ex se sanyukt hota hai, tab yugmanaj ko ex vaai, arthaat visham sankhya praapt hoti hai aur vah nar hota hai. manushyon tatha anya praaniyon ke nar tatha maada ke kromosomon mein jo vibhed paaya jaata hai, vah agale prushth ki saarani mein dikhaaya gaya hai.

vanaspatiyon mein kromosom

jis prakaar jantuon mein kromosomon ka adhyayan kiya gaya hai, usi prakaar vanaspatiyon mein bhi unka adhyayan kiya gaya hai. adhiktar beej vaale paudhe ubhayalingaashrayi (monoecious) hote hain, arthaat unamein nar tatha maada ling ek saath hote hain. kromosomon ki ganana hone par bhi ling ki charcha keval nar-maada-vishleshan ke hi sandarbh mein ki jaati hai, kyonki ling aur aanuvanshikta ki samasya vanaspati jagat mein naheen hai. kuchh jaati mein nar tatha maada paudhe pruthak hote hain. aise paudhon ke bhi ex (X) tatha vaai (Y) kromosomon ka pata chala hai, jaise ilodiya kainaadeinsis (Elodea canadensis), milaindriym elbam (Milandrium album) aadi. beejavaala ek paudha, fregairiya ilaitior (Fragaria elatior), chidiyon ki bhaaainti kromosom wala (abraxas type) batalaaya jaata hai. kuchh anya paudhon mein nar vishmalingi (heterogametic) hote hue bhi do vaai (Y) tatha ek ex (X) dhaaran karta hai. hraas vibhaajan (meiosis) ke samay donon vaai (Y) tatha ex (X) pruthak ho jaate hain aur do vaai (Y) janan koshika se milkar nar tatha ek ex (X) maada bhroon ke roop mein parivrtit ho jaate hain. isi prakaar ling ka nirdhaaran anya paudhon mein bhi hota hai.

haarmon siddhaant

praaniyon ke shareer mein kuchh aisi granthiyaaain hoti hain jinhein vaahineeheen ya ant:sraavi (Ductless, ya Endocrine) kaha jaata hai. kuchh viksit visheshakar kasheruki jantuon mein in granthiyon ke sraavon ka, jinhein haurmon kehte hain, adhyayan kiya gaya hai. vanaspatiyon mein bhi haurmon hote hain ya naheen, yeh vivaadagrast vishay hai. jantuon ke shareer mein pai jaanevaali granthiyon ke naam hain : peeyoosh (Pituitary, ya Hypophysio), peeniyl (Pineal), avatugranthi (Thyroid), pairaathaairauid (Parathyroid), thaaimas (Thymus), paikrias ya agnyaashaya (Pancreas), vrukk (Adrenal); jananagranthi (Gonads), nar mein vrushan (Testis) tatha maada mein andaashaya (Ovary). in granthiyon se nikalne vaale haurmonon ka adhyayan vistaar se kiya gaya hai aur yeh paaya gaya hai ki nar praani mein purushatv (maleness) aur maada mein streetv (femaleness) sambandhit gaun laingik lakshanon ka astitv inheen ki kriya par nirbhar karta hai. jeen aur kromosom keval yeh nishchit karte hain ki yugmanaj nar hoga ya maada. vaastavik purushatv aur streetv ka nirdhaaran tatha uchit disha mein unka vikaas vaahineeheen granthiyon ke sraavon ki sahaayata se hi hota hai. jaise, koi bhroon purush ke roop mein janm lene wala ho to stri haurmonon ki sooi lagaakar athva use badhiya kar dene (castration) aur uske sthaan par andaashaya granthiyon ko aaropit kar dene par vah ya to poornaroopen stri ho jaaega, ya usamein streetv ke lakshan viksit ha jaaeainge.

kuchh praaniyon ke nar tatha maada kromosomon ki saarani

naam -- nara—aamaada

kachhuaa -- ex ex (XX) -- ex O (XO)

kabootara—aaeks ex, ya Z Z (XX ya ZZ) -- ex O, ya Z dablyoo (XO ya ZW)

chamagaadad -- ex O (XO) -- ex ex (XX)

chooha -- ex vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

chaupaae -- ex O (XO) -- ex ex (XX)

bhed -- ex vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

chinpaiji -- ex vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

jheengur, telachatta, tidde -- ex O, ya ex vaai (XO ya XY) -- ex ex (XX)

saanda -- ex ex (XX) -- ex O (XO)

murg -- ex ex, ya Z Z (XX ya ZZ) -- ex O ya Z dablyoo (XO ya ZW)

kharagosh -- ex vaai, ya ex O (XY ya XO) -- ex ex (XX)

kutta -- ex vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

bhains -- ex vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

ghoda -- ex vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

bandara—aaeks vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

drosofila (a) -- ex vaai (XY) -- ex ex (XX)

ling nirdhaaran ka santulan siddhaant

vanaspatiyon tatha jantuon ka samuchit adhyayan karne par yeh paaya gaya hai ki ling ka nirdhaaran nar aur maada pravruttiyon ka hi ekamaatr parinaam naheen hota. bhroon ke vikaas ke saath hi saath nar aur maada nirdhaarak tatv bhi samaan roop se hi viksit hote hain. koi praani nar ya maada keval isliye naheen ho jaata ki usaki rachana vishesh sankhya vaale kromosomon dvaara hui hoti hai, apitu vah nar ya maada isliye bhi ho jaata hai ki usane maada ya nar nirdhaarak anya tatvon ko "daba" (outweigh) diya. sabhi haurmonon ka utpaadan shareer mein hota rahata hai, at: jab streetv, ya purushatv nirdhaarak haurmon adhik shaktishaali honge tab bhroon stri, ya purush shareer tatha pravruttiyon ki or agrasar hoga. haurmonon ke santulan ka hi yeh parinaam hota hai ki praani nar ya maada ke roop mein janm leta hai. kart Stern (Curt Stern) ne yeh dikhlaaya hai ki yadi kisi stri mein do ex ke sthaan par teen ex hon, to usamein apekshaakrut adhik streetv hoga. kintu aisi stri der mein rituvati, atyadhik alpaayu aur sarvatha vandhya hogi. isi prakaar goldashmit (Goldschmidt) ne limaitriya jaiponika naamak (Lymantria japonica) shalabh (moth) ka adhyayan kar yeh batalaaya hai ki jab balavaan naron ka nirbal keeton se sanyugman hota hai tab 50% saamaanya nar aur 50% antalingi maada (intersexed femal) ki utpatti hoti hai. kintu jab atyadhik sashakt naron ka nirbal maadaaon se sanyog hota hai tab 100% nar keet utpann hote hain. pro॰ ef.A.E. kriu (F.A.E. Crew) bhi kehte hain ki bhroon ke ling ka nirdhaaran keval kromosomon se hi na hokar, unamein paae jaanevaale jeenon (genes) ki tatha alingasootron (autosomes) mein paae jaane vaale janakon ki antakriya (interaction) se bhi hota hai, jaise pakshiyon mein maada vishmalingi ex vaai (XY) tatha nar samalingi ex ex (XX) hote hain. keeton mein laingik vibhaajan janan granthiyon par nirbhar naheen karta. unke mukhya janakaatmak lakshan is prakaar hote hain : nar ex O (XO), ya ex vaai (XY); maada (XX) ex ex. finkalar (Finkler) ne san 1923 mein kuchh nar keeton ke mastak kaatkar maadaaon par tatha maadaaon ke mastak naron par laga diye. in prayogon mein yeh paaya gaya ki keeton ne apne shareer ke anusaar naheen apitu mastak ke anusaar kaam kiya, arthaat nar mastak waali maadaaon ne nar ki bhaaainti tatha maada mastakavaale naron ne maada ki bhaaainti laingik lakshan prakat kiye.

laingik dviroopata (Sexual Dimorphism)

'kauman feejaint' ke nar evam maada

bahut se jantuon ke nar aur maada ke aakaar evam svaroop mein spasht antar hota hai. ise laingik dviroopata kehte hain.

yeh batalaaya ja chuka hai ki laingik vikaas ke truteeya charan mein nar maada ke bhed prakat hone lag gaye the. dheere-dheere andaashaya tatha vrushanon ka vikaas hua aur sahaayak ang bhi kramash: viksit hote gaye. anek nimn jeevon mein, tatha vanaspatiyon mein bhi nar tatha maada jananaang ek hi shareer mein paae jaate hain. jyon jyon uchch varg ki or badha jaaega to yeh milega ki ling spasht hi pruthak ho gaye hain aur nar tatha maada shareer ki rachana bhi pruthak hai.

laingik dviroopata ka parichit udaaharan boneliya viridis (Bonellia viridis) naamak ek samudri krumi hai. iski maada hare rang ki tatha aakruti mein ber jaisi hoti hai. samudra ke tal mein pattharon ke neeche ya unke chhidron mein, yeh krumi nivaas karta hai. vaheen se apni dvishaakhit (bifurcated) shund (proboscis) ko baahar laharaate hue yeh jeev aahaar dhooaindhata rahata hai. nar krumi atyant sookshm hota hai aur jananaangon ke atirikt iske anya sabhi angon ka hraas ho gaya hota hai. maada ke shareer ke bheetar nar krumi paropajeevi ki bhaaainti rahata hai. nishechit andaashaya viksit hokar jal mein svatantr roop se tairate hue laarva ki bhaaainti hote hain. yadi koi laarva samudratal mein baith jaata hai, athva kisi maada ke shund mein pahuainch naheen paata hai, to vah maada ke roop mein viksit hone lagta hai. kintu yadi kisi prakaar vah maada ke shund mein aakarshit hokar pahuainch jaata hai, to vah nar ke roop mein viksit hota hai. maada ke shund mein bandi bauna nar, sarakate hue use muainh mein tatha vahaaain se bhi dheere dheere neeche sarakate hue maada ki janan nalika mein pahuainchakar, dinbaashayon ko nishechit karta hai. nishechit andaashaya pun: jal mein tyaag diye jaate hain aur svatantr roop se laarva ki bhaaainti tairane lag jaate hain.

isi prakaar saikulaaina (Sacculina) naamak ek parajeevi krasteshiya (crustacea) nar tatha maada kekadon par aashrit rahata hai. giyaard (1887 <Ç.) tatha smith (1906 E.) ne likha hai ki is krasteshiya ka shareer kekade ke udar mein palata hai aur kuchh bhaag shareer bhedakar baahar bhi nikal aata hai. jis kekade ke shareer mein yeh ghusata hai, uske jananaangon ko yeh choos daalata hai. iske kaaran vah vandhya ho jaata hai. adhikaansh kekade mar jaate hain, kuchh nar maada gunon se yukt ho jaate hain, athva maada kekade antarlingi bankar vrushan tatha dinbaashaya donon utpann karne lag jaate hain.

ling sahalagn vanshaagati (Sex-linked Inheritance)

ling sahalagnata ka arth hai, laingik kromosomon mein paae jaanevaale jeenon ke anusaar lingon mein vibhinnata. in jeenon par jo gun ya visheshak (traits) nirbhar karte hain, unhein ling sahalagnata kehte hain. in gunon ya visheshakon ki paareshan vidhi ko ling sahalagn vanshaagati kehte hain, jaise purush mein ex vaai (XY) tatha stri mein ex ex (XX) kromosom hote hain. koi purush yadi kisi aanuvanshik dosh se dooshit hai, to keval uske putr hi us dosh ko vanshagati mein grahan kar sakte hain, putriyaaain naheen. sarvapratham dauङakaastar (Doncaster) ne san 1908 mein is vishay par prakaash daala tha. unhonne ek shalabh abraiksais laiktiklar (Abraxas lacticolor) ki maada ka abraiksas graussulairiyaata (Abraxas grossulariata) ke nar se sanyog karaaya. parinaamasvaroop pratham peedhi mein sabhi shalabh graussulairiyaata varg ke keet paae gaye. doosari peedhi mein graussulairiyaata tatha laiktiklar ke anupaat 3:1 the, kintu sabhi laiktiklar maada nikle. isse pata chala ki is praani mein nar ek prakaar ke yugmak (gametes) utpann karta hai, kintu maada do prakaar ke. at: nar samayugmaji (homozygous) tatha maada vishmayugmaji (Heterozygous) hoti hai. braivel (Brambell) kehte hain ki ex (X) kromosom mein kuchh anya prakaar ke aanuvanshik kaarak tatha jeen hote hain. yadi yeh siddhaant theek hai, to samayugmaji maata pita ke visheshak (traits) unke vishmayugmaji santaanon mein chale jaaeainge. is siddhaant ko ling sahalagnata (Sex linkage) kaha jaata hai, jaise falamakkhi drausofila (Drosophila) ki maada mein do ex (X) tatha nar mein ex vaai (XY) kromosom paae jaate hain. iske ex (X) kromosomon mein laal aaainkhon ke jeen honge, ya shvet aaainkhon ke. laal aaainkh vaale jeenon ko prabhaavi (dominant) tatha shvet ko aprabhaavi (recessive) kehte hain. at: jab shvet tatha laal aaainkhon waali makkhiyon ka sanyugman hota hai, tab laal aaainkhon waali santaan adhik hoti hai. ling sahalagni rogon mein heemofiliya (haemophilia) tatha rangaandhata (colour blindness) pramukh rog maane jaate hain.

aviyojan (Non-disjunction)

shukraanu tatha dinb sanyukt hokar ek yugmaj (zygote) ka nirmaan karte hain. khandi bhavan (segmentation) ki prakriya mein ek hi nishechit dinb anek khandon mein tab tak vibhaajit hota rahata hai, jab tak vah poorn bhroon naheen ban jaata.

is prakriya mein shukraanu ke kromosom tatha dinb ke kromosom ek saath milkar vibhaajit hote rahate hain. udaaharan ke liye, purush ke 23 tatha stri ke 23 kromosom milkar 46 kromosom ho jaate hai. vibhaajan ke samay 23 kromosom ek chhor (pole) ki or tatha 23 doosari or chale jaate hain. in donon chhoron ko putreekoshika keindrak (Daughter cell nucleus) bhi kehte hain. vibhaajan ki is saamaanya prakriya mein anek prakaar ke dosh utpann ho sakte hain jaise ek kendra mein 22 kromosom chale jaaeain tatha doosare mein 24, ya koi anya durghatana ghat jaae to ise aviyojan kaha jaaega. is siddhaant ke saath brijej (Bridges) ka naam liya jaata hai. inhonne san 1916 mein kuchh utparivrti (mutant) praaniyon ka adhyayan kiya tha. inhonne paaya ki ex ex ex (XXX) tatha ex ex vaai (XXY) vaale donon praani maada the, eksao (XO) wala praani nar, kintu santaanotpaadan mein aksham tha aur ovaai (OY) wala praani badha hi naheen. jis praani mein ek ex (X) kam tha, use praathamik tatha jismein ek ex (X) adhik tha, use gaun aviyojit kaha gaya.

laingik asaamaanyataaeain (Sexual abnormalities)

aviyojan ki prakriya ke parinaamasvaroop laingik asaamaanyataaeain ho jaati hain. ye asaamaanyataaeain mukhyat: teen prakaar ki hoti hain : (1) stri puroosh (2) ubhayalingi tatha (3) madhyalingi.

streepunrooshata (Gynandromorphism) - streepunrooshata ke antargat aise praani aate hain jinmein nar tatha maada donon ki visheshataaeain pai jaati hain, jaise titliyon, pakshiyon tatha keet patangon mein se kuchh to aadhe aadhe stri purush hote hain tatha kuchh mein ve visheshataaeain bhinn bhinn anupaat mein hoti hain. vaigyaaniko ka vishvaas hai ki streepuroosh praani ka jeevan maada ke, jismein ex ex (XX) upasthit hai, roop mein aarambh hota hai. jab koshika vibhaajan praanrabh hota hai. us samay vibhaajit koshika ke ek bhaag mein kromosem ki sankhya mein ghatabadh ho jaati hai. falasvaroop ek vibhaajit koshika mein keval ek vaai (Y) hi aa paata hai. is prakaar ke kromosomon ki asamaan sankhya ke kaaran nar tatha maada ki aakrutiyon mein bhinnata hoti jaati hai. aise stri-punroosh vaale praaniyon ki aantarik rachana ke pareekshanon se pata chalta hai ki unke shukraanu tatha dinb jananaang bhi upasthit rahate hain. yeh asaamaanyata un mein adhik maatra mein pai jaati hai jinmein haurmono ka prabhaav atyalp hota hai, athva sarvatha naheen hota. yahi kaaran hai ki kuchh pakshiyon ko chhodkar streepunroopata anya viksit tatha uchch praaniyon mein naheen pai jaati.

ubhayalingata (Hermaphroditism) - sansaar ke lagbhag sabhi jeev ubhayalingi hote hain. purushatv tatha streetv ki disha mein kisi praani ka vikaas kis aadhaar par hota hai, is sambandh mein sabhi vaigyaanik ek mat naheen hain. koshika vibhaajan ke samay kromosomon ki sankhya mein kyon antar aa jaata hai, athva linganirmaan ke samay volfi tatha myoolari vaahiniyon (Wolffian and Mullerian ducts) mein se ek ka kyon hraas ho jaata hai, ya purushatv athva streetv nirdhaarak haarmon kisi niyam, ya maatra se, kyon aur kaise ni:sravit hote hain? in sab prashnon ka koi santoshajanak uttar abhi vaigyaanik naheen de paae hain. at: ham yeh maan leinge ki stri ya purush hona nire sanyog ki baat hai.

pratyek praani mein yeh kshamata hoti hai ki vah nar, ya maada mein viksit ho jaae. ubhayalingata iska jvalant udaaharan hai. ubhayalingi kai prakaar ke hote hain, jaise (1) aise praani jo svanishechan (self-fertilization) karte hain, jaise haaidra (hydra), feetaakrumi (tapeworm), chapataakrumi (flatworm) aadi (in jantuon mein inka apna hi shukraanu apne hi dibon ko nishechit karta hai), (2) doosare aise praani hote hain jo nishechan ke liye ek doosare par nirbhar karte hain; jaise keinchuaa, jonk aadi.

vanaspatiyon ki bhi anek jaatiyon mein ek hi paudhe me kuchh fool paudhe ke kisi vishesh bhaag mein hi paae jaate hain. uchch shreni ke anek paudhon mein ek hi fool mein streekesar (pistils) tatha punkesar (stamens) sameepasth hote hain taaki garbhaadhaan mein saralata ho.

ubhayalingiyon mein nar tatha maada ke ant: aur baahya lakshan ekasaath paae jaate hain. bhekon (toads) ki maadaaon mein shukr tatha naron mein dinb granthiyaaain praaya: saath saath pai jaati hain. kachhuon mein bhi andavrushan (ovotestes) paae gaye hain. kabootaron mein nar ki shukr granthi dinb tatha taaraameen ki maada ke dinbaashaya mein vrushan paae gaye hain. kekadon mein vrushan tatha dinbaashaya saath saath paae gaye hain. ilaasmobraik (Elasmobranch) machhaliyon mein nishkriya vrushan aur sakriya dinbaashaya saath saath paae gaye hain. kuchh machhaliyaaain aisi bhi pai gayi jinmein do dinbaashaya tatha ek vrushan tha.

madhyalingata (Intersexuality) - yeh vah sthiti hai jab koi praani kisi ek ling ki or viksit hote hote sahasa, kisi kaaranavash, doosare ling ko bhi dhaaran kar le. manushyon mein hijdon (eunuchs) ki yahi avastha hoti hai. aanuvanshikvijnyaaan ke anusaar aisi avastha ka kaaran teen kaayik, ya daihik kromasom samooh ke saath do ex (X) kromosomon ka hona hai. (goldashmit). is anupaat ke kaaran makkhiyon ki baahari aakruti nar tatha maada ka mishran hoti hai, yadyapi janan se unke shareer mein nar tatha maada ootak (tissues) naheen paae jaate. ve aakruti mein ya to nar hi hongi, ya maada hi. aise praani vandhya hote hain. braivel ne batalaaya hai ki antarligi ki janan granthiyaaain to ek hi prakaar ki hoti hain, kintu kuchh ya sabhi sahaayak ang tatha gaun lakshan doosare ling ka nirnaya maatr kar dete hain unka vaastavik vikaas haarmonon ke prabhaav se hi hota hai. san 1923 mein kriu ne kuchh ghareloo pashuon (bakare, sooar, ghode, chaupaae, bhed tatha ooaint) ki jaaainch ki aur paaya ki unamein mithya madhyalingata (pseudo-intersexuality) thi, arthaat kuchh mein to naari jananaang atyant sankuchit the, kuchh mein seedhe aur spasht, kintu anpekshit lambe the, tatha kuchh mein spashtat: nar ke samaan, kintu apoorn nalikaayukt the. kuchh mein vrushan tatha dinb granthiyaaain bhi upasthit theen. purushon (manushyon) mein kuchh ko maasik dharm hote tatha kuchh ko doodh pilaate hue paaya gaya hai. jananaang mein ghaav, ya shalyakriya, ya haarmon prayog dvaara maadhyalingata utpann ho sakti hain.

laingik parivartan (Sexual Reversals)

anek praaniyon mein svat: ling parivartan hota rahata hai, unka jeevanachakr is prakaar hota hai : nar (ya maada) r ubhayalingi r maada (ya nar). boneliya, parajeevi kekadon, ghoghon, madhumakkhiyon, taaraameenon tatha pakshiyon mein laigik parivartan praaya: hote rahate hain. praaya: sabhi vaigyaaniko ne murgo mein laingik parivartan ka adhyayan kiya hai aur paaya hai ki koi murga aarambh mein maada tha aur ande deta tha, kintu, dinbaashaya mein rog ho jaane ke kaaran andotpaadan band ho gaya. murgi mein dheere dheere murga ke lakshan prakat hone lage aur vah murgiyon mein garbhaadhaan karne lagi. kriu ka kehna hai ki maadaaon mein (chidiyon mein) saamaanya dinbaashaya ke saath saath ek chhota, alpavardhit vrushan bhi hota hai. dinbaashaya ke nishkriya hote hi vrushan sakriya ho jaata hai. yahi sthiti un murgiyon ki hui jinki dinbagranthiyaaain kaatkar nikaal di gayi theen.

chaupaayon ke judvon (twins) mein svatantr Martin (Free Martin) naam se ek asaamaanya ghatna ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. yeh haurmon prabhaav ka udaaharan hai. judvein teen prakaar ke hote hain : donon nar ya donon maada, ya ek nar aur ek maada. antim prakaar mein aisa hone ki sambhaavana rahati hai ki bhrooneeya vikaas mein donon bhroonon mein paarasparik rakt ka pravaah ek shareer se doosare shareer mein hota rahe. aisi dasha mein haurmonon ka bhi aadaan pradaan chal sakta hai. nar haurmon pehle viksit hota hai aur judvon ko naratv (maleness) ki or le chalta hai. maada haurmon der mein viksit hota hai aur judvon mein se ek ko maulik roop se maada banaata hai. falasvaroop jo maada utpann hogi, usamein nar ke spasht lakshan honge aur vah vandhya hogi. lili (Lillie) ne yeh batalaaya hai ki chaupaayon ke judvon mein saamaanya raktapravaah hota hai aur maada ko vaastav mein nar haurmonayukt rakt praapt hota hai. anya pashuon mein judvon mein saamaanya raktapravaah ki vyavastha naheen hoti, at: unamein svatantr Martin naheen hote.

laingik parivartan ka prabhaav manushyon par bhi dekha jaata hai. praaya: samaachaarapatron mein padhne ko milta hai ki amuk ka ling parivartan ho gaya. san 1935 tatha 36 ke olympic chaipiynon mein do striyaaain aisi pai gayi jo baad mein chalakar purush ho gayi. manushyon mein yauvanaaranbh ke poorv (Prepuberty) yadi stri purush ki jananagranthiyaaain kaat di jaaeain, to unka ling parivartan to ho jaaega, kintu ve poornataya stri, ya purush naheen ho sakeinge aur na to santonotpaadan hi kar sakeinge. unke haav-bhaav avashya striyochit, ya purushochit ho jaaeainge. pakshiyon mein lingaparivrtan streetv se purushatv ki or hi hota hai.

ling anupaat

is ka arth hai kisi praani varg mein nar tatha maada ki utpatti, sthiti tatha mrutyu ki dar. yeh anumaan kiya jaata hai ki kam se kam manushyon mein pratham santaan nar hi hoti hai. yuddh ke dinon mein bhi adhikaansh santaanein nar hoti hain, kyonki prakruti swayam purushon ki kami ko poora karti hai. praathamik ling anupaat ki baat keval manushya hi naheen, apitu pashu jagat mein bhi laagoo hoti hai. vahaaain bhi un pashuon mein jo haram banaakar rahate hain, nar adhik hote hain, jaise bandaron ki kuchh jaatiyaaain, shahad ki makkhi, cheenti, deemak aadi. ek ghoda anek ghodiyon ko garbhit karta hai. yadi vah adhikaadhik baar maithun kare to lingaanupaat mein adbhootapoorv parivartan ho sakta hai. murgi se balapoorvak bachche paida karaae jaaeain, to maada bachche adhik paida honge. gaun lingaanupaat ke sambandh mein kriu (Crew) ne kuchh niyam batalaae hain :

(1) praaniyon ki jaatiyon (species) ke saath anupaat ghatata badhta rahata hai, jaise 100 maadaaon ke anupaat mein manushya nar 103-107, ghoda 98.6, kutta 118.5, chaupaae 107.3, bhed 97.7, sooar 111.8, kharagosh, 104.6, murga 93.4-94.7, kabootar 115, machhali, kotas (Cottus) 188 tatha lofiys (Lophius) 385 hote hain.

(2) prajaati (race), nasl (breed) tatha gotr (strain) ke anusaar anupaat mein antar hota hai, jaise : amareeka mein 106, great Britain, mein 93.5, Spain mein 95.3, Germany, mein 96.9, France mein 97.9, Belgium mein 98.4, Italy mein 99, Poland mein 100, Japan mein 102, Bhaarat mein 104 tatha cheen mein 125 aur yahoodiyon mein 104-105 purush prati 100 striyon par paae jaate hain.

(3) laigik anupaat mein prati varsh antar hota rahata hai.

(4) varsh ki vishesh maithun ritu (breeding season) ka bhi prabhaav pashuon par padta hai.

(5) maata pita ki aayu aur shaareerik avastha ka prabhaav santaanon ke anupaat par padta hai.

(6) garbh ki kaalaanukram sankhya (chronological number) ka prabhaav laingik anupaat par padta hai.

(7) do garbhon ke beech ka kram bhi prabhaavashaali hota hai. kart Stern (Curt Stern) ke anusaar avaidh (illegitimate) santaanon mein nar ki sankhya maadaaon se kam hoti hai. doosaron ke anusaar naagareekaran (urbanization), sankaran (cross breeding), saamaajik aarthik avastha (socio economic status), bhaugolik vaataavaran aadi ka bhi prabhaav lingaanupaat par padta hai.

anya praaniyon mein lingaparivrtan dvaara lingaanupaat nirdhaarit hota hai, jaise jifoforas Hillary (Xiphophorus hilleri) ke aparipkv praaniyon mein nar tatha maada ka anupaat 0.5 : 1 ka hota hai, kintu paripakva (mature) praaniyon mein yeh anupaat vipreet (1 : 0.5) hota hai.

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