linen

kinaaron ke aaspaas dhaaga ki kadhaai ke saath ek linn ka roomaal
ded si ke paas se baraamaad koraan kev 1 se praapt ek lenin ka kapda.

linen san ke paudhe linm yoojeeteteeseemam ke reshon se bana ek kapda hai. linen ka nirmaan shram-saadhya hai, lekin jab iske vastr taiyaar ho jaate hain to garmiyon ke mausam mein iski asaadhaaran thandak evam taajagi ke liye iski gunavatta badh jaati hai.

linen ki bunaavat vaale kapadon ko bhi mote taur par "linen" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai, bhale hi ve kapaas, san ya san ke atirikt anyaanya reshon se bane hon. aam taur par aise kapadon ka linen ke alaava apna ek khaas naam hota hai; masalan, linen shaili ki bunaai vaale maheen sooti ke kapadon ko madaapolam kaha jaata hai.

samoohavaachak shabd "linens" ko ab bhi aksar aam taur par kadhe hue evam bune hue bistar, snaan, table evam rasoi ke kapadon ka varnan karne ke liye istemaal mein laaya jaata hai. linen naam barkaraar rakha gaya hai, kyonki paramparaagat roop se linen ka prayog is tarah ki bahut si saamagriyon ke liye kiya jaata tha. ateet mein, "linens" shabd ka prayog shart, kameej, baniyaan, lingari (linen ka samagotri shabd), evam shart ke khulne yogya kaularon evam kaf jaise halke adhovastron ke liye hua karta tha, jo aitihaasik taur par vishesh roop se linen se hi banaae jaate the.

linen ke kapde duniya ke sabse praacheen kapadon mein se maane jaate hain: inka itihaas hajaaron varsh puraana hai. lagbhag 8000 E.poo. vaale bhoosa, beejon, reshon, yaarn, evam vibhinn prakaar ke kapadon ke ansh Swiss jheel ke aavaason mein paae gaye hain. jaurjiya ke ek praagaitihaasik gufa mein paae gaye range hue san ke reshon se yeh pata chalta hai ki jangali reshon se bune hue lenin ke kapde 36, 000 E.poo. se bhi pehle ke ho sakte hain.[1][2]

praacheen misr mein linen ko kabhi-kabhi mudra ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata tha. misr ki mamiyon ko linen mein lapeta jaata tha, kyonki ise prakaash evam pavitrata ke prateek tatha sanpada ke pradarshan ke roop mein maana jaata tha. inmein se haath se kaate gaye dhaagon vaale kuchh vastr unke samay ke hisaab se to theek the, lekin aadhunik linen ki tulana mein mote the.[3]

maujooda samay mein linen aamtaur par ek mahanga kapda hai evam apekshaakrut roop se kam nirmit hota hai. ismein kapaas evam anyaanya praakrutik reshon jaisa ek lamba "resha" (faaibar ki lambaai wala) hota hai.[4]

linen se epran, bag, tauliye (tairaaki, snaan, samudra-tat, shareer evam dhulane yogya tauliye), rumaal, chaadar, mejposh, ranar, kurseeposh, purush evam mahila paridhaan aadi bahut se utpaad bante hain.

anukram

san faaibar

vivran

linen ko ek chhaalayukt faaibar kaha jaata hai.

san faaibar ki lambaai takareeban 25 se 125 seinteemeetar (18 se 55 inch) tatha usaka vyaas ausatan 12-16 maaikromeetar hota hai. inke do kism hain : chhote-chhote faaibaron ko mote kapde banaane tatha lambi dhaari vaale faaibaron ko maheen kapde banaane mein istemaal kiya jaata hai. san ke faaibaron ko aam taur par unke "gaanthon" se pahachaana jaata hai, jo kapde ke lacheelepan evam banaavat ki shobha badhaate hain.

linen faaibar ke kraus-sekshan aniyamit pauleegonal aakaar mein bane hote hain, jo kapde ki moti bunaavat mein yogadaan dete hain.[5]

visheshataaen

avashoshan ki uchch kshamataayukt evam garmi ke suchaalak linen kapde chhoone par thande mahasoos hote hain. kapaas se do-teen guna adhik majbooti wala linen vanaspati faaibaron mein sabse majboot faaibaron mein shumaar hai. ye narm hote hain, jisse taiyaar hone ke baad kapde roen-mukt rahate hain tatha dhulane ke baad dinondin narm hote jaate hain. baharahaal, kapde tah karte vakt ek hi sthaan par lagaataar parat baithaane par linen ke dhaage toot bhi sakte hain. ye tootan kaularon, silaai evam anyaanya jagahon par dikh sakti hain, jinpar dhone ke baad istri baithaakar tah lagaaya gaya ho. linen ka lacheelaapan behad kamzor hota hai evam yeh sahaj roop se seedha naheen hota, iske aasaani se sikud jaane ki yahi vajah hai.

linen ke kapadon mein ek behad praakrutik chamak hoti hai; aaivari, kora, tain, ya bhoora aadi unke praakrutik rang hain. shuddh shvet linen bhaari bleeching ke baad taiyaar kiye jaate hain. aam taur par kurakuri aur bunaavat vaale linen ki ek moti aur patali banaavat hoti hai, lekin ye sakht aur khuradure se lekar narm aur mulaayam ho sakte hain. theek se taiyaar hone par, linen ke kapado mein jaldi se paani ko sokhane ki tatha use baahar nikaalne ki kshamata hoti hain. ye bina nami mahasoos kiye 20% tak aardrata sokh sakte hai.[tathya vaanchhit]

ashuddhataaon se mukt ho jaane par linen ki avashoshan ki kshamata badh jaati hai evam yeh tvacha se paseene ko jaldi sokh leta hai. linen ek sakht kapda hai evam yeh tvacha se chipkata naheen hai; jab yeh laharaata hai to sookhakar thanda ho jaata hai, taaki tvacha lagaataar ek sheetal satah ke sampark mein rahe. yeh behad tikaaoo, majboot kapda hai tatha sookhi avastha ke bajaay geeli avastha mein majboot rahane vaale kuchhek kapadon mein se ek hai. iske reshe khinchate naheen hain tatha ghis kar nasht bhi naheen hote. baharahaal, choonki lenin ke reshon mein lacheelaapan bahut kam hota hai, at: yadi baarambaar ek hi sthaan par istri kar tah lagaaya jaaya to antat: linen ke reshe toot sakte hain.

fafoond, paseena, evam bleech bhi kapde ko nuksaan pahuncha sakte hain, lekin yeh patangon evam keeton ka pratirodhi hai. linen ki dekhbhaal karna apekshaakrut roop se aasaan hai, choonki yeh dhool evam dhabbon ka pratirodhi hai, ismein roen ya ugharane ki pravrutti naheen hai tatha inhein draai clean kiya ja sakta hai, machine se dhoya ja sakta hai tatha bhaap se bhi saaf kiya ja sakta hai. yeh uchch taapamaan ko jhel sakta hai tatha ismein bahut hi halki-fulki aaranbhik sikudn hoti hai.[5]

linen ko lataka kar bahut jyaada naheen sukhaana chaahiye: ispar geeli avastha mein adhik aasaani se istri ki ja sakti hai. linen badi aasaani se sikudte hai, at: linen ke kuchh aupachaarik paridhaanon mein aksar istri karni padti hai taaki usaki narami aur chiknaai bani rahe. fir bhi, shikn padne ki is pravrutti ko aksar kapde ki vishisht "shobha" maana jaata hai tatha bahut se aadhunik linen paridhaan is tareeke se design kiye jaate hain ki unhein haingar par latakaakar sukhaaya ja sake tatha istri ke prayojan ke bina hi pahana ja sake.

samakaaleen linen dhaage se aksar judne waali ek pravrutti ismein "gaanthon" ki upasthiti hai, jo poore kapde mein betarateebi se maujood rahate hain. haalaanki, daraasal ye gaanthein nimn gunavatta ke kaaran hone vaale dosh hain. behatareen linen mein behad anuroop vyaas vaale dhaage hote hain, jinmein koi gaanth naheen hoti.

maap

thok linen dhaagon ka maanak maap li' hai, jo linen ke ek pound mein gaj ki sankhya hai jise 300 se vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke taur par 1 li ke aakaar wala ek yaarn 300 gaj prati pound dega. rumaal aadi mein istemaal kiye jaane vaale maheen gaj 40 li ke ho sakte hain evam prati pound 40X300 = 12,000 yaard dega. yeh ek vishisht lambaai hai at: linen ke maheenapan ka ek apratyaksh maapdand hai arthaat lambaai ki sankhya prati ikaai ki unit hai. iska prateek-chinh hai nel.(' 3)

mahaadveepeeya Europe mein adhik saamaanyat: maitrik pranaali, enaem (Nm) ka prayog kiya jaata hai. yeh prati kilogram 1,000 meter lambaai ki sankhya hai.

cheen mein angreji kapaas pranaali ikaai enaisi (NeC) adhik prachalit hai. yeh ek pound mein 840 yaard lambaai ki ek sankhya hai.

utpaadan vidhi

san plant ke vivran, jahaan se lenin ke faaibars praapt hote hain
Belgium mein yaantrik san ki kataai.baain or, san jo kataai ke liye pada hua hai.

taiyaar linen utpaad ki gunavatta aksar upaj ki avasthaaon evam kataai ki takaneek par nirbhar hai. yathaasanbhav lambe reshon ki utpatti ke liye san ko ya to poore paudhe ko ukhaadte hue haath se kaata jaata hai ya danthal ko jad ke ekdam paas se kaata jaata hai. fasal kataai ke uparaant beejon ko "ripling" naamak ek yantreekrut prakriya ke maadhyam se athva soop se fatak kar hataaya jaata hai.

iske baad danthal se reshon ko alag kiya jaata hai. ise apagalan ke dvaara alag kiya jata hai. yeh ek aisi prakriya hai jismein reshon ko jod kar rakhane vaale lase ko dheela karne ke liye baikteriya ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. praakrutik apagalan prakriya tankiyon evam taalaabon mein athva seedhe kheton mein ki jaati hai. raasaayanik apagalan ki vidhiyaan bhi hain; ye drut hoti hain lekin ye paryaavaran tatha swayam reshon ke liye bhi bahut haanikaarak hoti hain.

apagalan ke uparaant danthal kutaai ke liye taiyaar ho jaata hai, jise August evam December mein karte hain. do dhaatu rolaron ke beech kuchal kar kutaai karne se danthal ka lakdi wala ansh nikal jaata hai, taaki danthal ke hisson ko alag-alag kiya ja sake. reshe alag kar diye jaate hain tatha alasi, shive, tatha patasan aadi jaise anyaanya hisson ko doosare kaamon mein lagaane ke liye alag rakh diya jaata hai. fir reshon ke safaai ki jaati hai: chhote reshon ko sutali ki kanghi se "kanghi" kar alag kiya jaata hai aur san ke sirf lambe, narm reshon ko alag chhod diya jaata hai.

reshon ko alag tatha sansaadhit karne ke baad unhein kaat kar dhaaga bana kar buna jaata hai ya linen ke kapadon mein buna jaata hai. uske baad in kapadon ko bleech, rang kiya jaata hai evam unapar chhapaai ki jaati hai athva kuchh tareekon evam paraton se taiyaar kiya jaata hai.[5]

ek vaikalpik utpaadan vidhi ko "sooteekaran" ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jo tvarit evam kam upakaranon wala hota hai. san ke danthalon ko paramparaagat kapaas yantron ke istemaal se sansaadhit kiya jaata hai, taiyaar reshon mein aksar linen ki visheshataaen khtm ho jaati hain.

inhein bhi dekhein: hast sansaadhit san

utpaadak

san duniya ke kai hisson mein upajaaya jaata hai, lekin uchch gunavatta vaale san mukhya roop se pashchimi Europe mein upajaae jaate hain. bahut haal ke varshon mein thok linen utpaadan poorvi Europe tatha cheen mein bhi chala aaya hai, lekin uchch gunavatta vaale kapde ab bhi Ireland, Italy evam Belgium ke aala utpaadakon tak seemit hai. yeh Poland, ostriya, Belgium, France, Germany, Denmark, lithuaaniya, laativa, Netherland, Italy, Spain, svitjralaind, Britain evam Bhaarat ke kuchh hisson mein bhi upajaaya jaata hai. asabaab baajaar ke liye uchch gunavatta vaale linen ke kapadon ka utpaadan ab America mein hota hai.

prayog

pichhle 30 varshon mein linen ke prayog mein naatakeeya badlaav aaya hai. 1990 ke dashak mein takareeban 70% linen utpaadan vastr udyog ke liye hota tha, jabki 1970 ke dashak mein takareeban maatr 5% hi fashion paridhaanon ke liye istemaal hote the.

linen ka prayog chaadaron evam snaan vastron (mejposh, tashtari tauliye, chaadarein aadi), gruh evam vaanijyik sajja saamagriyon (vaulapepar, Wall kavaring, asabaab, parde aadi), paridhaan saamagriyon (salavaar, vastr, skart, shart aadi) se lekar audyogik utpaadon (saamaanon, kainavas, silaai ka soota aadi) tak ke liye hota hai.[4] yeh kabhi shikaari jooton (lofaron) ke oopari hisse ko haath se silne ke liye upayog mein laaya jaata tha, lekin ab iske prayog ka sthaan rasaayanik kapadon ne le liya hai.

20veen shataabdi ke poorvaarddh ke adhiktam hisse mein linen rumaal ka istri kar tah lagaaya hua kinaara kisi saje-sanvare purush ke paridhaan ki maanak shobha hua karta tha.

haal mein shodhakarta kapaas/san ke ek mishran par kaam kar rahe hain taaki ek aise nae dhaage ka nirmaan kiya ja sake jo garm evam aardr mausam mein sooti kapde ke ehsaas ko aur behtar bana sake.[6]

linen ke kapde tail-chitron ke liye ek pasandeeda paaramparik chayan rahe hain. America mein linen adhik mahanga hone ke kaaran kapaas ka prayog adhik lokapriya hai. linen ka prayog keval peshevar chitrakaar hi karte hain. haalaanki Europe mein kala dukaanon mein aam taur par linen ek maatr upalabdh kapda hua karta hai. linen majboot, tikaaoo evam abhilekheeya akhandata wala hone ke kaaran adhik pasandeeda hota hai.

linen ko bekar kaareegaron dvaara bhi khoob istemaal mein laaya jaata hai. kaauch ke roop mein parichit san ka kapda bek karne se theek pehle aate ke gole ko pakadne ke kaam mein laaya jaata hai. kaauch ko aate mein khoob lapeta jaata hai, jise kapde ke poron mein mala jaata hai. iske baad aakaar wala aate ka gola kaauch par rakha jaata hai. aate mein lipta kaauch aate ke gole ko pakadne ke liye ek "gair chipkaaoo" satah banaata hai. uske baad kaauch mein chotiyaan banaai jaati hain taaki aate ke gole ko failane se roka ja sake. yeh /\o/\o/\o/\o/\ jaisa dikhta hai, jismein "o" aate ka gola hai evam /\/\/\/\ tah kiya hua kaauch hai.

pehle linen kitaabon ke liye bhi istemaal kiya jaata tha (jiska ekamaatr jeevit udaaharan libr linteeas hai). madhya yug mein iski majabooti ke kaaran linen ko dhaalon evam kavachon (galahi aadi ki tarah istemaal ke liye) ke liye istemaal kiya jaata tha, lagbhag usi tarah jaise shaastreeya puraatanata evam yoonaani grees mein linen ka prayog shastr-sajjit paidal sainikon ke kavach banaane mein kiya jaata tha. geeli avastha mein iski majabooti ke kaaran bhi, haathon se paseene ki nami sokh lene ki kshamata ki vajah se aayarish linen pool/biliyrd sanketon ko lapetne ke kaam mein laaya jaata tha. linen se bane kaagaj behad majboot evam kurakure ho sakte hain. isi vajah se America aur bahut se anya desh apni mudraaen 25% linen evam 75% kapaas se bane kaagaj par mudrit karte hain.

itihaas

praacheen kaal mein misr ke logon dvaara mami banaane ke liye linen ka prayog kiya jaata tha. misr ke log linen ka istemaal kafn ke roop mein karte the. iske alaava, paadari keval linen se bane vastr hi dhaaran karte the evam bhakton ko mandir mein tabhi pravesh karne diya jaata tha, yadi unhonne linen ka vastr pahan rakha ho. shataabdiyon se linen ka prayog mejposhon, chaadaron evam paridhaanon ke liye hota raha hai. linen ki khaasiyat dhaagon ke saath kaam karne ki kathinaai evam uske nirmaan mein lagne vaale samay se paida hoti hai (san ko upajaana apne aap mein ek behad mushkil kaam hai). san ke dhaage lochadaar naheen hote, at: dhaagon ko tootane dene bina bunaai karna mushkil hai. at: iska vinirmaan kapaas ke mukaabale adhik mahanga hai.

the living linen project ki sthaapana 1995 mein aayarish linen udyog ke maukhik abhilekh ke gyaan ke roop mein hui, jo alstar mein is udyog mein pehle kaam kar chuke kuchh logon ke beech ab bhi upalabdh hai. Ireland mein linen ka ek lamba itihaas hai.

36,000 bi.pi.(B.P.) mein jaurjiya ki ek gufa mein mrut san ke reshon ki khoj se yeh pata chalta hai ki log praacheen kaal se hi linen ki tarah ke kapde banaane ke liye jangali san ke reshon ka istemaal karte rahe hain.[7][8] pujaariyon ke vastron ke liye linen ka istemaal keval ijaraailiyon tak hi seemit naheen tha. isa ke janm ke baad sau varsh tak jeevit rahane vaale plootaarch ne likha hai ki aaisis ke pujaari iski pavitrata ke kaaran linen dhaaran karte the.

December 2006 mein America ki aam sabha ne 2009 ko praakrutik reshon ka antarraashtreeya varsh ghoshit kiya taaki linen evam anyaanya praakrutik reshon ki profaail ko badhaava diya ja sake.

puraatanata

1881 mein jab 1213 E.poo. mare fraao raimases dviteeya ki kbr ki khoj hui, to lagbhag 3000 varshon baad bhi linen ka lapetan sateek sanrakshan ki avastha mein mila tha.

belafaast pustakaalaya mein pujaari emon ki putri "kaabuli" ki ek mami sanrakshit ki hui hai, jiski maut 2,500 varsh poorv hui thi. is mami ke oopar ka linen ab bhi bilkul sahi avastha mein hai. jab tutaanakaamen ki kabr ko khola gaya, to linen ke parade barkaraar paae gaye the.

praacheenatam linen udyog

roman saamraajya bhar mein 3 gred ke liye keematon mein dikhta fatwa prabhaavashaali baaths 4sadi ki adhiktam keematein dikhaate hue

puraane dinon mein, lagbhag har desh mein pratyek parivaar dvaara san ki kheti ki jaati thi evam apne upayog ke liye usaki bunaai ki jaati thi; lekin kisi sthaapit linen udyog ka praacheenatam record misr ka 4,000 varsh puraana hai.[kab?] linen udyog ka praacheenatam likhit pralekh pilos, grees ke liniyr bi (B) goliyon se milta hai jahaan linen ko ek sanket chinh ke roop mein darshaaya gaya hai evam "ri-no" (greek:λaaίaaνaaοaaν, linon) ke roop mein bhi likha gaya hai evam mahila linen karmiyon ko "ri-ne-ja" (λaaίaaνaaεaaιaaα, liniya) ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai.[9][10]

foneshiya vaalon ne, jinhonne kaurnavaul ke tin khaanon ke vikaas ke alaava apni vaanijyik udaanon dvaara bhoomadhya ke logon ke liye vaanijya ke nae avsaron ke raaste prashast kiye, san upajaana aur aam yug se pehle Ireland mein linen banaana shuroo kiya, lekin ek pratishthit udyog ki sthaapana ke viruddh un praarambhik dinon bhi erin mein prachalit aatanrik matabhed shuroo ho gaye, evam baarahaveen shataabdi tak hamein vyavasthit san utpaadan ke kisi nishchit prayaas ka abhilekh praapt naheen hota.

1685 E. mein jab neintas ka fatwa vaapas le liya gaya, to desh se bhaag gaye bahut se hugooenauts british dveepon mein bas gaye evam luis kromelin unheen mein se ek the, jinki paidaaish evam paravarish kaimabrei shahar mein maheen linen bunakar ke roop mein hui thi. ve alstar chale gaye aur antat: belafaast se takareeban das meal door avasthit ek chhote se shahar lisbarn mein bas gaye. samooche itihaas mein swayam belafaast linen utpaadan ka sanbhavat: sabse vikhyaat kendra hai. Victoria yug mein duniya bhar ka jyaadaatar linen isi shahar mein utpaadit hota tha, jisse iska naam linenapolis pad gaya.

paravarti yuddh ke dauraan kaimabrei sabse betaab ladaaiyon ke kendron mein se ek roop mein prasiddh hua. "kaimabrik" naam isi shahar se vyutpann hua hai.

haalaanki alstar mein linen udyog pehle se hi sthaapit ho chuka tha, luis kromelin ko bunaai mein sudhaar karne ka mauka mila evam unki koshishein itni kaamayaab huin ki unhein sarkaar dvaara is udyog ko lisbarn evam iske aaspaas ke kshetron ke seemit daayare se pare aur adhik bade paimaane par viksit karne ke liye niyukt kiya gaya. unke achhe kaam ke seedhe nateeje ke roop mein varsh 1711 mein Ireland ke linen nirmaataaon ke nyaasi board ki vidhismmat sthaapana hui.

dharm

yahoodi dharm mein kinhi do kapadon ki ek saath bunaai ko lekar vidyamaan ekamaatr kaanoon linen aur oon ke mishran ke sambandh mein hi hai. is mishran ko shaatanej kaha jaata hai aur sakht hidaayat hai "tum milaavati vastu na dhaaran karo, balki oon aur linen ko saath mein dhaaran karo" evam,"'...do prakaar ki milaavati cheej dhaaran kar bhi vahaan na aao.'"Deuteronomy 22:11Leviticus 19:19 swayam toraah mein bhi iski koi vyaakhya naheen hai evam ise chukim naamak kaanoon ke ek prakaar ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai, jise samajhna maanaveeya yogyata se pare ki baat hai.[11] josefas ne kaha hai ki is varjan ka kaaran saansaarik logon ko pujaariyon ke pahanaave ko dhaaran karne se rokana tha. jabki maimonaaids ke anusaar iska kaaran paradharmaavalambi pujaariyon dvaara aise milaavati paridhaanon ko pahanana tha.[12][13] kuchh doosare log varnan karte hain ki Bhagwan sadaiv aisi visham prakaar ki vastuon ko milaane se mana karte hain, jo Bhagwan dvaara naheen banaae gaye. is mat ke anusaar pashu evam sabjiyon ke reshon ko milaana vaisa hi hai, jaise do bhinn prakaar ke pashuon ko ek saath jota ja raha ho. evam yeh ki is tarah ke aadesh vyaavahaarik ke saath-saath anyokti-sambandhi uddeshya bhi poore karte hain. yahaan sanbhavat: pujaareenuma paridhaan ko pahanane se roka ja raha hai, jo garm mausam mein asuvidhaajanak (ya atyadhik paseene vaale) ho sakte hain.[14] linen ka ullekh baaibal ke 31vein kahaavat ke us ansh mein bhi hai, jahaan ek mahaan patni ka varnan kiya gaya hai. 31:22 kahaavat mein likha hai, "vah apna bistar banaati hai; vah baigani rang vaale maheen linen ka vastr pahane hue hai."

vyutpatti

linen shabd ki vyutpatti san ke paudhe ke liye prayukt laitin shabd linm tatha poorvavarti greek linaun shabd se hui hai. is shabd ke itihaas ne kai anya shabdon ko janm diya hai:

  • line (Line) shabd ek seedhi rekha banaane ke liye linen dhaage ke istemaal se vyutpann hua hai.
  • linimeint (Liniment) shabd san ke beejon ke maheen lep ke kaaran bana, jo maansapeshiyon mein dard se raahat ke liye tvacha par mala jaata hai.
  • lining (Lining) shabd oon evam chamade ke vastron mein astar daalne ke liye aksar hone vaale linen ke prayog ke kaaran bana.
  • lingari (Lingerie) fraanseesi bhaasha se aayaatit shabd hai, jo linen se bane adhovastron ke liye prayukt hota hai.
  • linseed tel (Linseed) san ke beejon se nikalne wala ek tel.
  • linoliym (Linoleum), alasi ke tel evam anya saamagriyon se bana ek galeecha.

iske alaava, halke ujjaval sunahare baalon waali baala ke liye prayukt angreji ka shabd flaiksen-heyard (flaxen-haired) kachche san ke reshon se usaki tulana se bana hai.

baahari links

sandarbh

  1. M. baultar (2009). kloths mek the (hu) main. vigyaan,325(5946):1329.doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a
  2. 2009).30,000 varsheeya vanya san faaibar. vigyaan, 325(5946): 1359. doi:10.1126/science.1175404sahaayak saamagri online
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  9. san aur linen tekstaails in the mysaniyn palatiyl ikaunomi
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  13. guide too the parapleksd 3:37
  14. jamiyesan, fauset, brown kameintari, elavi. 19:19

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