li korbujiye

Charles eduaar jiaannere-gri
li korbujiye
vyaktigat jaankaari
naam Charles eduaar jiaannere-gri
li korbujiye
raashtreeyata Swiss / fraanseesi
janm tithi 6 October 1887
janm sthaan la shau-de-fau, Switzerland
mrutyu tithi August 27, 1965(1965-08-27) (umr 77)
mrutyu sthaan raukabroon-kai-maarteen, fraans
kaarya
ullekhaneeya imaaratein vila saivauya, fraans
notre dem du hau, fraans
Chandigarh, Bhaarat mein imaaratein

Charles eduaar jiaannere-gri, jo khud ko li korbujiye kahalaana pasand karte the (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), ek Swiss-fraanseesi aarkitekt, rachanaakaar, nagaravaadi, lekhak va rangakaar, the aur ek nai vidha ke agrani the, jise aajkal aadhunik aarkitekchar ya antarraashtreeya shaili kaha jaata hai. inka janm svitjrlaind mein hua tha, lekin 30 varsh ki aayu ke baad ve fraanseesi naagrik ban gaye.

aadhunik uchch rachana ki padhaai ke ye agrani the aur bheed bhaad vaale shaharon mein behtar sthitiyaaain banaane ke prati samarpit the. unka kaarya paaainch dashakon mein nihit tha aur unki imaarate keindreeya Europe, Bhaarat, roos au uttar va dakshin amareeka mein ek ek theen. ve ek nagar niyojak, chitrakaar, moortikaar, lekhak, va aadhunik frneechar rachanaakaar bhi the.

anukram

jeevan

praarambhik jeevan va shiksha, 1887-1913

inka janm hone par Charles eduaar jiaannere-gri naam diya gaya. janmasthali thi la shau-de-faun, jo ki nyooshaate kaintan mein pashchimottari svitjrlaind mein jura parvatamaala, ke beech hai, yeh jagah fraans ki sarhad se keval paaainch kilometer ke raaste par hai. inhonne frobeliyaai vidhiyon ka prayog karne waali ek paathashaala mein padhaai ki.

li korbujiye drashtavya kalaaon ke prati aakarshit the aur unhonne budaapest va peris mein padhe shaarl leeplaatteniya ke adheen la shau de faun kala vidyaalaya mein padhaai ki. kala vidyaalaya mein unke aarkitekchar ke shikshak the rene shapala aur unki praarambhik krutiyon par inka gahra asar raha.

praarambhik varshon mein apne shahar ke kuchh sankeern maahaul se nikalne ke liye ve Europe bhraman karte. 1907 ke aaspaas ve peris gaye, jahaaain unhein sariyaajadit kankreet ke praneta ogast pere ke daftar mein kaam mila. October 1910 aur March 1911 ke daramiyaan unhonne barlin ke aarkitekt Peter behreins ke saath kaam kiya aur yaheen par ve ludvig miyes vain der rohe va vaultar gropiys se mile honge. unhonne jarman mein nipunata haasil ki. ye dono anubhav bhavishya mein unke kaarya ko prabhaavit karne vaale the.

1911 ka ant aate aate ve baalkan pradesh mein gaye aur yoonaan va Turkey ho ke aae, vahaaain unhonne jo dekha usase unki abhyaasapustikaaeain bhar gain. inmein khaas the paarthenan ke kuchh mashahoor rekhaachitr, is imaarat ki taareef unhonne baad mein apni kruti ek aarkitekchar ki or (1923) mein ki.

praarambhik kaarya: vila, 1914-1930

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan li korbujiye ne la shau-de-faun ke apne puraane vidyaalaya mein adhyaapan kiya aur yuddh khatm hone par peris vaapas laute. svitjrlaind mein in chaar varshon mein unhonne saiddhaantik aarkitekchar par aadhunik takaneekon ke jariye kaam kiya.[1] inmein se ek tha "daum-ino house" (1915-1915) ke liye ek pariyojana. is model mein ek khuli tal yojana thi jismein ki kankreet ke slaib the, jo kinaare kinaare nyoonatam patale sariyaajadit kankreet ke khanbon ke jariye tike the aur har frsh par ek kinaare par seedhiyon ke jariye jaaya ja sakta tha.

agale das saal ke unke vaastukaari ke liye yeh rachana hi aadhaar bani. jaldi hi unhonne apne bhaai piyere jaunnere (1896-1967) ke saath vaastukaari ka kaam shuroo kiya, yeh bhaageedaari 1940 tak chali.

1918 mein li korbujiye niraash kyoobavaadi chitrakaar amedei ojenfaaain se mile, inmein unhein apne jaisa junoon dikha. ojenfraaain ne unhein chitrakaari karne ko protsaahit kiya aur is prakaar donon ne kuchh samay ka sahayog aarambh kiya. kyoobavaad ko ataarkik va "roomaani" kah ke tirskrut karte is jodi ne apna prastaav apre le kyoobisme prakaashit kiya aur ek naya kalaatmak aandolan, shuddhataavaad shuroo hua. ojenfaaain va jaunnare ne shuddhataavadi patrika lespri novyoo ki sthaapana ki. vah kyoobavaadi kalaakaar frnaan lej ke achhe mitr the.

upanaam chuna, 1920

patrika ke pehle ank mein shaarl-eduva jiaannere ne apne liye ek upanaam chuna, jo ki unke naana "lekorbesiye" ke naam ka ek badla hua roop tha - "li korbujiye", yeh unki is maanyata ke aadhaar par tha ki koi bhi apne aapko punaraavishkrut kar sakta hai. kuchh itihaasavidon ka kehna hai ki is upanaam ka arth hai " kauaa-jaisa."[2] khaastaur par peris mein us samay kai kalaakaaron dvaara apni pehchaan ke liye keval ek hi naam chunane ka prachalan tha.

1918 aur 1922 ke beech li korbujiye ne kuchh naheen banaaya, ve keval shuddhataavaadi siddhaanton aur chitrakaari mein lage rahe. 1922 mein li korbujiye aur jiaannere ne 35 ryoo de sevre mein ek studio khola.[1]

unka saiddhaantik adhyayan jald hi ek parivaar vaale gharon ki yojanaaon mein parivrtit hua. unamein ek tha, meisaaain "sitrohaaain", jo ki fraanseesi car nirmaata sitroeain par aadhaarit tha, kyonki is ghar ko banaane ke liye li korbujiye ne aadhunik audyogik vidhiyon aur padaarthon ki himaayat ki thi. yahaaain li korbujiye ne teen manjila dhaaaincha prastaavit kiya, jismein dohari-ooainchaai ka mukhya kaksh, doosari manjil par shayan kaksh aur teesare par rasoi thi. chhat par dhoop ke liye khuli jagah thi. baahar ki taraf doosari manjil par chadhne ke liye seedhi thi. is avadhi ki aur pariyojanaaon ki tarah, yahaaain bhi unhonne aisi deevaarein banaain jinmein ki badi badi bina avarodh ki khidkiyon ka praavadhaan ho. ghar ka aakaar chaukor tha aur jin baahari deevaaron mein khidkiyaaain naheen thi, unhein safed stakod sthaan ki tarah rakha gaya. li korbujiye aur jiaannere ne ghar ke andar kaafi kuchh khaali rakha, saare frneechar ke dhaaainche tube waali dhaatuon ke the. raushani ke liye kaval ek ek bina shed ke balb the. andar ki deevaarein bhi safed hi theen. 1922 aur 1927 ke beech li korbujiye aur piyere jiaannere ne peris ke aaspaas kai muvakkilon ke liye aise makaanon ki rachana ki. bolon-su-scene aur peris ke 16vein errondismein mein li kaarboojiyr aur piyere jiyennere ne vila lipshi, mesaaain cook (William Edwards cook dekhein), mesaaain pleni aur mesaaain la rosh/alber jiaannere (jismein ab faundeshan li kaarboojiyr hai) ki rachana aur nirmaan kiya.

li korbujiye ne 1930 mein fraanseesi naagarikta le li.[1]

das fraink ke not par tasveer

nagaravaad ki or

kai saalon tak fraanseesi adhikaari peris ki jhuggiyon ki gandagi se asafalataapoorvak joohjte rahe. nagar mein gharon ki kami ko poora karne ke liye li kaarboojiyr ne kai tareeke soche taaki adhik se adhik logon ko ghar mil sakein. unka maanana tha ki unke nae vaastushilpi sudhaar ek naya sangathaneeya samaadhaan pradaan kareinge jisse ki nimn varg ke logon ka jeevan star behtar ho sakega. unka imoobyel vila (1922) ek aisi hi pariyojana thi jismein koshika jaise ghar ek ke oopar ek bane hue the, inmein ek mukhya kamara, shayan kaksh va rasoi tatha bageecha tha.

keval kuchh gharon ki rachana karne se santusht na ho ke li korbujiye ne sampoorn nagaron ka adhyayan shuroo kiya. 1922 mein unhonne 30 lakh logon ki "aadhunik nagari" (vile konteinporain) ki yojana prastut ki. is yojana ke kendra mein tha saath manjila gaganachunbiyaaain, jo ki steel ke dhaaainche ke daftaron ki imaaratein thi aur inki deevaarein kaaainch ki thi. ye imaaratein bade, chaukor udyaan roopi hare kshetron ke beech mein thi. theek beech mein ek yaataayaat kendra tha, jismein alag alag staron par bas, train, va sadkon ke chauraahe the aur sabse oopar ek havaai adda tha. unki yeh maanyata thi ki vyaavasaayik havaaijahaaj gagan chunbiyon ke beech utar paaeainge. li korbujiye ne paidal raaste sadkon se alag kiye aur yaataayaat ke liye kaaron ko adhik maanyata di. keindreeya gagan chunbiyon se door jaate jaate chhote, kam ooainchaai vaale ghar shuroo hote the jo ki sadak se thodi door hariyaali mein bane the, jahaaain naagrik rahate the. li korbujiye ki aasha thi ki raajanaitik-mahatvaakaanksha vaale fraanseesi udyogapati is disha mein aage badheinge aur telaravaadi va fordavaadi neetiyon ka Amreeki udyogon se nakal kar ke samaaj ko naya roop deinge. naurma iveinsan na kaha hai, "prastaavit shahar kuchh logon ke liye ek mahatvaakaankshi dooradrushti thi aur kuchh auron ke liye prachalit naagrik vaatavaran ka ek vishaal asveekaran."[3]

is nae audyogik maahaul mein li korbujiye ne ek nai patrika "lespri novyoo" mein yogadaan diya, aadhunik audyogik takaneekon ke istemaal ki himaayat ki gayi aur samaaj ko ek adhik prabhaavi vaataavaran mein parivrtit karne ki bhi himaayat hui, jasase ki sabhi saamaajik-aarthik staron mein jeevan behtar ho sake. unhonne yeh daleel di ki is badlaav na hone par vidroh bhadak sakta hai, jo samaaj ko hila ke rakh dega. unka brahmavaakya, "vaastushilp ya kraanti", jo ki is patrika ke lekhon ke aadhaar par taiyaar hua, unheen ki pustak "va un aarkitekchar" ("ek vaastushilp ki or," jiska pehle angreji mein "ek nae vaastushilp ki or" naam se galat anuvaad hua tha, isi vichaar ko aage badhaati hai, is pustak mein unke "lespri novyoo" mein 1920 se 1923 ke beech chhape lekh hain. is kitaab mein li korbujiye par vaaltar gropiys ka prabhaav dikhta hai aur unhonne ismein kai uttar Amreeki kaarkhaanon va anaaj vaahak ki tasveerein bhi chhaapi hain.[4]

saiddhaantik naagrik yojanaaon mein li korbujiye ki dilchaspi bani rahi. 1925 mein ek aur vaahan nirmaata dvaara praayojit hone par unhonne "plaaain voiseen" ka pradarshan kiya. ismein unhonne scene ke uttar mein adhiktar keindreeya peris ko tod kar apne aadhunik nagar ke saath manjili gaganachunbiyon ko sthaapit karne ki yojana prastaavit ki. ye imaaratein chaukor khaanon mein baagon ki hariyaali mein hoteen aur aaspaas sadkein. fraans ke netaaon aur udyogapatiyon ne is yojana ki chheechhaaledar hi ki, haalaaainki ve in rachanaaon ke peechhe ke telaravaad va fordavaad ke himaayati hi the. fir bhi iske jariye shahar ke ghichpich vaale aur gande ilaakon se nipatne se sambandhit charchaaeain to chhidi hi.

1930 ke dashak mein li korbujiye ne nagaravaad ke apne vichaaron ko aur vistrut va parimaarjit kiya aur antat: 1935 mein "la vil rediyoos" (ojasvi nagar) mein prakaashit kiya. shaayad aadhunik nagar va ojasvi nagar mein sabse bada frk yeh tha ki nae vichaar mein varg aadhaarit vibhaajan naheen hai, makaan parivaar ke aakaar ke aadhaar par nishchit kiye gaye hain, aarthik sthiti ke aadhaar par naheen.[5] "la vil rediyoos" se li korbujiye ka arthavaad se asantushti ki or mod ka bhi pata chalta hai, ab ve hyoobart lagardel ke daam-panthi sindiklavaad ki or sammukh hue. vichi shaasan ke dauraan li korbujiye ko ek yojana samiti mein sthaan mila aur unhonne aljiyrs va anya shaharon ki rachana ki. kendra sarkaar ne unki rachanaaon ko asveekaar kiya aur 1942 ke baad li korbujiye ne raajanaitik gatividhiyon mein bhaag lena band kar diya.[6]

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad, li korbujiye ne apni naagrik yojanaaon ko chhote star par laagoo karne ke liye fraans ke kuchh ilaakon mein "yoonite"(ojasvi nagar ki ek rihaaishi ikaai) ki ek shrunkhala ka nirmaan kiya. inmein sabse mashahoor thi maarsili ki yoonite the haabiteshau (1946-1952). 1950 ke dashak mein ojasvi nagar ko ek vishaal roop mein saakaar karne ka asar Chandigarh ke nirmaan ke dauraan mila. yeh shahar Punjab aur Haryana naamak bhaarateeya raajyon ki rajdhani thi. albart mayor ki yojana ka kriyaanvayan karne ke liye li kaarboojiyr ko bulaaya gaya.

mrutyu

doctoron ke nirdeshon ko na maanate hue 27 August 1965 ko li korbujiye rokabroon-kai-maarteen, fraans mein bhoomadhya saagar mein tairane chale gaye. unka shav anya tairaakon ko mila aur unhein 11 baje mrut ghoshit kar diya gaya. yeh maana gaya ki unhein satattar varsh ki aayu mein dil ka daura pada hai. unka antim sanskaar loovr mahal ke ahaate mein 1 September 1965 ko lekhak va vichaarak Andre maalarau ke nirdeshan mein sampann hua, ve us samay fraans ke sanskruti mantri the.

li korbujiye ki mrutyu ka saanskrutik va raajanaitik duniya mein bahut gahra prabhaav pada. aur kala ki duniya mein li korbujiye ke sabse bade virodhi, jaise ki salvador daali ne bhi unki mahatta ko pahachaana (daali ne pushpaanjali di). us samay ke sanyukt raajya ke raashtrapati lindan bi jaansan ne kaha : "unka prabhaav vaishvik tha aur unke dvaara kiye kaaryon mein aisa sthaayitv hai jo ki itihaas mein kuchh hi kalaakaar de paae hain." Japani TV channelon ne sanskaar ka seedha prasaaran tokyo ke paashchaatya kala ka raashtreeya sangrahaalaya mein kiya, us samay ke liye yeh samaachaar maadhyamon dvaara anokhi shraddhaanjali thi.

unki kabr dakshin fraans mein meintan va monaako ke beech rokbroon-kai-maarteen mein kabragaah mein hai.

fondeshan li korbujiye (ya ऍfऍlasi) unki aadhikaarik kaaryakaarini ke taur par kaam karti hai[7]. fondeshan li li korbujiye mein sanyukt raajya sarvaadhikaar ka aadhikaarik pratinidhi aartists raaits society[8] hai.

vichaar

vaastushilp ke paaainch bindu

li korbujiye ki vila sevoya (1929-1931) ne unke vaastushilp sambandhi paaainch binduon ka saaraansh pradaan kiya hai. in binduon ke baare mein unhonne apni patrika lespri novyoo aur pustak vars oon aarkitekchar mein likha hai, inka vikaas ve 1920 ke dashak mein kar rahe the. pehla, li korbujiye ne adhiktar dhaaainche ko jameen ke oopar kar diya, sahaare ke liye pilotiyon – sariyaajadit kankreet ke khanbe ke jariye. ye piloti ghar ka dhaaaincha sanbhaalate aur inki badaulat agali do binduon ko samarthan milta - ek mukt deevaal, yaani aisi deevaarein jinhein vajn uthaani ki zaroorat na ti aur vaastushilpi unhein jaise chaahe bana sakta tha aur ek khula frsh, yaani har frsh ko jaise chaahe kamron mein baaainta ja sakta tha, deevaaron ki chinta karne ki zaroorat naheen thi. vila sevauya ki doosari manjil mein khidkiyon ki lambi pattiyaaain ti jo ki chaaron aur maujood khaali sthaan ko bina avarodh ke dekhne mein madad karateen. yeh khaali sthaan unki pranaali ki chauthi bindu tha. paaainchavi bindu hai chhat par baageecha - imaarat ne jo hariyaali nasht ki uske evaj mein chhat par hariyaali. nichle star se teesari manjil ki chhat tak jaata ek rainp dhaaainche ko ek vaastushilpi praumined pradaan karta hai. safed naleedaar reling "samadri jahaaj" waali audyogik sundarata ki yaad dilaata hai jo li korbujiye ko bahut pasand thi. aadhunik udyog ko shraddhanjali pradaan karti hui vismayakaari cheej thi nichle tal par gaadi le jaane nikaalne ki jagah, jo ki ardhagolaakaar thi aur golaai 1927 ki sitroeain gaadi ke ghumaav ke aadhaar par banaai gayi thi.

maudyulor

chitr:Modulor-Modulor2.jpg
"maudyulor" aur "maudyulor 2" ka sheershak

li korbujiye ne vaastushilpi anupaat ki naap ke liye apne maudyulor pranaali mein sunahare anupaat ka istemaal kiya. is pranaali ko unhonne vitruviys, liyonaardo the vinchi ke "vitruviyn purush", lion batista albarti aur anyon ke kaam ko aage badhaane ki tarah hi maana, jo ki vaastushilp ke pradarshan aur kaam ko sudhaarane mein maanav shareer ke anupaaton ka prayog karte aa rahe the. sunahare anupaat ke alaava, li kaarboojiyr ne is pranaali ko maanaveeya naap, fibonaachi sankhyaaeain, va dohari ikaai ke jariye bhi sudhaara.

ve liyonaardo ke maanaveeya anupaato mein sunahare anupaat ke sujhaav ko doosari had tak le gaye. unhonne maanav shareer ki lanbaai ko naabhi par do vibhaagon mein sunahare anupaat ke aadhaar par vibhaajit kiya, fir in vibhaagon ko pairon va gale par fir se sunahare anupaat mein vibhaajit kiya; in sunahare anupaaton ka unhonne maudyulor pranaali mein istemaal kiya.

li korbujiye ki 1927 ki gaarche mein vila stein, modyoolor pranaali ka udaaharan bani. shahar ka chaukaur aakaar, ooainchaai aur aantarik dhaaaincha andaajn sunahare chaukoron ke baraabar hain.[9]

li korbujiye ne anupaat va taaratamya ki pranaaliyon ko apni rachana darshan ke kendra mein rakha aur unka brahmaand ke ganiteeya vidhaan mein aastha sunahare anupaat aur fibonaachi shrunkhala se juda tha, inhein ve "aaainkhon ke saamane maujood laya aur aapas mein sambandhon mein bhi spasht. aur ye laya hi manushya ki sabhi gatividhiyon ka aadhaar hain. ye manushya mein avashyambhaavi hai, yahi avashyanbhaavita bachchon, boodhon aur asabhyon aur shikshiton dvaara sunahare anupaat ki khoj va prayog se judi hai."[10]

frneechar

li korbujiye ne kaha tha: "kursiyaaain vaastushilp hain, sofe burjuaa."

li korbujiye ne frneechar rachana ke saath prayog 1928 mein shuroo kiye jab unhonne vaastushilpi shaarlot periyaaain ko apne studio mein aamantrit kiya. unke bhaai piyre jaaainnare ne bhi kai rachanaaon mein yogadaan diya. periyaaain ke pehle apne pariyojanaaon mein li korbujiye bane banaae frneechar ka istemaal karte the, jaise ki thone dvaara nirmit chhote frneechar ke saamaan. yeh company unki rachanaaon ka 1930 ke dashak mein nirmaan karti thi.

1928 mein li korbujiye aur periyaaain, li korbujiye ki 1925 ki pustak "la dekoreti daujoordhui" mein diye nirdeshon ko amal mein laane lage. is pustak mein teen prakaar ke frneechar varnit te - "prakaar-zaroori", "prakaar-frneechar" aur "maanaveeya-ang". maanaveeya-ang vastuon ki unhonne yeh paribhaasha di thi "hamaare haath pair ki tarah hi aur maanaveeya kaamon ke liye prayukt. prakaar-zaroori, prakaar-kaarya, at: prakaar-vastu aur prakaar-frneechar. maanaveeya-ang vastu ek aajnyaaakaari naukar hai. achha naukar kaam bhi karta hai aur apne svaami ke raaste mein naheen aata hai. nishchit hi kalaakrutiyaaain, upakaran hain, sundar upakaran. aur bhali bhaaainti chune, sahi anupaat mein bane, raaste mein atakaav na banane vaale aur chupachaap kaam karne vaale ye upakaran lambe chaleinge".

is sahayog ke pehle parinaam the teen krom-chadhi naleedaar steel ki kursiyaaain, jo unki do pariyojanaaon ke liye taiyaar ki gayi theen - peris ki meison la rosh aur baarbar va henri church ke liye ek peviliyn. li korbujiye ke 1929 selon daatomne, "ghar ke liye upakaran" pariyojana ke liye is frneechar ko aur vistrut kiya gaya.

1964 mein li korbujiye ke jeevan kaal mein hi Milan ki kasina ऍsapeee ne unki sabhi frneechar rachanaaon ke nirmaan ke vaishvik adhikaar praapt kar liye. aaj ke din kai pratiyaaain maujood hain, lekin kasini hi ekamaatr utpaadak hai jise "fondeshan li korbujiye" dvaara adhikaar praapt hain.

raajaneeti

li korbujiye 1930 ke dashak mein fraaseesi raajaneeti ke charam-dakshinpanthiyon mein shaamil hue. unhonne George veloi or hyoobart lagardel ke saath sahayog kiya aur kuchh samay ke liye sindiklist patrika prelyood ke sampaadak bhi rahe. 1934 mein unhonne rom mein vaastushilp par ek bhaashan diya, jiske liye unhein benito musolini ne bulaaya tha. naagrik yojana mein unhonne vichi shaasan se jagah maaaingi aur unhein nagaravaad par adhyayan karne waali ek samiti mein sthaan diya gaya. unhonne aljiyrs ki punarrachana ki yojanaaeain banaain, inmein unhonne yooropiynon aur afreekiyon ke rahan sahan mein frk maanane ka virodh kiya aur is baat ka varnan kiya ki yahaaain "'sabhya' log choohon ki tarah bilon mein rahate hain aur "jaahil" log ekaant mein maje se rahate hain."[11] yeh yojana aur anya shaharon ki punarrachana ki yojanaaeain najrandaaj ki gain. is haar ke baad li korbujiye raajaneeti se praay: door hi rahai.

haalaaainki lagardel aur veloi ki raajaneeti mein faaseevaad, yahoodi-virodheevaad aur upper-aadhunikvaad ke ansh the, li korbujiye ka in sab aandolanon se kitna judaav tha yeh kehna kathin hai. 'la vil rediyoos mein ve ek araajanaitik samaaj ki parikalpana karte hain, jismein aarthik prashaasan ki naukarashaahi poori tarah se raajya ka sthaan le leti hai.[12]

li korbujiye unneesaveen sadi ke fraanseesi yootopiyaaion sein-simon va Charles fooriyr se kaafi prabhaavit the. yoonite aur fooriyr ke flantsari mein kaafi samaanata hai.[13] fooriyr se li korbujiye ne kam se kam aanshik roop se raajanaitik ke bajaay prashaasanik sarkaar ka vichaar liya.

aalochanaaeain

mrutyoparaant li korbujiye ke yogadaan par kaafi vivaad hua hai, kyonki vaastushilp moolya aur isse jude parimaan aadhunik vaastushilp mein kaafi alag alag hai, alag alag vichaaradhaaraaon mein bhi aur alag alag vaastushilpon mein bhi.[14] nirmaan ke sthar par unke baad ke kaam se aadhunikta ke jatil prabhaav ki achhi samajh prakat hoti hai, lekin unki naagrik rachanaaon ki kaiyon ne aalochna bhi ki hai.

takaneeki itihaasavid va vaastushils maseekshak Louis mamaford ne beete kal ka aane vaale kal ka shahar mein kehte hain,

li korbujiye ki gaganachunbiyon ki mahatvaakaankshi ooainchaaiyon ka koi abhipraaya tha hi naheen, sivaaya iske ki ye takaneeki roop se sambhav theen; keindreeya kshetron mein maujood khule sthaanon ka rakhana bhi akaaranavash hi tha, kyonki jis star par vah soch rahe the, us star par kisi kaam ke din mein daftar vaale ilaake mein paidal yaatriyon ke hone ki koi sambhaavana thi hi naheen. gaganachunbi nagar ki upayogitaavaadi aur vitteeya chhavi ko praakrutik vaataavaran ki roomaani chhavi se jod kar li korbujiye ne vaastav mein ek nirbeej varnasankar utpann kar diya tha.

nav nagaravaad aandolan ke sadasya James hauvard kunstlar, ne li kaarboojiyr ki nagar aayojan yojana ko vinaashakaari va vyayasheel bataaya hai:

li korbujiye praarambhik uchch aadhunikta ke agrani vaastushilpi neta the, jinki 1925 ki plaan vaoisin thi daaeain tat par peris ke poore maraai jile ko tahas nahas kar ke chaudi sadkon ke beech samaan dikhne waali gaganachunbiyaaain bana dena. yeh peris ki kismat thi ki jab bhi agale chaalees saal mein ve is yojana ko le ke gaye, nagar adhikaari unapar hainse hi - aur li korbujiye sv-prachaari to the hi. lekin badakismati yeh hai ki plaan voisin yojana ko dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad do Amreeki yojanaakaaron ne laagoo kiya aur usaki badaulat Chicago ki kukhyaat kabrini green rihaayashi pariyojana aur usi tarah ki beesiyon aur cheeje poore desh mein paida huin.[15]

unke vichaaron dvaara prabhaavit saarvajanik gruh pariyojanaaon mein yahi samasya pai gayi hai ki gareeb samudaayon ko ekaroopi gagan chunbiyon tak seemit kar diya gaya, jisse ki samudaaya ke vikaas ke liye aavashyak saamaajik sambandh toot gaye. unke sabse adhik prabhaavi virodhi rahi hain jen jaikabs, jinhonne li korbujiye ki naagrik rachana siddhaanton ki kadi aalochna apni bauddhik rachana mahaan Amreeki shaharon ki mrutyu va janm mein ki hai.

prabhaav

li korbujiye nagar niyojan mein bahut adhik prabhaavi the aur "Congress intarneshanal daarkitekchar modarn" (seeaaiees) ke sansthaapak sadasya the.

li korbujiye maanaveeya bastiyon mein automobile ki vajah se badlaav aane ki sambhaavana ko sabse pehle samajhne vaalon mein se the. bhavishya ke nagar ko li korbujiye ne bade apaartameint imaarat, jo ki park jaisi cheej se ghira hoga aur pilotiyon par tika hoga, aisa socha. li korbujiye ke siddhaanton ko pashchimi Europe va sanyukt raajya mein saarvajanik rihaaish ke nirmaataaon ne apnaaya. imaaraton ki rachana mein li kaarboojiyr ne kisi bhi prakaar ki sajaavat ka virodh kiya. in badi badi imaaratein jo ki shahar mein to hain par shahar ki naheen hain, ka ubaaoo hone aur padayaatri ke liye kathin hone ka aarop hai.

kai saalon tak, kai vaastushilpi li korbujiye ke studio mein unke saath kaam karte rahe aur inmein se kai apne aap mein bhi jaane gaye, jaise ki chitrakaar-vaastushilpi naadir afonso jinhonne li korbujiye ke vichaaron ko apni sundarata siddhaant mein aatmasaat kiya. looshiyo kosta ki braasiliya ki nagar yojana aur fraantisek lidi gahura dvaara check ganaraajya mein yojanaabaddh jlin naamak audyogik shahar unke vichaaron par bani kuchh yojanaaeain hain aur is vaastushilpi ne swayam hi Bhaarat mein Chandigarh ki yojana banaai. li korbujiye ki soch ne soviyt sangh mein shahari yojana va vaastushilp ko bhi prabhaavit kiya, khaas taur par nirmaanavaadi yug mein.

li korbujiye shataabdi ke praarambh mein audyogik shaharon mein I samasyaaon se kaafi prabhaavit the. unka sochana tha ki audyogik gruh takaneekon se bheed, gandagi aur anaitikta failati hai. ve samaaj mein behtar ghar bana ke behtar samaaj paida karne ki aadhuniktaavaad ke agrani himaayati the. ebenejr hauvard ke garden siteej of tumauro ne li kaarboojiyr aur unke samakaaleenon ko kaafi prabhaavit kya hai.

li korbujiye ne is vichaar ko bhi layabaddhata di ki sthaan, gantavyon ka ek samooh hai jismein maanav lagbhag lagaataar hi aate jaate rahate hain. at: ve automobile ko ek vaahak ke taur par jaayaj thahara paae aur shahari sthaano mein freeve ko mahatva de paae. amareeka ke dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad ke samay ke shahari vikaas kartaaon ke hiton ke liye unka yad darshan upayogi siddh hua, kyonki iske jariye ve paaramparik shahari sthaan ko nasht karke adhik ghanatv vaale adhik munaafa dene vaale vyaavasaayik va rihaayashi shahari ilaakon ko vaastushilpi va bauddhik samarthan ki himaayat karne mein safal hue. li korbujiye ke vichaaron ke jariye paaramparik shahari sthaanon ka vinaash aur adhik sveekrut ho gaya, kyonki is nae nagar ko kam ghanatv, kam kharch (aur adhik munaafe) vaale upanagareeya aur graameen ilaakon mein chaudi sadkein bani, jinki badaulat madhyam vargeeya ek parivaareeya gharon ka nirmaan sambhav hua.

is aandolan mein nimn madhyam varg va kaamageer vargon ke alag thalag pade nagari graamon ka anya ilaakon se judaav, arthaat upanagareeya va graameen ilaakon ka nagareeya vyaavasaayik keindron se judaav ke liye li kaarboojiyr ke niyojan mein koi jagah naheen thi. aisa isliye tha kyonki niyojan ke anusaar sadkein kaamageer va nimn madhyam vargeeya vargon ke rihaayishi ilaakon ke oopar se, neeche se ya bagal se niklati theen. is tarah ki pariyojanaaeain va ilaakon mein sadak se nikalne ka koi raasta naheen tha aur sadkon tak inke pahuainchane ka bhi raasta naheen tha, jaise ki kabrini green gruh pariyojana mein log naukariyon paane aur seva pradaan karne ke avsaron se kat gaye kyonki ye sab li korbujiye ke yaataayaat-ant-binduon tak seemit the. jaise jaise naukariyaaain in sadkon ke ant mein aane vaale upanagareeya anton par pahuainchate gaye, nagareeya graamavaasiyon ne yeh paaya ki unke samudaaya in badi sadkon se katate gaye; na hi inke paas saarvajanik yaataayaat ki suvidha thi jisse ki ve kifaayat se upanagareeya keindron mein naukariyaaain kar paate.

yuddhoparaant kaafi samay baad upanagareeya keindron ne paaya ki kaamageeron ki kami ek badi samasya hai, at: ve swayam hi nagar se upanagar ki bas sevaaeain chalaane lage taaki ve sab kaam karne vaale log upanagaron mein pahuainch sakein jinse itni kamaai naheen hoti hai ki log kaaron mein aa ja sakein.

yaataayaat ke badhte kharch (jismein indhan keval ek hi hissa hai) aur madhyam va uchch varg ke logon ka upanagareeya va graameen jeevanashaili ke prati man uchatane ki vajah se li korbujiye ke vichaaron par prashn chinh khada hua hai. ab nagareeya ilaake zyaada vaanchhit hain. kai jagah nagar mein kondominiym mein rahana log adhik pasand kar rahe hain. kai keindreeya vyaavasaayik keindron mein ab rihaaishi ilaake bhi ban gaye hain ya ban rahe hain.

li korbujiye ne jaanaboojh ke apne baare mein mithk khade kiye aur apne jeevan kaal mein unka kaafi aadar hua hi, mrutyoparaant unke bhakton ne unhein frishte ka jaama pahanaaya jo kuchh galat kar hi naheen sakte the. lekin 1950 ke dashak mein pehli shankaaeain uthani shuroo huin, khaas taur par unke apne hi shishyon dvaara nibandhon mein, jaise ki James stirling va kaulin ro dvaara, jinhonne unke nagar sambandhi vichaaron ko khatarnaak bataaya. baad ke aalochakon ne unke vaastushilp mein takaneeki khaamiyaaain bhi nikaaleen. Brian bres Taylor ne apni kitaab "aarme du saaloo" mein li korbujiye ki tikdmi hathakandon ke baare mein likha hai jinki badaulat unhonne apne liye aayog banavaaya. unhonne nirmaan vidhi aur kai behoode samaadhaanon ke baare mein bhi likha hai.

pramukh bhavan va pariyojanaaeain

khula haath sthali li korbujiye dvaara Chandigarh mein banaae kai pariyojanaaon mein se ek hai.
raashtreeya paashchaatya kala sangrahaalaya, tokyo, Japan
jyoorikh-seefeld (jyoorikhorn) mein seintar li kaarboojiyr (hedi vebar sangrahaalaya)
sachivaalaya, Chandigarh
  • 1905: vila faale, la shau-de-fau, svitjrleind
  • 1912: vila jiyaanere-pere, la shau-de-fau [1]
  • 1916: vila shvau, la shau-de-fau
  • 1923: vila la rosh/vila jiyaanare, peris
  • 1924: paavilon de lespri novyoo, peris (nasht ho chuka hai)
  • 1924: kvaartiye modarn fruje, pesa, fraans
  • 1925: vila jiyaanare, peris
  • 1926: vila koo, boloniya-su-scene, fraans
  • 1927: veisenhof estate, statagaart, Germany mein vila
  • 1928: vila sevauya, poisi-su-scene, fraans nakshe mein dekhein
  • 1929: aareme du saaloo, site de refuj, peris
  • 1930: pevilon suis, site yoonivrsiter, peris
  • 1930: meson irraajuri, chili
  • 1931: soviyton ka mahal, Moscow, yooesaesaaar (pariyojana)
  • 1931: imeuble klaarte, janeva, svitjrleind nakshe mein dekhein
  • 1933: seintrosoyooj, Moscow, yooesaesaaar
  • 1936: raashtreeya shiksha va saarvajanik svaasthya mantraalaya ka mahal, Rio de jeneriyo (looshiyo kosta, oscar niyemeyar va anyon ke salaahakaar ke taur par)
  • 1938: "kaartesiyn" gaganachunbi (pariyojana)
  • 1945: useen klaud A duva, sein-diye-de-vosge, fraans
  • 1947–1952: yoonite dhaabiteshaaain, maarsili, fraans 0,-5.777772317930098 nakshe mein dekhein, poorvanirmit ghar ka itihaas
  • 1948: kuruchet house, la plaata, Argentina
  • 1949-1952: sanyukt raashtra mukhyaalaya, new yaurk shahar, sanyukt raajya (salaahakaar)
  • 1950-1954: shaipel notre dem du hau, raanshain, fraans nakshe mein dekhein
  • 1951: kabanon de vekeinse, rokabroon-kai-maarteen
  • 1951: meson jaao, nyooili-su-scene, fraans
  • 1951: mil maalik sangh ki imaarat, vila saaraabhaai va vila shodan, Ahmedabad, Bhaarat
  • 1952: naante-reje ki yoonite dahaabiteshon, naante, fraans nakshe mein dekhein
  • 1952-1959: Chandigarh, Bhaarat mein bhavan
    • 1952: nyaaya bhavan (Chandigarh)
    • 1952: kala veethi va sangrahaalaya (Chandigarh)
    • 1953: sachivaalaya (Chandigarh)
    • 1953: raaj bhavan (Chandigarh)
    • 1955: vidhaan sabha (Chandigarh)
    • 1959: raajakeeya kala mahaavidyaalaya (jeeseee) va Chandigarh vaastushilp mahaavidyaalaya (seeseee) (Chandigarh)
  • 1956: Ahmedabad mein sangrahaalaya, Ahmedabad, Bhaarat
  • 1956: saddaam husain vyaayaamashaala, bagdaad, iraak
  • 1957: briye en fore, fraans ki yoonite dhaabiteshaaain
  • 1957: raashtreeya paashchaatya kala sangrahaalaya, tokyo
  • 1957: meson du bresi, site yoonivrsiter, peris
  • 1957–1960: seint maari de la tooret, lyon, fraans ke nikat (iyaanis jenaakis ke saath)
  • 1957: barlin ki yoonite dhaabiteshaaain-shaarlotanabarg, flaatovalli 16, barlin nakshe mein dekhein
  • 1957: myoo, fraans ki yoonite dhaabiteshaaain
  • 1958: filips peviliyn, brusels, Belgium (iyaanis jenaakis ke saath) (nasht ho chuka hai) 1958 vishv pradarshani mein
  • 1961: ilektraanik kailkulas kendra, oliveti, Milan, Italy
  • 1961: kaarpeintar drashtavya kala kendra, Harvard university, Cambridge, maasachusets, sanyukt raajya
  • 1964-1969: firmini-vart
    • 1964: firmini ki yoonite dhaabiteshaaain, fraans
    • 1966: stadium firmini-vart
    • 1965: meison de la kalchar de firmini-vart
    • 1969: sant-piyre, firmini, fraans mein girjaaghar (maranoparaant, hoje oubreriye ke nirdeshan mein 2006 mein bani)
  • 1967: heidi vebar sangrahaalaya (seintar li kaarboojiyr), jyoorikh [2]

pramukh lekhan

  • 1918: apre li kyoobisme (kyoobavaad ke baad), amedei ojenfraan ke saath
  • 1923: vars un aarkitekchar (ek nae vaastushilp ki or)
  • 1925: arbanism (nagaravaad)
  • 1925: la peinchar modarn (aadhunik chitrakala), amedei ojenfraan ke saath
  • 1925: laar dekoretif dojurdhui (aajaki sajaavati kala)
  • 1931: preemiye kleviye de kolo (pratham rangeen kunjeepatal)
  • 1935: vimaan
  • 1935: la vile rediyoos (ojasvi nagar)
  • 1942: chaarte the-ethene (Athens ghoshanaapatr)
  • 1943: entretiyeain eve le etoodiyaaain de ekol the-aarkitekchar (vaastushilp ke vidyaarthiyon se guftagoo)
  • 1948: le modyoolor (modyoolor)
  • 1953: le poem de l-engal droi (samakon ki kavita)
  • 1955: le modyoolor 2 (modyoolor 2)
  • 1959: dyookhiyem kleviye de kolo (doosra rangeen kunjeepatal)
  • 1966: le voyaaj doriyeain (poorv ki yaatra)

uddharan

  • "tum patthar, lakkad, kankreet le ke ghar aur mahal banaate ho, yeh hai nirmaan. kaam mein saralata hai. par achaanak kuchh dil ko chhoo jaata hai, mujhe achha lagta hai. main khush ho ke kehta hooain, "yeh sundar hai. yeh hai vaastushilp. kala ka pravesh hota hai... (vars oon aarkitekchar, 1923)
  • "vaastushilp roop ka roshani ke saath vismayakaari aur sateek khel hai."
  • "sthaan aur raushani aur kramaankan. manushya ko roti aur sone ki jagah chaahiye to yeh sab bhi chaahiye."
  • "makaan ghar mein rahane ke liye ek yantr hai." (vars un aarkitekchar, 1923)
  • "savaal yeh hai ki aaj ke samaaj mein astavyastata ke peechhe jo cheej hai use banaaya jaae : vaastushilt ya vidroh." (vars oon aarkitekchar, 1923)
  • "aadhunik jeevan ki maaaing hai, use prateeksha hai, ek ni yojana ki - makaan ke liye bhi aur nagar ke liye bhi." (vars oon aarkitekchar, 1923)
  • "ye 'shailiyaaain' ek mithya hai." (vars oon aarkitekchar, 1923)

smaarak

li korbujiye ki unke khaas chashma pahane tasveer 10 Swiss fraink ke not par chhapi.

in sthaanon ko unke naam se jaana jaata hai:

  • place li korbujiye, peris, unki kaaryashaala ke paas ryoo de sevre par.
  • li korbujiye boolvaar, laval, kvebek, Canada.
  • unki janmasthali of la shau-de fon, svitjrlaind mein place li korbujiye.
  • maalvinaas aarjeintinaas, byoonos aayars praant, aarjeinteena ke paartido mein li korbujiye maarg
  • brosa, kvebek, Canada ke "li vilej paarisiyeain" mein li korbujiye maarg

anya sandarbh

  • varg:li korbujiye bhavan – bhavanon aur lekhon ki angoothaakaar chhaviyaaain
  • aadhuniktaavaad

sandarbh

  1. a aa i choe, fraansauis, li korbujiye (1960), pru. 10-11. George braajilr, ink. aaiऍsabeeऍn 0-8076-0104-7.
  2. gains, debora, li korbujiye parichay (2006), pru. 31. prinsatan aarkitekcharal press. aaiऍsabeeऍn 1-56898-539-8.
  3. iveinsan, naurma. 'li korbujiye: machine va vishaal rachana. George brejilr, pr: new yaurk, 1969 (pru. 7).
  4. http://www.american-colossus.com/ American kolosas: anaaj vaahak 1843-1943 (kolosas books, 2009) www.american-colossus.com
  5. Robert fishmain, urban yootopiyaaj in the tveintiyth century: ebenejr hovaard, fraink lauyd right, va li korbujiye (Cambridge, ma.: ऍmaaaiti press, 1982), 231.
  6. fishmain, 244-246
  7. http://www.fondationlecorbusier.asso.fr/fondationlc_us.htm | fondeshan li korbujiye ka angreji jaal sthal
  8. http://arsny.com/requested.html | aartists raaits society ki adhik maaaingi gayi kalaakaar soochi
  9. li korbujiye, di maudyulor, pru. 35, padovan, richrd mein ullikhit, anupaat: vigyaan, darshan, vaastushilp (1999), pru. 320. Taylor va fraansis. aaiऍsabeeऍn 0-419-22780-6: "chitr va vaastushilp dono hi sunahare vibhaag ka istemaal karte hain".
  10. ibid. di maudyulor pru.25, padovan ki anupaat: vigyaan, darshan, vaastushilp pru.316 se uddhrut
  11. selik, jeynep, naagrik roop va saamraajyik dvandv: fraanseesi shaasan mein aljiyrs, kailiforniya vishvavidyaalaya press, 1997, pru. 4.
  12. fishmain, 228
  13. Peter serenyi, “ali kaarboojiyr, fooriyr aur ima ka aashram.” the Art buletin 49, kr. 4 (1967): 282.
  14. hom, ivar (2006). vaastushilp aur audyogik rachana mein vichaar va maanyataaeain: najriye, vichaaradhaaraaeain aur maanyataaeain kaise nirmaan ke maahaul ko badalti hain. oslo school of aarkitekchar ऍnd dijaain. aaiऍsabeeऍn 8254701741.
  15. bhavishya ke shahar ke baare mein kunstlar

anyatr pathaneeya

  • vebar, nikolas fauks, li korbujiye: ek jeevan, alfred A nof, 2008, aaiesabeeen 0375410430
  • Marco veinchuri, li korbujiye aljiyrs plaans, planum.net par upalabdh shodh
  • behreins, Roy aar. (2005). cook book: gartrood stein, William cook va li korbujiye. disaart, aayovo: bobolink books. aaiesabeeen o-9713244-1-7.
  • naima jomod va jiaaain-piyere jorno, li korbujiye (shaarl eduaar jiaanere), kaataalog reisone de loovr pein, skira, 2005, aaiesabeeen 8876242031
  • iliyel, kerol S. (2002). leespri novyoo: pyoorijm in peris, 1918 - 1925. new yaurk: Harry ऍn ऍbraams, ink. aaiesabeeen o-8109-6727-8
  • ej ऍlen bruks: li korbujiye faurmetiv iyars: shaarl eduvaar jiyaanere ऍt la shau de fon, peparabaik sanskaran, Chicago vishvavidyaalaya press, 1999, aaiesabeeen 0226075826

baahari kadiyaaain