lev taalastoya

lev taalastoya
L.N.Tolstoy Prokudin-Gorsky.jpg
janm: 9 sitmbar 1828
yaasnaaya polyaana, roosi saamraajya
mrutyu: 20 November 1910
aastaapovo, roosi saamraajya
kaaryakshetr: upanyaasakaar
vidha: yathaarthavaad
saahityik
aandolan
:
isaai araajakataavaadi
shaantivaadi
pramukh kruti(yaaain): yuddh aur shaanti
aanna karenina
prabhaav: petr chelsiski, aleksaandar pooshkin, laareins Stern, hairiyet beechar stov, Charles dikns, pleto, eristotal, jaaain-jaak rooso, aarthar shopanahaauar, nikolaai gogol, baaibal, henari thoro
inse prabhaavit: mahaatma Gandhi, Martin loothar King junior, varjiniya vulf, orhan paamuk, ludavig vitgenastaain, edana O'Brian, James jauyas, vlaadeemir naabokov, J. di. sailingar, aadhuniktaavaad

lev taalastoya (roosi:Лaaеaaв Нaaиaaкaaоaaлaaаaáaaеaaвaaиaaч Тaaоaaлaaсaaтaaоaáaaй, 9 sitmbar 1828 - 20 November 1910) unneesaveen sadi ke sarvaadhik sammaanit lekhakon mein se ek hain. unka janm roos ke ek sampann parivaar mein hua tha. unhonne roosi sena mein bharti hokar kreemiyaai yuddh (1855) mein bhaag liya, lekin agale hi varsh sena chhod di. lekhan ke prati unki ruchi sena mein bharti hone se pehle hi jaag chuki thi. unke upanyaas yuddh aur shaanti (1865-69) tatha aanna karenina (1875-77) saahityik jagat mein classic rachanaaeain maani jaati hai.

dhan-daulat va saahityik pratibha ke baavajood taalastoya man ki shaanti ke liye tarasate rahe. antat: 1890 mein unhonne apni dhan-sampatti tyaag di. apne parivaar ko chhodkar ve ishvar va gareebon ki seva karne hetu nikal pade. unke svaasthya ne adhik dinon tak unka saath naheen diya. aakhirkaar 20 November 1910 ko astaapava naamak ek chhote se railway station par is dhanik putr ne ek gareeb, niraashrit, beemaar vruddh ke roop mein maut ka aalingan kar liya.

anukram

jeevan vrutt

inka janm Moscow se lagbhag 100 meal dakshin maitrik riyaasat yaasnaaya paulyaana mein hua tha. inki maata pita ka dehaant inke bachapan mein hi ho gaya tha, at: laalan paalan inki chaachi tatyaana ne kiya. uchchavargeeya taallukedaaron ki bhauti inki shiksha ke deeksha ke liye sudaksh vidvaan niyukt the. ghudsavaari, shikaar, naach-gaan, taash ke khel aadi vidyaaon aur kalaaon ki shiksha inhein bachapan mein hi mil chuki thi. chaachi taatyaana inhein aadarsh taallukedaaron banaana chaahati thi aur isi uddeshya se, tatmaaleen sanbhraat samaaj ki kisi mahila ko premapaatri banaane ke liye usakaaya karti theen. yuvaavastha mein taulastauya par iska anukool prabhaav hi pada. par taulastauya ka ant:karan ise uchit naheen samajhta tha. apni daayari mein unhonne iski spasht bhartsana ki hai.

1844 mein taulastauya kajaan vishvavidyaalaya mein pravisht hue aur 1847 tak unhonein paurvaatya bhaashaaon (eastern languages) aur vidhisanhitaaon (kaanoon) ka adhyayan kiya. riyaasat ke baintavaare ka prashn upasthit ho jaane ke kaaran snaatak hue bina hi inhe vishvavidyaalaya chhod dena pada. riyaasat mein aakar inhonne apne krushak asaamiyon ki dasha mein sudhaar karne ke prayatn kiye aur suvidhaapoorvak unhein svatantr bhoosvaami ho jaane ke liye katipya shartein upasthit keen, parantu asaami varg aasann svatantrata ki afavaahon se prabhaavit tha, at: usane taulastauya ki sharte thukara Dean. par yeh afavaah afavaah hi rahi aur antat: krushakon ko pashchaataap karna hi haath laga. unki kahaani "A land aunars mornig" (1856) isi ghatna par aadhrut hai.

1851 mein taulastauya kuchh samay ke liye sena mein bhi pravisht hue the. unki niyukti kokeshas mein parvateeya kabeelon se honevaali deerghakaaleen ladaai mein hui jahaaain avakaash ka samay ve likhne padhne mein lagaate rahe. yaheen par unki pratham rachana chaaildahud 1852 mein nirmit hui jo ela0 tee0 ke naam se "ti kanteinporeri" naamak patra mein prakaashit hui. us romaintik yug mein bhi is neeras yathaarthavaadi dhang ki rachana ne logon ko aakrusht kiya aur uske rachanaakaar ke naam ke sambandh mein tatkaaleen saahityik tarah tarah ke atakal lagaane lage the.

1854 mein taulastauya dainyoob ke morche par bheje gaye; vahaaain se apni badli unhone sebaastopol mein kara li jo kreemiyn yuddh ka sabse tagada morcha tha. yahaaain unhein yuddh aur yuddh ke sanchaalakon ko nikat se dekhne parakhane ka paryaapt avsar mila. is morche par ve ant tak rahe aur anek karaari muthabhedon mein pratyakshat: sangharsharat rahe. isi ke parinaamasvaroop unki rachana "sebaastopol skechej" (1855-56) nirmit hui. yuddh ki upayogita aur jeevan par uske prabhaavon ko nikat se dekhne samajhne ke yathesht avsar unhein yahaaain mile or in upalabdhiyon ka yathochit upayog unhonne apni anek paravarti rachanaaon mein kiya.

1855 mein unhone peetarsavarg ki yaatra ki jahaaain ke saahityikaaron ne inka bada sammaan kiya. 1857 or 1860-61 mein inhonne pashchimi Europe ke vibhinn deshon ka paryatan kiya. paravarti paryatan ka mukhya uddeshya etaddesheeya shikshaapaddhatiyon aur daatavya sansthaaon ke sanghatan aur kriyaakalaapon hi jaankaari praapt karna tha. isi yaatra mein unhe yakshma (teebi) se peedit apne bade bhaai ki mrutyu dekhne ko mili. ghoratam yaatanaaon ke anantar honevaali yakshmaakraant bhaai ki mrutyu ka taulastauya par marmaatak prabhaav pada. vaar aind pees, anna kairenina aur di death aav ivain iliych mein mrutyu ke jo atyant maarmik chitran milte hain, unka aadhaar uparyukt ghatna hi rahi hai.

yaatra se lautakar unhonne apne gaaainv yaasnaaya polyaana mein krushakon ke bachchon ke liye ek school khola. is vidyaalaya ki shiksha paddhati badi pragatisheel thi. ismein vartamaan pareekshaapranaali evam iske aadhaar par utteern anutteern kaarane ki vyavastha naheen rakhi gayi thi. vidyaalaya bada safal raha jiska mukhya kaaran taulastauya ki netrutv shakti aur uske prati haardik lagan thi. vidyaalaya ki or se, gaaainv ke hi naam par ""yaasnaaya polyaana"" naamak ek patrika bhi niklati thi jismein prakaashit taulastauya ke lekhon mein vidyaalaya or uske chhaatron ki vibhinn samasyaaon par bade hi saaragarbhit vichaar vyakt hue hain.

1862 mein taulastauya ka vivaah saafiya berhas naamak uchchavargeeya sanbhraant mahila se hua. unke vaivaahik jeevan ka poorvaash to bada sukhad raha par uttaraansh katutaapoorn beeta. taulastauya ke vaivaahik jeevan mein gruhini ka aadarsh poornat: bhaarateeya gruhini ka sa tha: par tatkaaleen roosi sanbhraant samaaj ke vichaar bilkul bhinn the.

1863 se 1869 tak taulastauya ka samay "vaar aind pees" ki rachana mein evam 1873 se 76 tak ka samay "anna kairenina" ki rachana mein beeta. in donon rachanaaon ne taulastauya ki saahityik khyaati ko bahut ooaincha uthaaya. ve manushyajeevan ka rahasya aur uske tatvachintan ke prati vishesh jaagruk the. 1875 se 1879 tak ka samay unke liye bada niraashajanak tha- ishvar par se unki aastha tak uth chuki thi or aatmahatya tak karne par ve utaaroo ho gaye the. par ant mein unhonne ispar vijay pai. 1878-79 mein inhone "kanafeshan" naamak apni vivaadapoorn kruti ki rachana ki. iske kraantikaari vichaar aise hain jinke kaaran roos mein iske prakaashan ki anumati bhi naheen mili aur pustak svitlaralaind mein prakaashit hui. is samay ki unki anya kai rachanaaeain isi koti ki hain aur ve sab Switzerland mein chhapi hain.

1878 se lekar 1885 tak ki avadhi mein falaatmak saahitya srujan ki drushti se taulastauya nishkriya rahe. unki antarvruti maanav jeevan ke rahasya ki khoj mein ulajhi rahi. anbatak ki samast rachanaaeain unhein vyarth prateet hone lageen. par 1886 mein ve pun: uchchakoti ke siddhahast upanyaas lekhak ke roop mein saamane aae aur isi varsh unki mahaan upanyaasik rachana ""di death aav ivain ilyij"" prakaashit hui.

unke aachaar sambandhi vishvaason ke prati ab saara sansaar aakrushth ho chuka tha aur yaasnaaya polyaana gram ki maanyata utkrusht teerthasthali ke roop mein jagaddhikhyaat ho chuki thi. hamaare raashtrapita mahaatma Gandhi is samay yuvak the. inheen dinon unhonne taulastauya ki rachanaaeain ruchipoorvak padhi theen aur unki or aakrusht hue the.

19veen shataabdi ka ant hote hote daridron aur asahaayon ke prati taulastauya ki sevaavruti yahaaain tak badhi ki unhone apni rachanaaon se roos desh mein honevaali apaneen samast aay daan kar di. apni patni ko maatr utana ansh lene ki unhonne anumati di jitna parivaar ke bhar poshan ke liye anivaarya tha. "risrekshan" (1899) naamak apne upanyaas ki samast aay unhonne roos ki shaantivaadi jaati dukhebor logon ko roos ka parityaag kar kainaada mein ja basane ke liye de di.

1910 mein sahasa unhonne apne paitrik gram "yaasnaaya polyaana" ko sarvada ke liye parityakt karne ka nishchaya kiya. 10 November 1910 ko apni putri ailekleindra ke saath unhonein prasthaan kiya, par 22 navabanr 1910 ko maarg ke station aistaapovo mein akasmaat fefade mein daah hone se vaheen unka shareeraant ho gaya.

vichaar evam darshan

unki dharmabhavana badi udaar aur vyaapak thi. tatkaaleen isaai dharm ke prati unki spashtat: virodhi bhaavana thi. apne vichaaron se ve ek prakaar ke sarvadevavaadi prateet hote hain. mrutyu ko ve shareer ki antim or avashyambhaavi parinti maanate the. manushya ko ve shareer ki antim aur avashyambhaavi parinti maanate the. manushya ke sampark mein aanevaali pratyek vastu ko upayogita ke maanadand se aaainkana ve uchit samajhte the aur isi kaaran jeevan ki soddeshyata ke prati ve sarvada jijnyaaasu bane rahe. niruddeshya, vichaaraheen or aatmakeindrit jeevan ko ve ek prakaar ka paap maanate the; yahaaain tak ki sanbhog ko ve keval santaanotpatti ke uddeshya se hi vihit maanate the.

manovaigyaanik rachanaaon mein dostovski hi taulastaaya ke samakaksh thaharate hain. gaalsvardi, taamas maan, jools romyaaain aadi mahaan lekhakon par taulastauya ka ullekhaneeya prabhaav pada hai. paravarti roosi lekhakon ko bhi taulastauya ne yathesht prabhaavit kiya hai.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain