lebar party

lebar party
Labour Party
neta hairiyet harman saansad (kaaryakaari)
up neta hairiyet harman, saansad
sthaapit 1900 (1900) (majdoor pratinidhi sabha ke taur pe)[1][2]
mukhyaalaya van breevars green, London
chhaatr ikaai lebar chhaatr sangathan
yuva ikaai yuva lebar
sadasyata (2015) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 246,469[3]
vichaaradhaara saamaajik lokatantr
lokataantrik samaajavaad
raajaneetik sthiti udaar vaamapanth
antarraashtreeya sanbaddhata ''progressive elaaens'',
antarraashtreeya samaajavaadi (paryavekshak)
yooropiya sanbaddhata Europeeya samaajavaadi dal
yooropiya sansadeeya samooh ''progressive elaaens of sosalists end demokrets''
aadhikaarik rang laal
house of kaumans
232 / 650
house of lauds
213 / 786
Europeeya sansad
20 / 73
skautish sansad
38 / 129
velsh assembly
30 / 60
London assembly
12 / 25
kshetreeya sarkaar
6,885 / 20,565
website
labour.org.uk


lebar party Britain ki ek center - left yaani (udaar vaamapanthi vichaaradhaara waali) raajaneetik party hai.[4][5][6][7][8] iska janm unneesaveen shataabdi ke majadoor sangathano ke aandolan aur samaajavaadi raajanaitik dalon ke udaya ke saath hua jise udaar girijaaghar (braud church) kah ke paribhaashit kiya gaya. is dal ki vichaaradhaara bahut vistrut hai jismein prakhar samaajavaad se lekar udaaravaadi samaajavaadi lokatantr ki vichaaradhaara shaamil hain.

1900 mein banane ke baad lebar party ne shuruvaati 1920 ke aam chunaavon mein us samay ki libral party ki jagah le li aur raamase maikdonaald ke netrutv mein 1924 aur 1929-31 ke dauraan alpamat ki sarkaarein banaain. 1940-45 ke dauraan yeh dal charchil yuddh mantraalaya (Churchill war ministry) ka hissa raha jiske baad isne kleemeint aittali ke netrutv mein bahumat ki sarkaar banaai. lebar dal 1964-70 ke dauraan hairauld Wilson ke netrutv vaale pehle Wilson mantreemandal ka bhi hissa raha. iske baad 1974 se 1979, pehle Wilson aur fir James kaileghan ke netrutv mein sarkaar mein rahi.

lebar party 1997 aur 2010 ke dauraan toni bleyar aur gaurdan brown ke netrutv mein 179 seaton se ghatkar 2001 ke aam chunaavon mein 167 aur fir 2005 ke chunaavon mein 66 seaton ke saath antim sthaan par aati rahi. 2010 ke aam chunaavon mein 258 seatein aur 2015 ke aam chunaavon mein 232 seatein jeetkar yeh party ab Britain ki sansad mein aadhikaarik vipaksh ki bhoomika nibha rahi hai.

velsh ke sadan mein lebar party ki alpamat ki sarkaar hai jabki skautish sansad mein yeh mukhya vipaksh ki bhoomika mein hai aur Europeeya sansad mein iske 20 saansad hain jo progressive elaaens of sosalists end demokrets samooh ke saath baithate hain. lebar dal Europeeya samaajavaadi dal aur progressive elaaens (antarraashtreeya) ka ek poornakaalik sadasya hai. aur soshalist intaranaishanal mein paryavekshak ki bhoomika nibha raha hai. dal ke vartamaan neta hairiyet harman hain jo 8 May 2015 ko Ed milibaind ke tyaagapatr dene ke baad chune gaye hain.

anukram

vichaaradhaara

lebar party ko madhya vaamapanthi vichaaradhaara waali party maana jaata hai.[4][9][5][6][7][8] pehle yeh Britain ki sansad house of kaumans mein majadoor sangathanon ke raajaneetik chehare ke taur par banaai gayi thi. 1918 mein party samvidhaan banane ke baad isne samaajavaad ki apni asli pratibaddhata pai. samaajavaad ki iski vichaaradhaara desh mein saajha sarkaar, utpaadan, vitran pranaaliyon par sabke saajhe niyantran ki vakaalat karte the. haalaanki doosare vishvayuddh ke baad tak Britain ke lagbhag ek tihaai udmog, aur baaki bache hue 1980 tak sarkaar ke niyantran mein le liye gaye the. enthoni krausalaind ke 1956 ke upanyaas the future of soshlijm se prabhaavit ho kar party ke neta hyugh getaskel ke samarthak ab aise kisi pratibaddhata ki jaroorat naheen samajh rahe the. 1959 mein party samvidhaan se is pratibaddhata ko hataane ka prayaas vifal ho gaya. toni bleyar aur anya aadhunik netaaon ne[10] is paripekshya mein kaam jaari rakha aur 35 varshon baad[11] varishth netaaon ke thode virodh ke baavajood jaroori pratibaddhata ke is siddhaant ko party samvidhaan se hataane mein safalta pai.[12]

1992 ke baad se party ke ghoshanaapatr se samaajavaad shabd gaayab ho gaya. haalaanki chautha klaaj abhi bhi lokataantrik samaajavaad ki pratibaddhata darshaata hai [13][14] lekin sabhi udmog dhandhon par anivaarya sarkaari niyantran ki baat naheen kehta hai. is anivaaryata ki bajaaya yeh "uchch gunavatta waali saamaajik seva ke saath baajaaravaad aur aapasi pratidvandita" ki vakaalat karta hai jo ki jaroori naheen hai ki sarkaari kshetr mein hi ho.[15]


chinh

lebar party ka aadhikaarik jhanda aur chinh.

lebar ko lambe samay se laal rang se pahachaana jaata hai jo ki samaajavaad se juda raha hai. 1931 mein party ne ek sabha mein laal aur sunahare rang ko desh bhar mein apne aadhikaarik party rang ke taur par apnaaya.[16] party mein apanaae jaane ke baad laal jhanda lebar party ka aadhikaarik chinh bhi ban gaya. yeh laal jhanda 1789 ke French kraanti aur 1848 ke kraanti ke samay se hi samaajavaad ke aandolano se juda raha hai. saamaajik lokatantr ke chinh laal gulaab ko party ke chinh ke roop mein 1986 mein apnaaya gaya aur party ke logo mein shaamil kar liya gaya. [17]

laal jhanda party ke gaan the red flaig ka bhi prerana strot hai jise February 2006 mein sansad mein party ke 100 varsh poore hone ke upalakshya mein aur anya tamaam party sabhaaon mein gaaya jaata raha hai.[18][19][20]

samvidhaan aur sanrachana

lebar party kshetreeya lebar dalon, sambaddh majadoor sangathanon, samaajavaadi guton aur ko-oparetiv dal ki sadasyata waali ek saamoohik sanstha hai. jinke saath iska chunaavi gathabandhan hai. jo sadasya party ki sansadeeya padon ke liye chune jaate hain vo sansadeeya lebar dal env Europeeya sansadeeya lebar dal ki sabhaaon mein hissa lete hain.

dal ke nirnaya lene vaale samoohon mein raashtreeya kaaryakaarini samiti, lebar party aamasabha, raashtreeya neeti manch hain haalaanki aamtaur par sabhi mahatvapoorn neetiyon aur muddon par sansadeeya netrutv hi antim faisala leta hai. 2008 ki lebar party ki aamasabha mein kshetreeya lebar dalon aur sambaddh majadoor sangathanon ko samasaamayik charchaaon ke liye prastaav dene ke adhikaar naheen the.[21] lebar party ki aamasabhaaeain ab maatr tippaniyon vaale binduvaar bhaashanon, mehamaanon ke bhaashanon aur prashnottariyon ke satr hi rah gayi hain, jabki sabhi mahatvapoorn neetigat muddon par charchaaeain raashtreeya neeti sabha mein hote hain.

kaaryakaari samiti

9 March 2012 ko lebar dal ne apne nae env vartamaan prabandhak dal ki ghoshana ki.[22]

  • samiti ke adhyaksh: Charles Allen, kenasingatan ke bairon Allen[23]
  • mahaasachiv: aaen maiknikol
  • adhyaksh, staaf: tim livse
  • upaadhyaksh, staaf: Lucy Powell (prachaar, dal aur raajaneetik sanbandh)
  • nideshak, rananeeti env yojana: Greg beels
  • nideshak, khandan env neetiyaaain: taursten bail
  • nideshak, sadasya env samarthak: olivr bastan
  • nideshak, kaaryakshetr kaarya: paitrik heneghan
  • nideshak, sarkaar env daleeya suvidhaaeain: emili oldano
  • nideshak, soochana env sanchaar: Bob raubarts
  • nideshak, anudaan sanchayan: John maikkaifri

punargathan ke dauraan patrakaar Tom baildavin, jo ki pehle rananeeti aur sampark vibhaag ke nideshak the isi vibhaag mein varishth salaahakaar ho gaye.

  • elisiya kenedi: raashtreeya chunaav prachaar committee ke adhyaksh Tom Watson ki rananeetik salaahakaar.
  • kris leni: baahari sambandh env anudaan sanchayan.

sadasyata

31 December 2010 ko british chunaav aayog ke aankanon ke anusaar lebar dal ke 193,961 sadasya the jo ki pichhle varsh ke 156,205 ki tulana mein kaheen jyaada badh gaye the. 2010 mein dal ki vaarshik aay 3 karon 60 lakh £ thi (49 lakh £ sadasyata shulk se) aur kharch Britain ke aam chunaavon ki vajah se badhakar 3 karon 40 lakh pound tha.

kai varshon tak lebar dal ne uttari Ireland ke nivaasiyon ke sadasya banane par rok laga rakhi thi [24] jise 2003 ke lebar dal ki aamasabha mein khaarij kar diya gaya.[25]

majadoor sanghon se judaav

yoonaait the union lebar party ko uske leeds kaaryaalaya par 2015 ke chunaavon ke dauraan apna samarthan darshaate hue.

tulo (majadoor sangh aur lebar dal sampark sanstha) lebar dal se sanbandhit sadasyon ke liye raashtreeya va chetreeya star par chunaav prachaar, sampark abhiyaanon ka jimma sambhaalati hai.[26]

choonki yeh majadoor sanghon dvaara kaamakaaji logon ke hiton ki aavaaj uthaane ke liye banaai gayi thi, lebar party ka vibhinn majadoor sanghon se judaav hamesha se hi iske chaal-charitra va neetiyon ka nirdhaarak raha hai. haal ke varshon mein yeh sambandhon mein khataas badh gayi thi jab rel va yaataayaat karmiyon ke sangh ko Scotland mein apni shaakhaaon ke skautish samaajavaadi dal se sanbaddhata rakhane ki anumati dene ki vajah se 2004 mein party se nishkaasit kar diya gaya tha.[27] anya sanghon mein bhi sadasyon ne lebar dal ko aarthik madad kam karne ki aavaaj uthaai.[28] aur nijeekaran, saraakaari kharchon mein katauti va majadoor sanghon ke khilaaf banaae gaye niyamon ke baare mein apni rai rakhane ke liye kisi anya jyaada prabhaavi raajaneetik dal ko samarthan dein.[29] yoonisn aur jeeemabi donon ne kshetreeya saansadon ko anudaan khatm karne ki dhamaki di aur yoonisn ke dev preintis ne chetaavani di sangh ab koi rikt check jaari naheen karega kyoonki vah ab un logon se tang aa chuka hai jo usase paise lekar unke hi virodh ke kaarya karte hain.[30] 2013 ke faalakark ummeedavaar ke chunaav vivaad ke baad sangh ko anudaan ke liye nai neetiyaaain taiyaar ki gain.[31]

Europeeya aur antarraashtreeya sanbandh

lebar party Europeeya samaajavaadi dal (PES) ke sansthaapak sadasyon mein se ek hai. Europeeya sansad mein iske 20 saansad hain jo ''progressive elaaens of sosalists end demokrets'' samooh ke saath baithate hain jo ki Europeeya sansad mein doosra sabse bada raajaneetik samooh hai. PES ke adhyakshaadheen mandal mein lebar party ka pratinidhitv emma renaulds karti hain.[32]

yeh dal 1923 se 1940 ke dauraan lebar aur sosalist intaranaishanal ka sadasya raha tha.[33] 1951 ke baad se lebar dal sosalist intaranaishanal ki sadasya rahi jo ki kleemeint ettali ke prayaason se bana tha. haalaanki fraravari 2013 mein party ki raashtreeya kaaryakaarini ne Europe mein apne paryavekshak sadasya ke taur par kaarya ko kam karne ka aur antarraashtreeya sambandhon ko anya maadhyamon se badhaane ka nirnaya liya.[34] lebar dal ''progressive elaaens (politikl intaranaishanal)'' ke sansthaapak sadasyon mein tha jo ki 22 May 2013 ko social democratic party of Germany ke sah prayaason se bana tha.[35][36][37][38]

Ed milibaind ne yeh bhi kaha ki party yooropiya sangh mein Britain ki sabhaagita par hone vaale kisi bhi tarah ke janamat-sangrah ke khilaaf hain kyoonki yeh desh mein vayaapaar ko kshati pahunchaaega.[39]

itihaas

sthaapana

lebar party ki shuruvaat unneesaveen shataabdi ke poorvaardh mein hui. us samay shaharon mein teji se badhate majadooron aur kaamakaaji logon ki jarooraton ko raajaneetik aavaaj dene ki jaroorat mahasoos hone lagi thi.[40][41] mukadamein ka nirnaya jisne kuchh prakaar ke dharanon ko seemit kar diya. majadoor sanghon ke aandolanon se jude hue neta ab vote daalne ke adhikaar milne ke baad raajaneetik kshetr mein bhi haath aajmaana chaahate the aur 1867 va 1885 mein mile badhe hue adhikaaron ke baad libral party ne sangh samarthit ummeedavaaron ko chunaav mein utaarana shuru kiya. pehle libral-lebar ummeedavaar jaurj ojgar the jo ki saauthavaark nirvaachan kshetr se 1870 ke chunaavon mein pratyaashi the. iske saath-saath raajaneetik pratinidhitv paane aur neeti nirdhaaran mein apni bhoomika banaane ke liye tamaam anya chhote samaajavaadi guton ki sthaapana ho gayi thi. inmein svatantr majadoor dal, bauddhik aur madhyam varg ke logon ki faibiyn society, maarksavaadi social democratic federation [42] aur skautish lebar party ityaadi theen.

1895 ke aam chunaavon mein svatantr majadoor dal ne apne 28 ummeedavaar utaare lekin unhein sirf 44325 vote hi mile. dal ke neta keer haardi ko is baat ka ehsaas ho gaya tha ki chunaavon mein safalta paane ke liye anya vaamapanthi dalon ke saath milkar chunaav ladana hoga.

lebar pratinidhi sabha

keer haardi, lebar party ke sansthaapakon aur pratham netaaon mein se ek.

1899 mein railway karmachaariyon ki sanstha ke ek sadasya Thomas aar. steel ne majadoor sangh sabha ke saamane sabhi majadoor sanghon, guto aur vaamapanthi raajaneetik dalon ki baithak bulaakar unhein ek banner tale laane ka prayaas kare aur sangathit sanstha ke ummeedavaaron ko sansadeeya chunaavon mein madad kare. yeh prastaav majadoor sangh ki sabha mein har star par manjoor ho gaya aur sabhi samaan vichaaradhaara vaale dalon aur guton ki baithak fairingatan maarg ke memoriyl hall mein 26-27 February 1900 ko bulaai gayi. is baithak mein bhaari sankhya mein kaamakaaji logon, majadooron aur vaamapanthi vichaaradhaara vaale dalon ne hissa liya. [43]

bahas ke baad 129 sadasyon ne Thomas ke sansad mein ek banner tale aisi party banaane ke prastaav ko hari jhandi de di jiska apna wikt:vhip hoga aur jo majadooron ke hiton ke liye kaam karne waali aur kaanoon banaane mein sahaayata karne waali kisi bhi sanstha athva dal ka har tarah se samarthan karegi.[44] is tarah se lebar riprajeinteshan committee yaani majadoor pratinidhi sabha ka gathan hua jiska kaam un saansadon ko samarthan dena tha jo majadoor sabhaaon dvaara anudoot the aur kaamakaaji varg ke logon ke hiton ko sansad mein uthaate the.[2] iska koi ek akela neta naheen tha aur is paristhiti mein svatantr majadoor dal ke raamase maikdonaald ko mantri chuna gaya. unke paas pratinidhi sabha (elaarsi) mein vibhinn logon ke vibhinn maton ke beech samanvya banaane ki mahatvapoorn aur kathin jimmedaari thi. 1900 ke british aam chunaav party ke liye behad naye the aur use prachaar karne ka bahut samay bhi naheen mila aur poora chunaav kharch sirf 33 pound aaya.[45] sirf 15 ummeedavaaron ka samarthan aur aprachaar kiya gaya jismein se sirf 2 hi safal hue; merthiyr taaydafil nirvaachan kshetr se keer haardi aur darbi se richrd bail.[46]

elaarsi ke liye tab samarthan jyaada bana jab 1901 mein hadataaliyon aur railway company ke beech hue taif vel vivaad ke baad us majadoor sangh ko 23000 pound harjaana bharne ka aadesh diya gaya. yeh nyaayik aadesh majadooron ke hiton ke sarvatha khilaaf tha kyoonki iske baad kampaniyaaain hanataal ke dauraan hue vyaapaarik nuksaan ki bharpaai majadooron ki tanakhvaah se kar sakti thi. iske baad us samay ki aarthar baalafor ki kanjrvetiv party ki audmogik aur vyaapaar samarthak neetiyon aur majadooron ke hiton ki taraf dhyaan na dene ki vajah se lebar party ko samarthan aur badhata gaya.[46]

14 fairingadan maarg, kairoon house mein lebar dal ka billa

iske baad 1906 ke aam chunaavon mein elaarsi ne 29 seatein jeeti. aisa raamase maikdonaald aur libral dal ke beech hue ek chhupe hue samjhaute ki badaulat ho saka jo ki chunaav mein majadooron ke voton ko libral aur lebar ke beech mein batane na dene ki rananeeti ke tahat kiya gaya tha.[46]

chunaav baad apni pehli baithak mein sadasyon ne aadhikaarik taur par 15 February 1906 ko is saamoohik dal ka naam lebar party karne ka nirnaya liya. party ko sthaapit karne mein agrani bhoomika nibhaane vaale keer haardi ko sansad mein navagathit lebar dal ka Chairman aur neta chuna gaya jo ki vibhinn androoni chunaavon ke baad indipeindeint lebar party ke David shaiklatan se 1 vote se aage the. dal ke shuruvaati varshon mein indipeindeint lebar party ne sangathan ke liye apne tamaam kaaryakarta aur faibiyn society ne party ke liye bauddhik tantr upalabdh karavaaya. libral sarkaar ke praathamik nirnayon mein se ek taif vel nirnaya ko palatana tha.[46]

Manchester ke peepals history myoojiym mein 1906 mein hue lebar dal ke us baithak ke vaartaalaap aur bahas ki paandulipi rakhi hui hai aur janta ke liye mukhya deergha mein drushya hai.[47]iske alaava sangrahaalaya mein 1900 se lekar abhi tak ke lebar dal se sambandhit tamaam anya saamagriyaaain bhi rakhi hui hain. [48]

shuruvaat aur utthaan

1910 mein Britain ke aam chunaavon mein house of kaumans ke liye lebar party ke kul 42 saansad chune gaye, yeh party ke liye ek bahut badi safalta thi. khaastaur par ek varsh pehle ke house of laurds ke osborn nirnaya ke baad jisne majadoor sanghon ko chunaavon mein daan dene aur aur lebar saansadon ke liye bhatta jutaane ke liye rok laga di thi. libral saansad isko nirast karaane ke liye bahut utsaahit naheen the. vo saansadon ke liye sarkaari gujaara-bhatta ki vyavastha karavaana chaahate the taaki majadoor sanghon ki jaroorat na rahe. haalaanki 1913 mein majadoor sanghon ke bhaari virodh ke baad libral sarkaar ne shram vivaad kaanoon paas kar diya taaki majadoor sangh ek baar fir se lebar saansadon ko anudaan de sakein.

pratham vishv yuddh ke dauraan party iske samarthakon aur virodhiyon ke beech mein bant gayi haalaanki yuddh ka virodh badhata hi gaya. raamase maikdonaald jo ki ek jaane maane yuddh virodhi aandolanakaari the ne lebar party ke sansadeeya dal ke neta pad se isteefa de diya aur aarthar heindarasan party ke nae adhikaar sampann neta bane. iske baad vo bahut jald pradhaanamantri eskvith ke yuddh mantraalaya mein shaamil hone vaale pehle lebar saansad ban gaye.

aarthar heindarasan ne party ke mataanusaar 1917 mein mantraalaya se isteefa de diya, unki jagah George baarns ne li. yaddh ke baad ke chunaavon mein lebar party ke samarthakon ki sankhya mein teji se badhottri hui. aagaami varshon mein ko-oparetiv party ne bhi lebar party se chunaavi samjhauta kar liya.

1918 ke jan-pratinidhi kaanoon banane ke baad aparaadhiyon aur paagalon ko chhodkar lagbhag har vyask purush aur 30 varsh se upar ki mahilaaon ko mataadhikaar mil gaya. iski vajah se british matadaataaon ki sankhya mein lagbhag teen guna ka ijaafa ho gaya. 1912 mein yeh sankhya 77 lakh thi jo 1918 mein badhkar 2 karon 14 lakh ho gayi thi. iski vajah se sansad mein lebar pratinidhiyon ki sankhya mein bhi bahut uchhaal aaya. [49]

1921 se 1923 ke dauraan communist party of great Britain ko lebar party ke saath kisi bhi tarah ke samjhaute se vanchit rakha gaya.[50] is dauraan libral party teji se ksheen hoti rahi, ismein toot pad gayi aur iske samarthakon ki ek badi sankhya lebar party se judti chali gayi. libralon ke kamjor hone ke baad lebar party ne 1922 ke aam chunaavon mein sansad ki 142 seatein jeeteen aur is tarah se house of kaumans mein kanjrvetiv party ke baad doosare sabse bade dal ke roop mein ubhari. chunaavon ke baad raamase maikdonaald lebar sansadeeya dal ke pehle aadhikaarik neta chune gaye.

pehli lebar sarkaar, 1924

lebar dal saansadon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par sadan mein doosari badi party thi. kanjrvetiv jo ki unase jyaada the poorn bahumat naheen pa sake the aur eskvith ke netrutv vaale libral saansadon ke samarthan ki badaulat sirf 191 saansad hone ke baavajood 1924 mein lebar party ki pehli sarkaar bani aur raamase maikdonaald pradhaanamantri bane.

raamase maikdonaald: lebar dal se pehle pradhaanamantri, 1924 aur 1929–31

choonki sarkaar libralon ke samarthan ke bharose thi isliye sadan mein koi bhi samaajavaadi prastaav paarit hona mushkil tha. is sarkaar ki ek hi ullekhaneeya upalabdhi vheetali housing act thi jismein majadoor varg ke logon ke parivaaron ke rahane ke liye 5 lakh gharon ka nirmaan hona tha. saath hi shiksha, berojgaari aur saamaajik beema se sambandhit prastaav bhi paarit hue.

doosari lebar sarkaar, 1929–31

sanyukt raajashaahi mein hue 1929 ke doosare aam chunaavon mein lebar party house of kaumans ke liye 287 seaton aur 37.1% maton ke saath pehli baar sabse badi party ke taur par chuni gayi. haalaanki iske baad bhi maikdonaald ko alpamat ki apni sarkaar chalaane ke liye libralon ke samarthan ki jaroorat thi. maikdonaald ne is baar Britain ki pehli mahila cabinet mantri ke roop mein maargret baundafeeld ko niyukt kiya. inhein shram mantri ke roop mein chuna gaya.

sarkaar bahut jald museebaton se ghir gayi jab 1929 ki ameriki aarthik mandi aur uske baad UK mein arthavyavastha dagamaga gayi. is mandi ne Britain ko tod diya tha. 1930 ke ant tak berojgaaron ki sankhya doguni hokar 25 lakh tak pahunch gayi thi.[51] sarkaar ke paas is museebat se ubarane ke koi thos upaaya naheen the. 1931 ki garmiyon tak sarkaari kharchon mein katauti ke mudde par sarkaar do faad ho gayi thi.

aarthik haalaat bigdate dekh maikdonaald ne libralon aur kanjrvetivon ke saath milkar ek sayunkt raashtreeya sarkaar banaane par sahamati de di. 24 August 1931 ko isteefa dete hue maikdonaald ne raashtreeya sarkaar mein apne thode se varishth saathiyon ki aguvaai ki. iski vajah se lebar party mein gussa ubal pada, lebar dal ke saansad maikdonaald dvaara khud ko thaga hua mahasoos kar rahe the. maikdonaald aur unke samarthakon ko party se nikaal diya gaya aur unhonne apni ek nai party banaai jiska naam tha naishanal lebar organaaijeshan. bache hue lebar saansad ek baar fir aarthar heindarasan aur kuchh anya vidrohi libral netaaon ke saath mil gaye lekin 1931 ke aam chunaavon mein lebar party ki bhaari haar hui aur use sirf 52 seatein hi mili. jabki raashtreeya sayunkt sarkaar ko bhaari jeet mili.

vipaksh mein, 1930

aarthar heindarasan, jinhein 1931 mein maikdonaald ka uttaraadhikaari chuna gaya tha 1931 ke chunaavon me haar gaye. puraani lebar sarkaar ke ek hi mantri apni seat bacha paae aur vo the George lainsabari aur parinaamasvaroop vo hi dal ke neta bane.

party mein 1932 mein ek aur toot hui jab indeepeindeint lebar party jo pichhle kuchh samay se party netrutv se naaraaj chal rahi thi isse alag ho gayi.

laansabari ne 1935 mein neta pad se isteefa de diya aur uske turant baad unke sahayogi kleemeint ettali party ke neta chun liye gaye jinhonne agale do dashakon tak party ka netrutv kiya. 1935 ke aam chunaavon mein party ek baar patari par I aur ab tak ka apna sarvashreshth pradarshan karte hue 158 seatein aur 38% pasandeeda mat pai.


yuddhakaaleen gathabandhan, 1940–45

charchil vaar mantraalaya ke saath party ek baar fir 1940 mein satta mein lauti. jab nevile kaimbaralen ne 1940 mein pradhaanamantri pad se isteefa de diya tab raajashaahi ke aagaami pradhaanamantri vinstan charchil ne pratham vishv yuddh ke dauraan hue prayog ki tarah is baar bhi tamaam anya dalon ko bhi saath laane ka nirnaya kiya. kleemeint ettali ko Lord praaivi seal aur yuddh mantraalaya ka sadasya chuna gaya. isatarah se kleemeint UK ke pehle up pradhaanamantri bane.

tamaam anya varishth neta bhi mantri bane jaise majadoor sangh ke neta arnst bevin shram mantri chune gaye aur unhonne Britain ki yuddhakaaleen arthavyavastha aur shramik upalabdhata ke vishay dekhe, puraane lebar neta harbart maureesan ko gruh mantri, hyugh daultan ko vitt mantri, vyaapaar aayog ka adhyaksh banaaya gaya.

yuddh ke baad chunaavi vijay aur mahatvapoorn kaarya, 1945–51

kleemeint ettali: lebar dal se pradhaanamantri, 1945–51

Europe mein yuddh ke ant ke baad lebar ne 1918 ki libralon ki galati na doharaane ka sankalp liya aur majadoor sanghon ke dabaav mein nae chunaavon mein charchil samarthak kanjrvetivon ke virodh mein maujooda sarkaar se hat gayi. tamaam paryavekshakon ko hataprabh karte hue lebar party lagbhag 50% maton aur 159 bahumat ki seaton ke saath 1945 ke aam chunaav jeet gayi.[52]

kleemeint ettali ke netrutv waali yeh sarkaar beesaveen sadi ke british itihaas ki sabse ugr sudhaaravaadi sarkaar saabit hui. usane kenejiya ke aarthik sudhaaron ko laagoo kiya, bank of ingalaind aur tamaam anya vishaal uddogon va kal-kaarkhaanon jaise koyala khadaan, steel udmog, urja, gas, yaataayaat (railway, bas) ityaadi ko sarkaari niyantran mein liya. usane arthashaashtri William bevarij ki kalpana vaale kalyaanakaari sarkaari raajya ka vikaas aur sthaapana ki. aaj tak lebar dal ke sadasya 1948 ke Britain ke sarkaari kharche se chalne waali raashtreeya svaasthya seva ko apni sabse achhi upalabdhiyon mein se ek maanate hain.[53] ettali sarkaar ki ek aur bahut hi etihaasik kaaryavaai Bhaarat ko svatantrata aur Pakistan ka nirmaan tha. ettali sarkaar ne britaani hukoomat ko khatm karne ki shuruvaat kar di thi. Bhaarat ke baad usane aagaami varshon mein barma aur Sri Lanka ko bhi svatantrata de di. January 1947 mein ek gupt baithak ke dauraan ettali aur 6 cabinet star ke mantriyon ne lebar party ke androoni parmaanu hathiyaar virodhi bhaavana ke viruddh Britain ke liye parmaanu hathiyaaron ke vikaas ki aadhaarashila rakhi.[51]

lebar dal ne 1950 ka aam chunaav bhi jeeta lekin is baar uske seaton ki sankhya kam ho gayi. is baar use bahumat se sirf 5 seatein hi jyaada mileen. jald hi raksha party keandar ek vightanakaari vishay ban gaya. 1951 ke Koreai yuddh ke dauraan raksha bajt badhakar sakal ghareloo utpaad ka 14% ho gaya tha. [54] iski vajah se janta par bhaar pad raha tha aur sarkaar ko sarkaari kharche ghataane pad rahe the. vitt mantri hyugh getaskel ne raashtreeya svaasthaya seva ke liye shulk lagaane ki ghoshana kar di. muft svaasthaya seva ke lebar party ke siddhaant ko khatm hota dekh beevan, aur vaanijya mantri hairauld Wilson ne tyaagapatr de diya.

1951 ke chunaavon mein lebar dal ko apne chunaavi itihaas ke sabse jyaada mat mile the. 1945-41 ke dauraan kiye gaye adhikt badlaavon ko kanjrvetivon ne bhi apna liya aur yeh neetiyaaain yuddhoparaant mataikya ka hissa bani aur 1970 tak laagoo raheen. haalaanki raashan mein milne vaale khaadd padaarthon aur kapadon ki maatra dheere dheere kam kar di gayi aur 1953 mein hata di gayi.

yeh bhi dekhein: kenejiyn arthavyavastha (angreji mein)


vipaksh mein, 1950 ke baad

1951 ki haar ke baad party 13 varshon tak vipaksh mein rahi. party mein vaichaarik toot ho gayi. ettali ke yuddhoparaant kiye gaye aarthik sudhaaron aur unke achhe saamaajik parinaamon ki badaulat aam janta ne us vakt ki kanjrvetiv sarkaaron se doori banaae rakhi. ettali 1955 mein apne sevaanivrutti tak lebar dal ke neta bane rahe.

unke uttaraadhikaari hyugh getaskel jo ki dal ke dakshinpanthi gut se sambaddh the 1950 ke poorvaarddh aur 1960 ke uttaraardh mein hue party ke androoni jhagadon aur toot se nipat naheen paae aur party 1959 ke aam chunaav haar gayi. 1963 mein getaskel ki hrudayaaghaat se hui aakasmik mrutyu ke baad hairauld Wilson party ke neta chune gaye.

Wilson ke netrutv waali lebar sarkaar, 1964–70

aarthik mandi aur tamaam kaandon jismein se profyumo afeyar bhi ek tha, ne kanjrvetiv sarkaar ko 1963 tak duba diya. chaar seaton ke bahumat ke saath lebar party ek baar fir 1964 mein satta mein thi. jabki 1966 mein Wilson ke netrutv mein iske bahumat ki badhat 96 ho gayi.

hairauld Wilson: lebar dal se pradhaanamantri, 1964–70 aur 1974–76

Wilson sarkaar gruh mantri Roy jenkins ke netrutv mein tamaam saamaajik aur shaikshik sudhaaron ko karne ke liye jaani jaati hai. jaise ki 1964 mein mrutyu dand ki samaapti, 1967 mein garbhapaat aur samalaingikta ko kaanooni banaana (sirf 21 varsh se adhik ke britenavaasi purushon ke liye) aur 1968 mein theatre ke censor ki samaapti. vistrut aur vyaapak shiksha ko badhaava diya gaya aur open vishvavidyaalayon ki sthaapana ki gayi. haalaanki Wilson sarkaar ek bade vyaapaarik ghaate se joojh rahi thi jisse mudra ka avmoolyan hua. parinaamasvaroop lebar dal 1970 ke chunaav Edward heeth ke netrutv vaale kanjrvetivon se haar gaya.

vipaksh mein, 1970–74

1970 ke aam chunaav haarne ke baad lebar ek baar fir vipaksh mein pahunch gayi. hairauld Wilson uske neta bane rahe. heeth ki sarkaar uttari Ireland aur 1973 mein khadaan majadooron ke saath ek maamale mein ulajh gayi. sattar ka dashak kanjrvetivon aur lebar sarkaaron donon ke liye hi mushkilon bhara raha. 1973 ke tel ki kami ki vajah se bahut jyaada mahangaai badh gayi thi aur vaishvik berojgaari chha gayi thi. alstar yooniynists ke samarthan se vilsan ke netrutv mein lebar sarkaar 1974 mein ek baar fir satta mein vaapas lauti. 1924 ke baad se yeh pehla aam chunaav tha jismein donon mukhya paartiyon ne 40% se kam mat haasil kiye the. iske baad se lebar party ke bure din shuru ho gaye the aur vo lagaataar chh: baar 40% se kam mat haasil karti rahi.

asantosh ke varsh, 1979–97

1974 se 79 tak lebar sarkaar aarthik sankaton se joojhati rahi. 1979 ke chunaavon mein iski haar ke baad lebar party mein adanrooni kalah bahut badh gayi. ismein do faad ho gaye, left ving yaani toni ben ke pratinidhitv vaale gut aur denis heli ke pratinidhitv vaale dakshinpanthi gut mein takaraar badhati hi chali gayi. 1980 mein Michael foot ke neta banane par aur unke vaam panthi neetiyon ke virodh ki vajah se party ke sheersh chaar neta aur poorv cabinet mantri David oven, Roy jenkins, William rojrs aur sharle Williams ne lebar party se isteefa de kar 1981 mein social democratic party bana li. party ke upaneta ke chunaav mein ben, heli se kuchh maton se haar gaye. 1982 mein raashtreeya kaaryakaarini ne party ke andar hi ban rahi paartiyon aur alag vichaaradhaara ke logon ke party mein ghuskar nuksaan pahunchaane ki sambhaavana vyakt ki.

1983 ke aam chunaavon mein lebar party ki buri tarah haar hui. vah kul maton ka sirf 27.6% hi jeet pai. 1918 ke baad se yeh usaka sabse kharaab pradarshan tha. maargret thaichar ke netrutv vaale kanjrvetiv dal ne 397 seatein jeetkar use buri tarah haraaya tha. lebar dal ko ek navanirmit dal "esadeepi-libral gathabandhan" se thode hi jyaada mat mile the.[55]

neel kinnauk vipaksh mein party ke neta, 1983–92.

foot ne isteefa de diya aur unki jagah neel kinnauk ne li. nae netrutv ne teji se aprabhaavi va alokapriya neetiyon ko tyaagana shuru kar diya. great Britain mein 1984-85 ke dauraan hue khadaan majadooron ki hanataal aur vaiping vivaad ki vajah se party mein jhagada badh gaya aur press mein nakaaraatmak khabarein chhapeen.

lebar ne 1987 ke chunaavon mein apne pradarshan mein sudhaar karte hue 20 aur seatein jeeti aur sansad mein doosari sabse badi party bani. is beech esadeepi aur libralon ke gathabandhan se ek nai party libral demokrets ka janm hua.

November 1990 mein maargret thaichar ke isteefe ke baad John mejr kanjravetiv party ke neta aur United kingadam ke nae pradhaanamantri bane.

chitr:Old Logo Labour Party.svg
knnauk, bleyar aur smith ke dauraan lebar dal ka logo

thaichar ke jaane aur major ke aane ke baad kanjravetivon ki kaarya shaili mein parivartan aa chuka tha. ek dashak se jyaada ke kanjrvetiv shaasan ke baad nikkaur ke "badlaav ka samay aa gaya hai" ke naare ko samarthan mil raha tha.

1992 ke chunaavon mein janta ne ek trishanku sansad chuni lekin kanjrvetiv 21 seaton ke bahumat ke saath ek baar fir satta mein aa gaye.[56] seaton aur maton mein badhottri ke baavajood haar jaan lebar samarthakon ke liye niraashaajanak tha. 30 saalon mein pehli baar janta aur media mein yeh bahas chhid gayi thi ki kya ab kabhi lebar party sarkaar mein vaapasi kar paaegi.

kinnaurk ne isteefa de diya aur John smith party ke nae neta bane. smith ke netrutvakaal mein ek baar fir dal ke andar prakhar vaamapanthiyon aur udaaravaadiyon ke beech party mein sudhaar ke tareekon ko lekar takaraar badhne lagi. 1993 ki ek sabha mein smith ne safalta poorvak party ke niyamon mein badlaav kar diya aur sansadeeya chunaav ke liye pratinidhiyon ko chunane mein majadoor sanghon ki dakhalandaaji aur prabhutv ko kam karne mein safalta pai. unhonne "ek sadasya ek mat" ki neeti laagoo ki.

September 1992 mein hue aarthik traasadi jise kaala Budhvaar (black vedanesade) ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai kanjrvetiv sarkaar ki vittaprabandhan ki kshamataaon par se logon ka bharosa utha diya. saal ke ant tak lebar party ki lokapriyta badhane lagi thi aur chunaavapoorn sarvekshanon mein vah kanjrvetivon ke upar bhaari padti dikh rahi thi. 1993 mein aarthik traasadi ke khatm hone aur uske baad ek sthaayi aarthik sudhaaron ki bayaar bahne ke baavajood lebar party ki kanjrvetivon par badhat kaayam rahi.[57]

nai lebar – sarkaar mein vaapasi, 1997–2010

टोनी ब्लेयर: लेबर दल से प्रधानमंत्री, 1997–2007 टोनी ब्लेयर: लेबर दल से प्रधानमंत्री, 1997–2007
toni bleyar: lebar dal se pradhaanamantri, 1997–2007
gaurdan brown: lebar dal se pradhaanamantri, 2007–2010

toni bleyar ne party mein udaaravaadi neetiyon ko laagoo karna jaari rakha.

"nai lebar" ya "new lebar" ko pehle lebar party ki chaal dhaal mein badlaav ke roop mein dekha gaya. ek naya braaaind jo ki pehli baar 1994 ki sabha mein istemaal kiya gaya tha 1996 mein party ke ghoshanaapatr mein shaamil ho chuka tha. ise "naya lebar, Britain ke liye naya jeevan" ke roop mein prachaarit kiya gaya. naya lebar ya "new lebar" party ka koi aadhikaarik sthiti naheen thi lekin ise udaaravaadiyon ko sanbhodhit karne ke liye aur kattarpanthiyon jinhein puraani lebar ("old lebar") kaha jaata tha se fark karne ke liye istemaal kiya jaane laga.

nai lebar nae vichaaron aur aadarshon ki party hai na ki puraani pad chuki vichaaradhaara ki, mahatva usaka hai jo kaam ka hai. iske uddeshya prajaatantravaadi aur ugr sudhaaravaadi hain. tareeke aadhunik honge. [58]

lebar party ne 1997 ka aam chunaav 179 seaton ke bhaari bahumat se jeeta, yeh usaka ab tak ka sarvashreshth bahumat tha. saath hi 1945 ke baad se kisi bhi raajaneetik dal ke liye yeh sabse bada ulatafer tha. agale dashak mein bahut saare pragativaadi saamaajik sudhaar kiye gaye.[59][60]kar sudhaaron jaise kai pragatisheel neetiyon ki vajah se laakhon logon ke jeevanastar mein sudhaar hua.[61][62][63]

William haug ke netrutv waali kanjrvetiv party abhi bhi haar se ubharane ka prayaas kar rahi thi aur bleyar ki lokapriyta badhti hi ja rahi thi. in sab vajahon se lebar party ne usi bahumat se 2001 ke Britain ke aam chunaav bhi jeet liye. media ne ise bahut badi jeet karaar diya.[64]

ameriki raashtrapati jaurj dablyu. bush ko Iraq yuddh mein samarthan karne ki vajah se bleyar ki lokapriyta aur raajaneetik aadhaar ghat gaya.[65] sayunkt raashtra mahaasachiv sahit tamaam pramukh hastiyon ne is yuddh ko akaaran maana tha.[66]pashchimi deshon mein Iraq yuddh behad alokapriya tha aur pashchimi sarkaarein iske samarthan karne aur na karne ko lekar ekamat naheen theen. [67]

2005 mein lebar party ek baar fir sarkaar ke liye chuni gayi.

vipaksh mein, 2010 se abatak

lebar dal ke neta 2010-2015, Ed milibaind.

11 May 2010 ko gaurdan brown ke tyaagapatr ke baad hairiyet harman party ke androoni chunaavon tak kaaryakaari neta aur sansad mein neta vipaksh bane.[68] Ed milibaind ne baad mein androoni chunaav jeet kar lebar dal ka neta pad sambhaala. is dauraan party ki kismat mein bhi bahut sudhaar dekha gaya jab party ne 2011 mein dher saari kaaunsil ki seatein jeeteen. party ne velsh mein bhi apni sthiti mein sudhaar karte hue vels ki raashtreeya sabha mein alpamat ki sarkaar banaai. haalaanki isi dauraan vo skautish sansad mein tamaam seatein haar bhi gayi.

2012 ke kshetreeya chunaavon mein lebar dal ko uttar, madhya aur dakshin kshetron mein achhi safalta mili. party ko tamaam mahatvapoorn angreji kaaunsilon jaise Birmingham, saauthaimpatan, naurvich, plaaimaauth ityaadi par niyantran mil gaya.[69] 2008 ke kshetreeya chunaavon mein haare hue kaardif jaise tamaam kaaunsilon par pun: jeet haasil karke party ko velsh mein achhi safalta mili.[70] Scotland ke kshetreeya chunaavon mein lebar dal ne glaasgo shahar ki kaaunsil par poorn niyantran pa liya aur poore Scotland mein behatareen safalta haasil ki.[71] London nagarapaalika ke chunaavon mein party ko mishrit safalta hi haath lagi.[69]

1997 ke baad pehli baar 15 November 2012 ko pehli baar koi upachunaav jeetate hue lebar party ne kanjrvetivon ke adhikaar waali korbi ki seat hathiya li.[72]

aam chunaavon ke baad se sitmbar 2010 mein party mein 32 hajaar nae sadasya jude.[73] 2011 ke ant tak yeh sankhya badh kar 65 hajaar ho chuki thi.[74][75]

2014 ke Europeeya sansadeeya chunaavon mein party ne kanjrvetivon ke 19 seaton ke mukaabale 20 seatein jeeti lekin UK Independence party ke 24 seaton se peechhe rahi.[76] 2014 ke kshetreeya nagarapaalika chunaavon mein bhi lebar party ko bahumat mila aur use 324 nae sabhaasad mile.[77]

blue lebar

naya netrutv Cameron ke bada samaaj ke naare ke javaab me ek anukool aur spasht vichaaradhaara dhoondh raha hai. vah toni bleyar ke nav-udaarataavaad ki vichaaradhaara se bhi poorn aakasmik parivartan dhoondh raha hai.

blue lebar party ki vichaaradhaara mein aaya ek kuchh had tak prabhaavashaali taatkaalik badlaav hai[78] jo nav-udaarataavaadi arthavyavastha ke virodh aur kuchh saamaajik aur antarraashtreeya muddon par roodhivaadi neetiyon ke apnaane par kaamakaaji logon ko party se dobaara jod paane ke najriye ki vakaalat karta hai.[79][80][81] yeh paramparaagat kalyaanakaari raajya jo bahut jyaada afasarashaahi ka shikaar hai se hatkar shreneegat samaajavaad ke siddhaanton aur kshetreeya star par lokataantrik saamaajik prabandhan aur sevaaeain diye jaane ka samarthan karta hai.[18][82] Ed milibaind in vichaaron ko badhaava dete hain, 2011 mein neela lebar ki vichaaradhaara ka prachaar karne waali ek pustak ki bhoomika mein unhonne neela lebar ke baare mein apni soch likhi hai.[83] haalaanki lebar party ke unke sahakarmi mauris glaisamain ke the daily teleegraaf ko diye saakshaatkaar ke baad iska prabhaav kam ho gaya hai.[84]

Ed milibaind ingalaind ki arthavyavastha ke liye jimmedaar poonjeevaad[85] aur aarthik sevaaon me lage hue logon ke nihit svaarthon se nipatne ke liye adhik sarkaari hastakshep ka samarthan karte hain.[86] mailibaind ne kaha hai ki vo bankon aur urja companyon par niyantran badhaane ke paksh mein hain.[87] milibaind ne niji udmogon par lagne vaale karon mein ferabadal kar karmachaariyon ke vartamaan dainik bhatton ko badhaane ki bhi vakaalat ki hai.[88]


ghaata

sitmbar 2014 mein Ed baals ne sarkaar ke chaaloo vitteeya ghaate ko kam karne ki yojana pesh ki. jahaaain kanjravetiv sabhi sarkaari kharchon mein badhottri ka samarthan kar rahe hain lebar party vartamaan bajt ko santulit karna chaahati hai.[89]

2015 ke aam chunaav

2011 ke skautish sansad ke aam chunaavon mein lebar party ki haar ne uske UK ke 2015 ke aam chunaavon mein niraasha janak pradarshan ke sanket de diye the. Ed milibaind ke netrutv mein vestaminstar mein dobaara satta mein lautane ki aas liye party ne Britain mein 20 se jyaada seatein jeeteen.[90][91] haalaanki Ed bauls samet iske kai varishth neta kanjrvetivon ke mukaabale mein chunaav haar gaye.[92]skautish naishanal party ke mukaabale lebar ke skautish kile [93] ke dhhane se skautish lebar ke neta jim marfi sahit uske 40 saansad baahar ho gaye.[94] poore great Britain mein party ko 48 seaton ka nuksaan hua aur house of kaumans mein usaki sankhya ghatkar 232 ho gayi.[95]

saat May ko chunaavon ke ek din baad milibaind ne party ke neta pad se tyaagapatr de diya.[92] iske baad se hairiyet harman kaaryakaari neta hain.

chunaavi pradarshan

aam chunaavon mein bade dalon dvaara praapt lokapriya maton ko dikhaata ek rekhaachitr, 1832–2005
chunaav mat mat% seat chunaav parinaam
1900 62,698 1.8%
2 / 670
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1906 321,663 5.7%
29 / 670
libralon ki jeet
1910 (Jan.) 505,657 7.6%
40 / 670
trishanku sansad (libral alpamat ki sarkaar)
1910 (Dec.) 371,802 7.1%
42 / 670
trishanku sansad (libral alpamat ki sarkaar)
1918 2,245,777 21.5%
57 / 707
gathabandhan ki jeet
1922 4,076,665 29.7%
142 / 615
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1923 4,267,831 30.7%
191 / 625
ki jeet
1924 5,281,626 33.3%
151 / 615
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1929 8,048,968 37.1%
287 / 615
trishanku sansad (lebaron ki alpamat ki sarkaar)
1931 6,339,306 30.8%
52 / 615
raashtreeya sarkaar ki jeet
1935 7,984,988 38.0%
154 / 615
raashtreeya sarkaar ki jeet
1945 11,967,746 49.7%
393 / 640
lebar party ki jeet
1950 13,266,176 46.1%
315 / 625
lebar party ki jeet
1951 13,948,883 48.8%
295 / 625
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1955 12,405,254 46.4%
277 / 630
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1959 12,216,172 43.8%
258 / 630
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1964 12,205,808 44.1%
317 / 630
lebar party ki jeet
1966 13,096,629 48.0%
364 / 630
lebar party ki jeet
1970# 12,208,758 43.1%
288 / 630
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1974 (Feb.) 11,645,616 37.2%
301 / 635
trishanku sansad (lebaron ki alpamat ki sarkaar)
1974 (Oct.) 11,457,079 39.2%
319 / 635
lebar party ki jeet
1979 11,532,218 36.9%
269 / 635
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1983 8,456,934 27.6%
209 / 650
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1987 10,029,807 30.8%
229 / 650
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1992 11,560,484 34.4%
271 / 651
kanjrvetivon ki jeet
1997 13,518,167 43.2%
419 / 659
lebar party ki jeet
2001 10,724,953 40.7%
413 / 659
lebar party ki jeet
2005 9,562,122 35.3%
356 / 646
lebar party ki jeet
2010 8,601,441 29.1%
258 / 650
trishanku sansad (kanjrve/lib-demo gathabandhan)
2015 9,339,818 30.5%
232 / 650
kanjrvetivon ki jeet

pehle chunaav jan pratinidhi kaanoon 1918 ke tahat lade gaye the jismein 21 varsh ke upar ke sabhi purush aur 30 se jyaada ki adhiktar mahilaaeain mataadhikaar ka prayog kar sakti thi. is vajah se jyaada matadaata the.

vaishvik mataadhikaar milne ke baad lade gaye pehle chunaav jismein 21 varsh se jyaada umr ki sabhi mahilaaeain mat de sakti theen.

#mataadhikaar 18 se 21 varsh ki aayu ke sabhi naagrikon ko bhi de diya gaya.

netrutv

1906 ke baad se lebar dal ke neta

  • keer haardi, 1906–08
  • aarthar heindarasan, 1908–10
  • George nikol baarns, 1910–11
  • raamase maikdonaald, 1911–14
  • aarthar heindarasan, 1914–17
  • William edamasan, 1917–21
  • John Robert klaains, 1921–22
  • raamase maikdonaald, 1922–31
  • aarthar heindarasan, 1931–32
  • George laansabari, 1932–35
  • kleemeint ettali, 1935–55
  • hyugh getaskel, 1955–63
    • bairon George brown|George brown, 1963 (kaaryakaari)
  • hairauld Wilson, 1963–76
  • James kaileghan, 1976–80
  • Michael foot, 1980–83
  • neel kinnauk, 1983–92
  • John smith, 1992–94
    • margaret bekket, 1994 (kaaryakaari)[96]
  • toni bleyar, 1994–2007
  • gaurdan brown, 2007–2010
  • Ed milibaind, 2010–2015

1924 ke baad se house of laurds mein lebar dal ke neta

  • richrd hailden, 1924–28
  • Charles krips, 1928–31
  • aarthar paunsonbi, 1931–35
  • Harry snel, 1935–40
  • Christopher edeesan, 1940–52
  • William jovitt, 1952–55
  • ailbart Victor elekjendar, 1955–64
  • Frank paikenhaim, 1964–68
  • Edward shaikeltan, 1968–74
  • mailkam shefrd, 1974–76
  • fred peeyart, 1976–82
  • kledavaain hyughs, 1982–92
  • aaivar richrd, 1992–98
  • maargaret J, 1998–2001
  • gaireth Williams, 2001–2003
  • vaileri emaus, 2003–2007
  • Cathrine eshtaun, 2007–2008
  • jainet royaal, 2008–2015
  • ainjela smith, 2015-vartamaan

lebar dal se pradhaanamantri

naam chitr janmasthal kaaryakaal
raamase maikdonaald Ramsay MacDonald ggbain.29588.jpg Scotland 1924,1929,1931
kleemeint ettali Clement Attlee.PNG ingalaind 1945–1950; 1950-1951
hairauld Wilson Dodwilson.JPG ingalaind 1964-1966; 1966-1970; February, 1974; October, 1974–1976
(svaasthaya kaaranon se tyaagapatr diya.)
James kaileghan James Callaghan.JPG ingalaind 1976-1979
toni bleyar Tony Blair in 2002.png Scotland 1997-2001; 2001-2005; 2005-2007
gaurdan brown GordonBrown1234 cropped.jpg Scotland 2007-2010

sandarbh

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granth soochi

aur padhein

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baahari kadiyaaain