lavan

lavan (Salt) vah yaugik hai jo kisi aml ke ek, ya adhik haaidrojan parmaanu ko kisi kshaarak ke ek, ya adhik dhanaayan se pratisthaapit karne par banta hai. khaanevaala namak ek pramukh lavan hai. rasaayanat: yeh namak sodiym aur kloreen ka sodiym kloraaid naamak yaugik hai. potaishiym naaitret ek doosra lavan hai, jo naaitrik aml ke haaidrojan aayan ko potaishiym haaidrauksaaid ke potaishiym aayan (dhanaayan) dvaara pratisthaapit karne se banta hai. naaitrik aml ke anu mein keval ek haaidrojan hota hai, jo potaishiym se pratisthaapit hota hai. salfyoorik aml mein pratisthaapaneeya haaidrojan ki sankhya do hai. at: sodiym dvaara salfyoorik aml ke donon haaidrojan ke pratisthaapit hone par sodiym salfet naamak lavan praapt hota hai. donon hi yaugik lavan kahalaate hain. pehla naurmal (normal) lavan aur doosra amleeya lavan kahalaata hai. vividh amlon aur vividh kshaaron ke sahayog se anek lavan bane hain.

anukram

nirmaan

lavanon ka nirmaan nimnalikhit reetiyon se hota hai :

(1) dhaatuon par amlon ki kriya se, jaise yashad par salfyoorik aml ki kriya se jink salfet praapt hota hai.

(2) kshaar, ya kshaarakon tatha kaarboneton par amlon, ya amleeya ainahaaidraaidon ki kriya se, jaise potaishiym haaidrauksaaid par haaidroklorik aml ki kriya se potaishiym kloraaid banta hai.

(3) tatvon ke seedhe sanyog se, jaise sodiym evam kloreen ke seedhe sampark se sodiym kloraaid banta hai.

(4) amleeya oksaaidon aur kshaarak oksaaidon ke sanyojan se, jaise salfar traaioksaaid (amleeya) evam potaishiym oksaaid (kshaar) ke sanyojan se potaishiym salfet banta hai.

(5) kisi lavan ki ek dhaatu ko doosari dhaatu se visthaapit karne se, jaise kaupar salfet ko lohe ke sampark mein laane se taaainbe ka sthaan loha le leta hai, jisse feras salfet banta hai.

(6) kisi lavan evam kam vaashpasheel aml ki paraspar abhikriya dvaara, jaise sodiym kloraaid par alp vaashpasheel salfyoorik aml ki kriya se sodiym haaidrojan salfet banta hai.

(7) lavan par kshaar ki kriya se, jaise amoniym kloraaid par potaish ki kriya se potaishiym kloraaid banta hai.

(8) do kshaaron ki paraspar kriya se, jaise sodiym haaidrauksaaid par jink haaidrauksaaid ki kriya se sodiym jinket banta hai.

(9) dhaatu evam kshaarak ki paraspar kriya se, jaise jink par potaishiym haaidrauksaaid ki kriya se potaishiym jinket banta hai.

(10) do lavanon ke beech ubhaya apaghatan se, jaise potaishiym kloraaid tatha sodiym naaitret se potaishiym naaitret evam sodiym kloraaid bante hain. is reeti se jal mein vileya do lavanon, jaise silver naaitret tatha potaishiym kloraaid, ke ubhaya apaghatan se jal mein avileya silver kloraaid tatha jal mein vileya potaishiym naaitret praapt hote hain. saamaanyat: jal mein avileya lavan ki praapti mein is reeti ka vishesh roop se upayog hota hai.

(11) lavanon ke upachayan, ya apachayan se, jaise led salfaaid ke upachayan se led salfet tatha beriym salfet ke apachayan se beriym salfaaid praapt hota hai.

amlon ke saath dhaatu ya dhaatu ke aaksaaidon ki kriya se-

kshaaron ya kshaareeya aaksaaidon par amleeya aaksaaidon ki kriya se-

lavanon ki amlon ya anya lavanon se kriya dvaara-

saadhaaran tatvon ki kriya se

kshaaron ki adhaatuon se kriya dvaara-

naamakaran

lavanon ke naam kshaar aur amlon ke yog se bante hain. dhaatu, ya dhaatumoolak pehle aate hain aur aml peechhe. amlon ke angreji naam ke antim ansh ko hataakar usamein "aaid" (-ide), "aait" (-ite), ka "eight" (-ate) jodte hain. dviangi yaugik lavanon mein "aaid" aur triangi lavanon mein "aait" ya "eight" jodte hain. sodiym aur haaidroklorik aml ke lavan ko sodiym haaidrokloraaid, ya sodiym kloraaid bhi kehte hain. triangi lavanon mein lavan yadi amleeya hai, to usamein "aait" (-ite) jodte hain, jaise sodiym salfaait, sodiym faasfaait ityaadi aur yadi lavan naarmal hai, to usamein eight (-ate) jodte hain, jaise sodiym salfet, kailsiym fausfet ityaadi. doosare shabdon mein jis aml ke ant mein "as" (ous) hota hai usaka lavan aait aur jis aml ke ant mein "ik" (ic) hota hai usamein eight jodte hain, jaise salfyooras aml ka lavan salfaaid aur salfyoorik aml ka lavan salfet hai.

vargeekaran

lavanon ka vargeekaran anek prakaar se kiya gaya hai, jaise lavanon ke gun evam prakruti ke aadhaar par, lavanon ke sanghatan ke aadhaar par evam unke jaleeya vilyan ke vyavahaar par. ek vargeekaran ke anusaar lavan ko "naurmal lavan", "amleeya lavan", ya "kshaar lavan" kehte hain. vargeekaran ki yeh reeti is baat par nirbhar karti hai ki aml ke sabhi haaidrojan aayanon ka, athva kshaarak ke sabhi haaidrauksaaid aayanon ka, pratisthaapan hua hai, athva naheen. is vargeekaran mein aml tatha kshaarak ke sabhi haaidrojan tatha haaidrauksaaid aayanon ke pratisthaapan se praapt honevaale lavan ko naarmal lavan kaha jaata hai. haaidrojan ke sabhi aayanon ka pratisthaapan na hone ke kaaran jo lavan praapt hote hain, unamein pratisthaapaneeya haaidrojan ke aayan vidyamaan hote hain aur aise lavan ko amleeya lavan kaha jaata hai. isi prakaar se haaidrauksaaid ke sabhi aayanon ka pratisthaapan na hone ke kaaran jo lavan praapt hote hain, unamein pratisthaapaneeya haaidrauksaaid ki vishesh upasthiti ke kaaran unhein kshaarakeeya lavan kaha jaata hai. udaaharanaarth, sodiym kloraaid, sodiym salfet aadi naarmal lavan hain. sodiym haaidrojan salfet, sodiym haaidrojan fausfet aadi amleeya lavan evam kshaarakeeya maigneeshiym kloraaid, kshaarakeeya kaupar kaarbonet aadi kshaarakeeya lavan hain.

lavan ke vargeekaran ki ek anya reeti mein lavan ki visheshata evam aayaneekaran ki poornata ke aadhaar par vargeekaran kiya jaata hai. is vargeekaran mein aayaneekaran se keval ek amleeya, athva ek kshaarakeeya, athva ek ek donon ke moolak pradaan karanevaale lavan ko saral lavan kaha jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, sodiym kloraaid, sodiym haaidrojan (vaai) kaarbonet aadi saral lavan hain. aanavik anupaat mein do sadrush lavanon ke sanyukt lavan ko is vargeekaran ke anusaar dvik ya dviangi lavan kaha jaata hai, jaise potaishiym kloraaid tatha maigneeshiym kloraaid ke sanyukt lavan ko dvik lavan kaha jaata hai. vishesh prakaar ke dviki lavan tatha do se adhik sadrush lavan ke sanyog se nirmit honevaale lavan ko fitkari, ya ailam kaha jaata hai. potaishiym salfet, ailuminiym salfet tatha kristaleeya jal ke sanyog se nirmit lavan ko potaish-fitkari, ya potaish ailam-kaha jaata hai. kisi lavan mein ek se adhik kshaarak athva amleeya moolak ki upasthiti hone par aise lavan ko mishrit lavan kaha jaata hai, jaise sodiym potaishiym salfet. sankar lavan saamaanya dvik lavan ke sadrush hote hain, parantu vilyan mein inka vyavahaar dvik lavan se bhinn hota hai, kyonki inke aayanan ki reeti bhinn hoti hai. potaishiym ferosaainaaid tatha potaishiym daaikromet sankar lavan hai.

gunadharm

saamaanyat: naurmal lavan ke vilyan udaaseen hote hain, par anek naurmal lavan ke vilyan amleeya athva kshaareeya bhi hote hain. naurmal lavan ke vilyan ka yeh prabhaav jal ke saath lavan ke aayan ki kriya ke falasvaroop utpann hota hai. is kriya ko jal apaghatan (Hydrolysis) kaha jaata hai. sodiym cynide lavan ko jal mein gholane par vilyan mein jalaapaghatan ki kriya hoti hai, jiske falasvaroop vilyan mein sodiym haaidrauksaaid (kshaar) tatha haaidrojan cynide (haaidrosyaanik aml) bane hain aur chooainki sodiym haaidrauksaaid teevr kshaar hai, at: lavan ka vilyan kshaareeya hota hai. amoniym kloraaid lavan ka jaleeya vilyan jal apaghatan kriya ke kaaran amleeya hota hai.

aadhunik kaal mein aml tatha kshaar ke saamaanya siddhaant mein vikaas hone ke falasvaroop, lavan ke gyaan ke sambandh mein bahut vistaar ho gaya hai. is disha mein braunsted naamak vaigyaanik ka siddhaant atyant mahatvapoorn maana jaata hai. is siddhaant mein kriya ke antim utpaad lavan ki apeksha aml tatha kshaar ke prakriyaakram par adhik bal diya gaya hai.

raasaayanik gun

lavanon ke raasaayanik gun unamein upasthit dhanaayan evam rinaayan par nirbhar karateen hain.

amlon ke saath kriya

dhaatuon ke saath kriya

lavanon ki lavanon se kriya

kuchh lavan garam karne par vightit ho jaate hain.

inhein bhi dekhein