lauh dhaatukarm ka itihaas

[[chitr:QtubIronPillar.JPG|right|thumb|300px|Delhi ka lauh stambh]Delhi ka loh stambh

Bhaarat ke lohe tatha ispaat ki kai visheshataayein thi. vah poornataya jng mukt the. is ka pratyakshapramaan pachchees foot ooncha kutub meenaar ke smeep Delhi sthit loh stambh hai jo lag bhag 1600 varsh poorv gupt vainsh ke samraat chandragupt vikramaaditya ke kaal ka hai aur dhaatu gyaan ka aashcharya janak keertimaan hai. is loh stambh ka vyaas 16.4 inch hai tatha vajn saadhe chh: tan hai. 16 shataabdiyon tak mausam ke utaar chadhaav jhelne ke pashchaat bhi ise aaj tak jng naheen laga. kuchh pramaanon ke anusaar yeh stambh pehle vishnu mandir ka garood stambh tha. muslimshaasakon ne mandir ko loot kar dhvast kar diya tha aur stambh ko ukhaad kar use vijay chinh svaroop 'kuvvatul-isalaam masajid' ke sameep Delhi mein gaad diya tha.

haal hi mein indiyn inteechyoot of tekanolojeekaanapur ke visheshajnyayon nein stambh ka nireekshan kar ke apna mat pragat kiya hai ki stambh ko jang se surakshitrakhane ke liye us par misaavit naam ke rasaayan ki aik patali si paratachadhaai gayi thi jo loh, aakseejan tatha haaidrojan ke mishran se taiyyaar ki gayi thi. yahi parikriya aajkal anushakti ke prayaag mein laaye jaane vaale padaarthon ko surakshit rakhane ke liye dibbe banaane mein prayog ki jaati hai. suraksha parat ko banaane mein uchch koti ka padaarth prayog kiya gaya tha jis mein faasaforas ki maatra lohe ki tulana mein ek pratishtake lagbhag thi. aaj kal yeh anupaat aadhe pratishat tak bhi naheen hota. faasaforas ka adhik prayog praacheen bhaarateeya dhaatu gyaan tatha takaneek ka pramaan hai jo dhaatu vaijnyayiaanikon ko aashcharya chakit kar rahi hai.

aajkal viksit desh teknoloji traaainsafar ko hathiyaar bana kar aviksit deshon par aarthik dabaav badhaate hain. jo log paashchaatya takaneek ki nakal karne ki vakaalat karte hain unhein svadeshi takaneek par shodh karna chaahiye taaki ham aatm nirbhar ho sakein.] lauh dhaatukarm (Ferrous Metallurgy) ka aarambh praagaitihaasik kaal mein hi ho gaya tha. ispaat nirmaan (steelmaking) ka gyaan bhi praagaitihaasik kaal se hi hai.

anukram

itihaas mein loha aur is‍aapaat

yeh maana jaata hai ki praagaitihaasik yug mein loha ul‍aakaapin‍aad ke tukade se praap‍aat hua tha aur kai sadiyon se yeh durlabh dhaatu bana raha. baad mein maanav ne ispaat nirmaan ki prakriya seekhi. ut‍aapaad sanbhavat: apekshaakrut itna chikna aur anumaan na karne yog‍aaya tha ki hathiyaar hetu kaansya ko tarajeeh diya gaya. antat: jab maanav lohe ko galaane, fojing karne, kathor evam temaparing karne ke kathin kala mein siddhahast ho gaya to in uddeshyon ke liye lohe ne alauh dhaatuon ka s‍aathaan le liya.

praacheen kaal mein maanav dvaara prayog kiye gaye loha ka pramaan bebilon, misr, cheen, Bhaarat, yoonaan aur rom jaise praacheen sabh‍aayataayein se praap‍aat apoorn lekh aur ibhilekh mein dhaatu ke sandarbh mein praap‍aat apoorn lekh aur abhilekh mein dhaatu ke sandarbh mein pramaan mila hai. meseepotaamiya aur mishr mein paaye gaye puraavashesh se yeh pramaan milta hai ki loha aur baad ka is‍aapaat ka lagbhag 6000 varsho tak maanav jaati iska prayog karta tha. praacheen kaal mein lakdi se bane hue kaath koyala ko prayog kar lauhe ko galaaya jaata tha. baad mein koyala ka taap ka vruhat shrot ke roop mein pata lagaaya gaya. tadanan‍aatar yeh kok mein parivrtit ho gaya jo loh ayas‍aak ko galaane hetu aadarsh paayaapraacheen kaal mein maanav dvaara prayog kiye gaye loha ka pramaan bebilon, mishr, China, Bhaarat, yoonaan aur rom jaise praacheen sabh‍aayataayein se praap‍aat apoorn lekh aur ibhilekh mein dhaatu ke sandarbh mein praap‍aat apoorn lekh aur abhilekh mein dhaatu ke sandarbh mein pramaan mila hai. meseepotaamiya aur mishr mein paaye gaye puraavashesh se yeh pramaan milta hai ki loha aur baad ka is‍aapaat ka lagbhag 6000 varsho tak maanav jaati iska prayog karta tha. praacheen kaal mein lakdi se bane hue kaath koyala ko prayog kar lauhe ko galaaya jaata tha. baad mein koyala ka taap ka vruhat shrot ke roop mein pata lagaaya gaya. tadanan‍aatar yeh kok mein parivrtit ho gaya jo loh ayas‍aak ko galaane hetu aadarsh paaya gaya

America mein 1646 isavi mein safalataapoorvak s‍aathaapit aayaran works “adi saaugas works “ ke pash‍aachaat lagbhag 200 ya isse adhik varsho ke liye loha apna prabal s‍aathaan banaaye rakha. naye railgaadiyon ke aavish‍aakrut hone se lohe ki patariyaaain bani. ladaakoo jahaajon ke side ko lohe ke kavach se surakshit rakhane ke liye lohe ka prayog hota tha. lagbhag 19 veen shataab‍aadi ke madh‍aaya mein 1856 mein besemar prakriya ke aavish‍aakaar se is‍aapaat ke yug ka aarambh hua jo is‍aapaat ko paryaap‍aat maatra evam uchit laagat mein banaane ki anumati de di.

praacheen Bhaarat mein lohe ka prayog

praacheen Bhaarat mein loha is‍aapaat ka poora ul‍aalekh hai. kuchh praacheen s‍aamaarak jaise nai dil‍aali mein prasiddh loh s‍aatam‍aabh ya konaark mein soorya mandir mein prayog kiya gaya thos beam mein paryaap‍aat saaksh‍aaya milta hai jo praacheen bhaarateeya dhaatu vigyaani ka praudyogikeeya ut‍aakarsh dikhaata hai.

Bhaarat mein lohe ka prayog pracheen yug ki or le jaata hai. vedik saahityik srot jaisa ki rigaved, atharvaved, puraan, mahaakaab‍aaya mein shaanti aur yuddh mein lohe ke gaare mein ul‍aalekh kiya gaya hai. ek adh‍aayayan ke anusaar loha Bhaarat mein aadikaaleen laghu suvidhaaon mein 3000 varshon se adhik samay se Bhaarat mein ut‍aapan‍aan hota hai.

pramukh ghatanaaeain

  • pratham saharaabdi isa poorv - vishv ke vibhinn bhaagon ke log raut aairan (wrought iron) banaana jaante the.
  • 17veen shataabdi - ispaat ki chhadon ko simeinteshan prakriya dvaara kaarbyuraaij karke isapaat nirmaan
  • 1850 - henari besemar (Henry Bessemer) ispaat-nirmaan ki nayi prakriya viksit ki jismein dravit pig aairan par hava bahaakar use maaild steel banaaya jaata tha.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain