lalit kala

saundarya ya laalitya ke aashray se vyakt hone waali kalaaeain lalit kala (Fine arts) kahalaati hain. arthaat vah kala jiske abhivanyajan mein sukumaarata aur saundarya ki apeksha ho aur jiski srushti mukhyat: manovinod ke liye ho. jaise geet, sangeet, nrutya, naatya, tatha vibhinn prakaar ki chitrakalaaeain.


anukram

nrutya kala (dakshin bhaarateeya)

bharat naatyam

Tamil Nadu mein prasiddh yeh nrutya pehle pahal aadal, kooloo, daasiyaattam, chinnamelam aadi naamon se jaana jaata tha. is nrutya mein bharatamuni krut naatyashaastr mein varnit pranaaliyon ka shuddh anukaran hone ke kaaran ise 'bharatanaatyam‌' kehne lage. bharat shabd hi bhaav, raag aur taal ke sanyog ko soochit karta hai. yeh naatya taandav, laasya do prakaar ke hain. shivji dvaara tandu naamak bhootagan ko pradatt taandav tatha paarvati devi se pradatt laasya hai. alag alag rahanevaali tatha shrungaar ke aadhaar dharakar viksit honevaali bhaavabhoomikaaon ka abhinay hi laasya ke roop mein varnit hai.

yeh nrutya atyant praacheen maana jaata hai. sindhu ghaati sabhyata ke avashesh roop mein mili hui vastuon mein ek nartaki ki pratima hai. tamil ke panchamahaakaavyon mein shreshth shippadhikaaram mein bhi ham is naatyapranaali ka ullekh paate hain. yeh pranaali keval dakshin Bhaarat mein hi prachalit naheen thi, apitu uttar Bhaarat mein bhi ek kaal mein yeh prachalit thi. pramaanasvaroop ham uttar Bhaarat ke anek bhagn shilaakhandon mein is nrutyapranaali ka pratipaadan paate hain. aaj saanskrutik navajaagaran ke is yug mein paashchaatya deshon ka dhyaan bharatanaatyam ki or aakrusht hua hai.

bharatanaatyam mein ek hi nartaki ke ashrupravaah, nayanamaarjan, hastaabhinya aadi se bhaavon ka pratipaadan karne ke kaaran ismein kalaatmakata adhik vikaasasheel ho pai hai. bharat ke dvaara varnit gatividhi, greeva-chaalan-vidhi aaj bhi vyaapak roop se bharatanaatyam mein prachalit hain. unke dvaara varnit hastaabhinya hi aaj ke hastaabhinya ka aadhaar hai. bharatanaatyam ke sambandh mein praapt honevaala praacheen granth abhinyadarpan hi, jo nadikeshvar rachit maana jaata hai, aaj ke nartanaachaaryon ka aadhaaragranth hai.

in nrutyapranaali mein pehle pushpaanjali, fir mukhashaali, fir shuddh yati nrutya, shabdashaali, soodaadi shabd nrutt, shabdasood, fir anek prakaar ke geeton ka abhinay, fir prabandh nartan tatha ant mein sindhutaru dhruvapad aadi ka kram rakha gaya hai. yeh naatya kavita, abhinay, ras, raag aadi ka sammishrit roop hai jo kramash: yaju:, saam, atharvan vedon ka saar tatha dharm, arth kaam, moksh ko pradaan karanevaala maana jaata hai. aajkal is nrutyapranaali ka prachalan vyaapak ho gaya hai. raag, taal, abhinay, nrutt, chitrakaari, shilpakala aadi se yukt is kala ka sanposhan iski vaareekiyon ki or vishesh dhyaan dete hue badi shraddha ke saath ho raha hai.

Bhagwat naatya naatak ya bhaagavat‌ mel naatya naatak

naatya naatakon mein yeh ek prakaar ka hai jo bahut hi shreshth maana jaata hai. in naatakon ka abhinay praaya: purushon ke dvaara hi hota hai. ganapati, narasinh ityaadi devon ki mukhaakrutiyaaain hoti hai jinki pooja nat nitya kiya karte hain aur naatya kaal mein vrat dhaaran karte hain. ye naatak bahudha mandiron mein hi khele jaate hain, anyatr naheen.

naatak ke praarambh mein mangalaacharan gaaya jaata hai. baad mein konaaaingeeda sar naamak vidooshak rangamanch mein pravesh karta hai. naatakakaar ki visheshataaeain aur naatak ka lakshya oradisindhu (ekaakshar chhand) mein gaae jaate hain.

iske baad paatrapravesh hota hai, pravesh taru gaae jaate hain. tanchaavoor jila ke meratoor, ullukkaadu, shoolamangalam‌ shaaliymangalam‌ aadi jagahon mein yeh nrutyapaddhati prachalit hai. Andhra Pradesh ke koochipudi naamak gaaainv mein bhi narasinh jayanti mahotsav ke samay yeh nrutya hota hai.

sadir

iska nartan praaya: ek athva do stri paatron dvaara hota hai. yeh nartan pehle praaya: devadaasiyon se hi karaaya jaata tha.

pallu

stri aur purush sammilit roop se yeh nrutya karte hai. ismein bahudha graameen geeton ki hi pradhaanata hoti hai.

kathakali

iska arth hi kathaapradhaan hai. yeh nrutya praacheen kaaleen naatya sampradaayon evam devi devataaon ki poojanapaddhati se janit maana jaata hai. mudiyettu, bhagavati paattu, kaali aattam, tookuaadi - ye nrutya aaryon ke aagaman ke poorv sthit anaaryon ke aachaaravichaar ko pratibinbit karanevaale hain. mook abhinay, dhaarmikta, tantr mantra, vichitr bhoosha, yuddh, raktapravaah, aadi roodhibddh hokar rangamanch mein pradarshit kiye jaate hain. ye is nrutya ki visheshataaeain hain. yeh naatak Kerala ke shaakya logon se hi adhik prachalit hua. tamil mahaakaavyon mein shreshth shilppadhikaaram‌ mein bhi is nrutya ka ullekh hai. sanskrut naatakon ka ansh koodiyaattam se abhinyaadi vishesh ang kathakali mein liya gaya hai. shaakyon ke aangik abhinay, unki mudraaeain, bhaavaabhinya, rangamanch ki roodhiyaaain ityaadi kathaanusaar apnaai gayi hain.

kathakali mein jo rang kaam mein laae jaate hain un rangon ka vishesh arth hota hai. is nrutya mein prayukt honevaali har cheej vishesh arthasoochak hoti hai, jaise hara rang daivi gunon ka soochak, kaala rang raakshasi pravruttiyon ka soochak maana jaata hai.

Kerala mein jyon jyon is nrutya ka prachalan hone laga tyon tyon Kerala saahitya ka vikaas hua.

krushnaattam

kathakali ka hi ansh maana jaata hai. is nrutyapaddhati ke srashta the raaja saamudri. ismein Krishna jeevan sabandhi kahaaniyon ki pradhaanata hoti hai. iske alaava Kerala mein mohineeyaattam naamak nrutya bhi prachalit hai. yeh praaya: striyon dvaara hi kiya jaata hai.

koochchuppudi

Andhra pradesh mein prachalit nrutyapaddhati hai. vijyavaada ke sameep ka koochchuppudi gaaainv is nrutya ka janmasthaan hai. iske srashta hai siddheindr yogi. is nrutya-pranaali mein abhinay, pad chaalan aur hastachaalan adhik hai. is nrutya mein pauraanik kathaansh hi adhik hota hai.

yakshagaanam‌

yeh karnaatak mein prachalit ek puraatan nrutya pranaali hai.

dhaatu evam kaashth kala

pratyek desh mein tatha pratyek yug mein dhaatu evam kaashth kala maanav sabhyata ke jeevan ke abhinn upakaran rahe hain, jinke prayog dvaara manushya ne apne jeevan ko sahaj, sukhi aur sampann banaane ki cheshta ki hai. praagaitihaasik kaal se hi prakruti ko vijayi athva pramohit karne ke liye aur jeevan mein ek niyamit niyantran laane ke liye, bhaya se ho athva shraddha se, jab manushya ne apne chaaron or ke vaataavaran ki taal se apne jeevan ko sanyojit kiya to usaka yeh prayatn kala ko keval sundarata ke liye varan karna na tha balki usamein uske jeevananirvaah aur dainik kriya ka lakshya keindrit tha. ham dekhte hai ki prastar yug, taamr yug aur uske baad ke yugon ki kala isi aadarsh aur lakshya par aadhaarit hai, na ki ek kisi anupayogi vastu ka keval saundaryapaan karne ke liye. yahi kaaran hai ki jahaaain ek or unke dvaara bane hue dainik kaaryon mein kaam aanevaali in dhaatu aur kaashth ki vastuon mein bhi unke jeevan, dharm aur saamaajik vyavastha ki chhaap spasht hai, vahaaain doosari or inheen vastuon dvaara ham unamein nihit supt saundarya bodh ki jhaaainki bhi paate hain.

dhaatu ki apeksha lakdi ka prayog baad mein hua hoga, aisa kehna theek naheen janchata. haaain, yeh avashya hai ki lakdi kam tikaaoo maadhyam hone ke kaaran usamein udaaharan hamein itne praacheen naheen praapt hote, jitne dhaatu, haddi athva patthar mein milte hain. aitihaasik yug ki vaastukala, chaahe vah rahane ka aavaas ho, mandir, chaitanya athva vihaar ho is baat ki pushti karti hai ki iske poorv yahi sab cheejein lakdi mein banaai jaati rahi hongi. lomas ki kuti, saaainchi ke dwaar aur khidki, ajanta ki gufaaon ki banaavat iska jvalant pramaan hain jo patthar mein bani hokar bhi unki kalpana aur yojana lakdi ke maadhyam par hi aadhaarit hai.

dainik jeevan ki in upayogi vastuon ka nirmaan yadyapi lalit kala ke lakshya se naheen hua, tathaapi saamoohik jeevan ki kalaapriyta ka ansh inmein hamein avashya drushtigochar hota hai aur yadi inhein kalaatmak vastueain kaha jaae to bhool na hogi. sabhyata ke vikaas ke saath saath maanav ne yadyapi apni nirmit vastuon mein upayogi dhaarana ko naheen chhoda par ham dekhte hai ki usaki kalaapriyta ne apni pravaahasheelata dvaara kuchh maatra mein unhein lalit kala ke sundar upaadaan bana diya hai. yeh keval aadhunik yug ki hi den hai ki jahaaain kala ek or saamoohik na hokar vyaktigat hui, doosari or usaki upayogita kala, kala ke liye ho, is uddeshya ko lekar chali, yeh doosari baat hai ki isi anupayogi kala ka prabhaav bhi hamaari upayogi vastuon par pada aur ek prakaar se usane saamoohik roop liya. aaj ke vaigyaanik yug mein yaataayaat ke viksit saadhanon dvaara kala ka ek naveen roop antararaashtreeyata bhi saamane aa raha hai jahaaain kisi raashtra ki raajaneetik, saamaajik athva dhaarmik paridhiyaaain toot chuki hai aur maanavata ek sanyukt drushtikon mein aabaddh hokar bhi, kala vyaktigat maulikta ko naheen chhod pai hai kyonki manovaigyaanik vichaaron se bhi abhibhoot hokar vyaktivishesh ke antaraal mein supt laalasaaon, kaamanaaon aur pratirodhi aashankaaon ko bhi ab kala ke upaadaanon ki uchit saamagri maan liya gaya hai.

mohanajodaado ki nartaki ki dhaatu ki moorti se us kaal ki kala ka star, drushtikon evam aavashyak gun hamein spasht parilkshit hote hain aur yadi ham baad ki dhaatu ki moortiyon mein dekhein, jo dasveen shataabdi se prachur maatra mein banani praarambh ho gayi theen, to nartaki un sab gunon se paripoorn hai jo ek uchch koti ki moorti mein hone chaahiye. nataraaj ki kaaainse ki moorti ki bhaavapoorn gatisheelata mein ham paramparaagat kala saundarya ke sab lakshanon ke saath saath aadhunik maapadandon dvaara bhi use sarvagun sampann paate hain. naipaali taara ki moorti ki shaat ardhanayan nimeelit saumyata, uske chaaron or ka anaavashyak alankaran, jo dheere dheere baad ki moortiyon mein aur bhi badh gaya, kisi se chhip naheen paati. yadyapi is prakaar ki yeh sabhi moortiyaaain dhaarmik bhaavanaaon ko lekar bani tathaapi unke kalaasaundarya ke kaaran vah sarvapriya dharmanirpeksh ho sakeen.

dhaatu ki moortiyaaain teen prakaar ki hoti theen, dhali hui, peeti hui aur dhali peeti hui. dhaali hui moortiyaaain praarambh mein mom dvaara bana li jaati theen. aur fir patali maheen chikni mitti ke ghol mein moorti ko dubaakar ek mota aavaran bana liya jaata tha. neeche lagi hui mom ki nali dvaara jo pratyek moorti ke aavashyakataanusaar sthaanon par laga li jaati hai garmi dekar mom baahar nikaal diya jaata aur usi rikt sthaan ko unheen naleevaale maarg se dhaatu dvaara bhar diya jaata hai. chaaaindi, sona, kaaainsa, peetal aur ashtadhaatu ki sabhi moortiyaaain isi prakaar dhaali jaati hain.

doosari prakaar ki moortiyon mein dhaatu ki chaadar ko peechhe ki or se peet peetakar ubhaar liya jaata hai aur ise ubhare hue vibhinn ang ke kholon ko jod diya jaata hai. kabhi kabhi dhali hui moortiyon ke alankaran peetakar banaate aur baad mein jod dete hain ya peeti hui moortiyon ke sinhaasan athavaaalankaran dhale hue rahate hain. dakshin Bhaarat, naipaal aur Gujarat aisi moortiyon ka kendra raha hai aur ab bhi vahaaain paramparaagat shaili aur vidhi se in moortiyon ka nirmaan hota hai, yadyapi ab inka lakshya dhaarmik kam aur adbhut vastuon ki rachana kar videshi mudra arjan karna adhik hai. moortiyon ke atirikt aaraadhana kaarya mandir aur dainik jeevan mein kaarya aanevaali vastueain paramparaagat shaili mein ab bhi banti hai jais kalash, dharati, pradeep, poorn Kumbh ghante, chheep lakshmi, saraute, chaakoo ityaadi jo ab rnijeev aur rudhigt hone par bhi ek apni sthaaneeya shaili ka aakarshan rachate hain.

kaashth kala ke adhiktar praapt namoone hamein madhyayug se poorv ke naheen milte par unki kalaanipunata aur kaushalaparaakashtha dekhkar sahaj mein hi maan liya ja sakta hai ki us uchch koti ke star tak pahuainchane ke liye is prakaar ki kala ki parampara bahut puraani rahi hogi. chandan, akharot, sheesham, aavanoos, katahal, sheel, neem, ki kaashthakala ke sarvottam udaaharan hamein kaathamaandoo (Nepal), Ahmedabad (Gujarat) ke bhavanon mein aur Kerala ki rathayaatra ke samay kaarya aanevaale bade aakaar ke rathon mein milte hain. svatantr moortiyon ki apeksha in sabhi ka dhyeya kaashth vastu kala ka ek alankrut ang hona tha par kalaakaaron ko apni apni shilp chaturata aur praudhta dikhaane ka kaafi avsar mila hai aur ye lakdi ke makaan, aaraadhana athva vaasasthaan hone ke kaaran, dhaarmik vishay par hi adhik protsaahan hone par bhi ham paate hain ki dharmanirpeksh vishay jaise shikaari, pashupakshi, dainik jeevan mein talleen naranaariyon se in bhavanon ki khudaai otaprot hai. khudaai karne ke baad in bhavanon ko vaarshik samaaroh ke samay parishkrut karne ke liye tel ka prayog avashya kiya gaya jiske kaaran kaashth jaisa maadhyam pakka hokar samay aur jalavaayu ke kroor praghaaton ko sah paaya hai. kuchh bhavan to ab bhi kal ke bane hue se nae dikhte hain.

chandan aur akharot ki lakdi jiska Mysore aur Kashmir kendra hai kalaatmak prakaar ki chhoti aur badi dainik jeevan ki vastueain aur pashupakshi, kandhe, dabbe ityaadi banaane ke kaarya mein laai gayi hai. usaka vishesh kaaran is prakaar ki lakdi ki durlabhata aur badi paridhi ke ped na hona hi hai. mugal kaal mein bhi yeh kala panapi aur aavanoos ke kaarya ke liye, jiske alankrut kanghe, kanghiyaaain, kalamadaan dabbe ityaadi banaae jaate rahe. uttar pradesh ke nagar nageena aur sahaaranapur vikhyaat hue. usi kaal se lakdi ke oopar peetal ka taar, seep athva vibhinn prakaar ki lakadiyon ke mel se fool boote ka jadaaoo kaam (inlay work) bhi praarambh hua.

sabhi kalaaon ki bhaaainti dhaatu aur kaashth ki moortiyaaain bhi videshi raajya ke bhinn drushtikon ke kaaran aur uchit sanrakshan tatha protsaahan ke abhaav mein nirjeev evam roodhigrast ho gain. kaheen unka lop hua to kaheen unke kushal kaareegaron ne jeevananirvaah ke liye anya kaam dhandhe samhaal liye. dhani shikshit varg videshi vastuon ki sabhyata aur kala ki chakaachaundh mein apni parishkrut ruchi gavaaain baithe. shikshit kalaakaaron ne bhi videshi kala ka anusaran kiya kintu kaalaantar se ab fir in khoi hui vaibhavasheel kalaaon ki or dhyaan ja raha hai aur anek udeeyamaan kalaakaaron ne kaashth moortikla ko apna maadhyam banaaya hai jismein bhaarateeya paramparaagat shaili ke saath ham aaj antararaashtreeya kalaadrushti ka sundar samanvaya paate hain. pratyek maadhyam ka apna svatantr gun aur charitra hai jo doosare maadhyam mein hamein naheen milta. dhaatu ki moorti kaashth jaisi na lage aur kaashth ki moorti patthar, cement athva dhaatu jaisi na lage aur uske anrtahit gunon ko parakhakar maadhyam ke anukool, nas, rang, roop ko dhyaan mein rakh kalaakaar apni kruti ki kalpana kare aur uske gopaneeya saundarya ko unmeelit kar de jisse utaar chadhaav, rekha ityaadi ke sammishran se ek maulik rachana prastut ho, yahi aadhunik kalaakaar ka dhyeya aur uddeshya hai. baahyaroop kuchh bhi ho par hamaari kala ke mool siddhaant, jo shadang ke antargat aate hain, ab bhi kisi bhi maap dand se khare utarate hain chaahe drushtikon kitna hi ati aadhunik ho.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain