lakshana

lakshana shabd-shakti ka ek prakaar hai. lakshana, shabd ki vah shakti hai jisse usaka abhipraaya soochit hota hai. (indirect, implied or figurative sense of a word)

kabhi-kabhi aisa hota hai ki shabd ke saadhaaran arth se usaka vaastavik abhipraaya naheen prakat hota. vaastavik abhipraaya uske saadhaaran arth se kuchh bhinn hota hai. shabd ko jis shakti se usaka vah saadhaaran se bhinn aur doosra vaastavik arth prakat hota hai, use lakshana kehte hain. shabd ka vah arth jo abhidha shakti dvaara praapt na ho balki lakshana shakti dvaara praapt ho, lakshitaarth kahalaata hai.

anukram

prakaar

saahitya mein lakshana shakti do prakaar ki maani gayi hai— niroodh aur prayojanavati .

niroodh lakshana

par kuchh lakshyaarth rudh ho gaye hain. jaise 'kaarya mein kushal'. kushal ka shabdaarth 'kush ikattha karanevaala' hota hai, par yeh shabd daksh ya nipun ke arth mein rudh ho gaya hai. is prakaar ka arth rudhi lakshan dvaara prakat hota hai.

roodhi lakshana mein roodhi ke kaaran mukhyaarth ko chhodkar usase sambandh rakhane wala anya arth grahan kiya jaae. jaise 'Rajasthan veer hai.' Rajasthan pradesh veer naheen ho sakta. ismein mukhyaarth ki baadha hai. isse iska lakshyaarth 'Rajasthan nivaasi' hota hai, kyonki Rajasthan se uske nivaasi ka aadhaaraadheyabhaav ka sambandh hai. yahaaain raajasthaaniyon ke liye 'Rajasthan' kehna roodhi hai.

prayojanavati lakshana

vah lakshana jo prayojan dvaara vaachyaarth se bhinn arth prakat kare. prayojanavati lakshana mein kisi vishesh prayojan ki siddhi ke liye lakshana ki jaati hai, jaise-

'bahut si talavaarein maidaan mein aa gain' is vaakya mein yadi ham talavaar ka arth talavaar hi karke rah jaate hain to arth mein baadha padti hai. isse prayojanavash hamein talavaar ka arth talavaaraband sipaahi lena padta hai. at: jis lakshana dvaara yeh arth liya vah prayojanavati hui.

prayojanavati lakshana ke do mukhya bhed hain- gauni, shuddha.

gauni lakshana

gauni mein saadrushya sambandh se arthaat samaan gun ya dharm ke kaaran lakshyaarth ka grahan kiya jaae.

shuddha lakshana

shuddha lakshana mein saadrushya sambandh ke atirikt anya sambandh se lakshyaarth ka bodh hota hai. shuddha lakshana ke chaar bhed hain- upaadaan lakshana, lakshanalakshana, saaropa lakshana aur saadhyaavasaana lakshana.

upaadaan lakshana

jahaaain vaakyaarth ki sangati ke liye anya arth ke lakshit kiye jaane par bhi apna arth na chhoote vahaaain upaadaanalakshana hoti hai. upaadaan ka arth hai grahan-lena. ismein vaachyaarth ka sarvatha tyaag naheen hota. jaise, 'pagadi ki laaj rakhiye. lakshyaarth hota hai pagadeedhaari ki laaj. yahaaain pagadi apna arth na chhodte hue pagadeedhaari ka aakshep karta hai. yahaaain donon saath-saath hain. at: upaadaan lakshana hai.

lakshanalakshana

jahaaain vaakyaarth ki siddhi ke liye vaakyaarth apne arth ko chhodkar keval lakshyaarth ko soochit kare, vahaaain lakshanalakshana hoti hai.

ismein amukhyaarth ko anivt hone ke liye mukhyaarth apna arth bilkul chhod deta hai. jaise, 'pet mein aag lagi hai.' yeh ek saarthak vaakya hai. ismein 'aag lagi hai' vaakya apna arth chhod deta hai aur lakshyaarth hota hai ki bhookh lagi hai. isse lakshan-lakshana hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain