laaudaspeekar

ek sasta, kam vishvastata 3½ inch speaker, aamtaur par chhote radio mein paaya jaata hai.
ek chaturmaargi, uchch vishvastata laaudaspeekar system.

ek laaudaspeekar (ya "speaker") ek vidyut-dhvanik oorja parivrtitr hai, jo vaidyut sanketon ko dhvani mein parivrtit karta hai. speaker vaidyut sanketon ke parivrtanon ke anusaar chalta hai tatha vaayu ya jal ke maadhyam se dhvani tarangon ka sanchaar karavaata hai.

shravan kshetron ki dhvaniki ke baad, laaudaspeekar (tatha anya vidyut-dhvani oorja parivrtitr) aadhunik shravya pranaaliyon mein sarvaadhik parivrtanasheel tatv hain tatha dhvani pranaaliyon ki tulana karte samay praay: yahi sarvaadhik viroopanon aur shravya asamaanataaon ke liye uttaradaayi hote hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

anukram

paaribhaashik shabdaavali

shabd "laaudaspeekar" akele oorja parivrtitr (jo “adraaivara” ke naam se jaane jaate hain) ko sandarbhit kar sakta hai athva ek ya adhik draaivaron se yukt ant:kshetr vaale sampoorn speaker system ko. aavruttiyon ki ek vyaapak shrrunkhala ke paryaapt punarutpaadan ke liye, visheshakar uchchatar dhvani dabaav star tatha adhiktam shuddhata ke liye adhiktar laaudaspeekar sistamon mein ek se adhik draaivaron ka prayog hota hai. bhinn aavrutti shrrunkhalaaon ke punarutpaadan ke liye alag-alag draaivaron ka prayog kiya jaata hai. draaivaron ke naam sabavoofar (bahut kam aavruttiyon ke liye), voofar (kam aavruttiyon ke liye), madhyam-doori speaker (madhyam aavruttiyaan), twitter (uchch aavruttiyaan) aur kabhi-kabhi uchchatam shravya aavruttiyon ke liye ishtatam kiye gaye suparatveetar, rakhe gaye hain. vibhinn speaker draaivaron ke liye shabdaavali anuprayog ke aadhaar par parivrtit hoti hai. dotarafa system mein madhya-doori driver naheen hote, isliye madhya-doori dhvaniyon ke punarutpaadan ka kaam voofar aur twitter ke dvaara kiya jaata hai. hom steeriyo mein uchch aavrutti driver ke liye "twitter" naam ka istemaal hota hai, jabki peshevar sangeet system mein unako echaef ("HF") ya haai ("highs") kaha jaata hai. jab kisi system mein ek se adhik draaivaron ka upayog hota hai, to ek krausaovar naamak “afiltar netavarka” aavak sanketon ko vibhinn aavrutti shrrunkhalaaon mein alag karke upayukt driver tak maarg pradaan karta hai. N (n) pruthak aavrutti band vaale laaudaspeekar system ko “N -ve speekara” kaha jaata hai: ek too-ve (dotarafa) system mein ek voofar aur ek twitter hota hai tatha ek three-ve (teen tarafa) system mein ek voofar, ek madhya-shrrunkhala tatha ek twitter hota hai.

itihaas

johaan Phillip rees ne 1861 mein apne telephone mein vidyut laaudaspeekar sansthaapit kiya tha jo shuddh dhunon ke punarutpaadan mein saksham tha kintu saath hi speech ko bhi punarutpaadit kar sakta tha. Alexander Graham bail ne 1876 mein apne telephone ke bhaag ke roop mein pehle vidyut laaudaspeekar ko peteint karavaaya tha (jo samajh mein aane yogya aavaaj ke punarutpaadan mein saksham tha), jiska 1877 mein anusaran kiya arnst seemens ke sanvarddhit sanskaran ne. nikola tesala ne 1881 mein kathit taur par ek aisa hi upakaran banaaya tha, lekin uske liye peteint jaari naheen kiya gaya tha.[1] isi samay ke dauraan, Thomas edeesan ko unke praarambhik silindar fonograaf ke liye sampeedit vaayu ko parivrddhan tantr ke roop mein prayog karne vaale system ko british peteint jaari kiya gaya, lekin antat: unhonne apne parichit, sooi ke saath sanlagn jhilli dvaara chaalit dhaatu ke bhaunpoo ko hi apnaaya. 1898 mein, hores short ne ek sampeedit vaayu dvaara chaalit laaudaspeekar ka peteint karavaaya tha, jiske adhikaar unhonne Charles paarsans ko bech diye, jinko 1910 se pehle kai atirikt british peteint jaari kiye gaye the. Victor tauking machine tatha paathe sahit kuchh companiyon ne sampeedit-vaayu laaudaspeekaron ka prayog karte hue record pleyars ka utpaadan kiya. haalaanki, kharaab dhvani gunavatta tatha kam teevrata par dhvani ke punarutpaadan mein asamarthata ke kaaran ye design seemit the. is system ke roopaantaranon ka upayog saarvajanik udghoshana anuprayogon ke liye kiya gaya tatha adhik haal anya roopaantaranon ka prayog rocket prakshepan se utpann ati teevr dhvani tatha kanpan star ke prati antariksh upakaran pratirodh ka pareekshan karne ke liye kiya gaya.

aadhunik chal-kundali design (jise daayanamik bhi kaha jaata hai) vaale driver ko olivr lodge dvaara 1898 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha.[2] chal-kundali laaudaspeekar ke pehle vyaavahaarik anuprayog ko Peter L. jeinsen tatha edavin pridhm dvaara naapa, kaileeforniya mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha. jensen ko peteint dene se inkaar kar diya gaya tha. apne utpaad telephone companiyon ko bechne mein asafal rahane ke baad, 1915 mein unhonne apni rananeeti saarvajanik sambodhan ki or parivrtit kar di aur apne utpaad ka naam rakha maignaavauks. laaudaspeekar ke aavishkaar ke varshon baad tak jensen maignaavauks company ke ek hisse ka maalik raha tha.[3]

aajkal aam taur se prachalit seedhe rediyetaron mein chal-kundali siddhaant ko 1924 mein chestar dabloo. Rice aur Edward dabloo. kelaug ne peteint karavaaya tha. pichhle prayaason aur Rice tatha kelaug ke peteint ke beech mukhya antar yaantrik maapadandon ka samaayojan tha taaki jis aavrutti par shanku ki rediyeshan pratibaadha ek samaan ho jaati thi, usase kam aavrutti par chal-pranaali ka maulik anunaad ghatit hua. vivran ke liye mool peteint dekhein.[4]

lagbhag isi samay vaultar H. shautaki ne pehle ribn laaudaspeekar ka aavishkaar kiya.[5]

in shuruaati laaudaspeekaron mein vaidyutachunbakon ka prayog kiya gaya tha, kyoki bade aur sthaai chunbak uchit keemat par saamaanyat: upalabdh naheen the. ek vidyutachunbak ki kundali, jise kshetreeya kundali kaha jaata tha, driver ke saath sambandh jodne vaale doosare yugm mein pravaahit vidyut dhaara se sakriya hote the. yeh kundali aam taur se dohari bhoomika nibhaati thi, ek kundal chok ke roop mein kaarya karte hue laaudaspeekar se jude parivrddhak ki vidyut aapoorti ko filtar karti thi. AC vidyut dhaara mein oormika kundal chok mein se pravaahit hote samay ksheen ho jaati thi, haalaanki AC line aavruttiyaan dhvani kundali ko preshit kiye gaye shravya sanketon ke sur parivartan ka prayaas karti theen aur sakriya punarutpaadan upakaran ki shravya gunagunaahat ko badhaati thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

1930 ke dashak mein, laaudaspeekar nirmaataaon ne aavrutti pratikriyaaon tatha dhvani dabaav star ko badhaane ke liye driver ke mahattv ke do aur teen baindapaason ka sanyojan shuroo kar kiya tha.[6] 1937 mein, pehla film udyog ka maanak laaudaspeekar system, "thiyetars ke liye shiarar haurn system"[7] (ek dotarafa system), metro-goldavin-maayar dvaara shuroo kiya gaya tha. ismein 15" ke kam-aavrutti ke chaar driver, 375 hartj ke liye nirdhaarit ek krausaovar network aur uchch aavruttiyaan pradaan karne ke liye do sampeedn draaivaron sahit ek ekal malti-selular haurn hota hai. John keneth heeliyrd, James bulo leinsing aur dagalas shiarar sabhi ne is system ke nirmaan mein bhoomika nibhaai thi. 1939 ke new yaurk vishv mele mein, flashing meedoj mein ek tauvar par bahut bada dotarafa saarvajanik udghoshana system lagaaya gaya tha. sinaudaagraaf ke liye mukhya abhiyanta ki bhoomika mein roodi bojaak ne aath 27” kam-aavrutti driver design kiye the. uchch-aavrutti driver sanbhavat: western ilektrik dvaara banaae hae the.[8]

1943 mein altek leinsing ne '604' pesh kiya jismein nikat-srot-bindu pradarshan hetu ek uchch-aavrutti haurn dvaara ek 15-inch voofar ke madhya se dhvani bheji jaati thi, yeh unka sarvaadhik prasiddh samaaksheeya dvimaargi driver ban gaya tha.[9] altek ke "vauyas of the theatre" laaudaspeekar system 1945 mein baajaar mein aae, jinmein film theatre ke liye aavashyak uchch aautaput staron par behtar sansajan aur spashtata ki peshakash ki gayi thi.[10] academy of motion pikchar Arts end saainsej ne turant iski dhvanik visheshataaon ka pareekshan shuroo kar diya, unhonne ise 1955 mein film house industry ka maanak bana diya.[11] iske baad, dhaanche ki design aur saamagri mein nirantar vikaas se mahatvapoorn shravya sudhaar hue.[krupaya uddharan jodein] aadhunik speekaron mein sarvaadhik ullekhaneeya sudhaar shanku saamagri, uchch-taapamaan aasanjakon ki shuruaat, sanvarddhit sthaayi chunbak saamagri, behtar maap takaneek, computer sahaayit design aur parimit tatv vishleshan ke roop mein hue hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

driver design

ek gatisheel laaudaspeekar ka kataave drushya.
ek moharadaar ispaat laaudaspeekar, tokari frem spasht roop se drushtigochar (yahaaain, neela-bhoora).

sarvaadhik aam prakaar ke driver mein ek halka daayafraam ya shanku . ek kathor tokari ya frem se ek lacheele nilanban jiske kaaran maheen taar ki ek kundali ek belanaakaar chunbakeeya kshetr mein aksheeya gati karti hai, dvaara juda hota hai. jab ek vidyut sanket vauyas kundali mein bheja jaata hai, to vauyas kundali mein vidyut dhaara ke kaaran chunbakeeya kshetr utpann hota hai, jo ise ek chal vidyut chunbak bana deta hai. kundali aur driver ke chunbakeeya system ke paraspar prabhaav se ek yaantrik bal utpann hota hai jisse kundali (aur usase juda shanku bhi) aage-peechhe gati karti hai, parinaamasvaroop parivrddhak se aae vidyut sanketake niyantran mein dhvani ka punarutpaadan karti hai. laaudaspeekar ke is prakaar ke vyaktigat ghatakon ka varnan nimnalikhit prakaar hai.

daayaafraam aamtaur par ek shankvaakaar ya gunbadaakaar vinyaas mein nirmit kiya jaata hai. vividh prakaar ki saamagri ka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, lekin sabse aam, kaagaj, plastic aur dhaatu hain. iske liye aadarsh saamagri vah hai, jo 1) kathor ho, shanku ki aniyantrit gati ko rokane ke liye; 2) vajan kam ho, taaki kam se kam aaranbhik bal ki aavashyakta aur oorja bhandaaran sambandhi mudde kam hon, 3) achhi tarah se avamandit ho, taaki sanket rukane ke baad iski prayog dvaara nirdhaarit anunaad aavrutti ke kaaran kanpan jaari na rahe aur shravya goonj na ho. vyavahaar mein, vartamaan saamagri ke upayog se teenon maapadandon ko ek saath poora naheen kiya ja sakta; isliye driver ke design mein duvidhaaen hain. udaaharan ke liye, kaagaj prakaash aur aamtaur par achhi tarah avamandit hai, lekin kathor naheen hai, dhaatu kathor aur halki ho sakti hai, lekin yeh aamtaur par avamandit naheen hoti hai, plastic halka ho sakta hai lekin aamtaur par, ise jitna kathor banaaya jaaega utana hi iska avamandan kam hota jaaega. nateejatan, kai shanku ke kai prakaar ki mili-juli saamagri ke bane hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, ek shanku selooloj kaagaj ka banaaya ja sakta hai, jismein kuchh kaarban faaibar, kevalar, reshe wala kaanch san ya baans ke reshe jod diye jaate hain, ya ismein chhidrayukt paratonvaale nirmaan ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai, ya is mein atirikt kadaapan athva avamandan pradaan karne ke liee is par ek parat chadhaai ja sakti hai.

chunbak antaraal ke saath mahattvapoorn sangati mein vikruti ke kaaran iske chunbak antaraal mein vauyas kundal ke deevaaron se takaraane ko taalane ke liye chesis, frem ya tokari ko kada design kiya jaata hai. chesis aam taur par elyoomeeniym mishr dhaatu mein dhale ya patali steel chaddar mein thappe se banaae jaate hain, haalaanki vishesh roop se saste aur halke draaivaron ke liye, molded plastic ya avamandit plastic sanyojit tokiryaan lokapriya hain. dhaatu ke chesis vauyas kundal se ooshma ko baahar pahunchaane mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibha sakte hain; sanchaalan ke dauraan garm hone se pratirodh parivrtit ho jaata hai, jiske kaaran bhautik aakaar parivrtit ho sakta hai aur yadi bahut jyaada garm hone par sthaai chunbak ka chunbakatv nasht kar sakta hai.

nilanban pranaali kundal ko antaraal ke beech mein sthit rakhati hai aur gati ke uparaant shanku ko saamaanya sthiti mein laane ke liye aavashyak punarprachalan (keindreekaran) bal pradaan karti hai. aam taur par ek nilanban pranaali ke do hisse hote hain: "makadi", jo daayafraam ya vauyas kundal ko frem se jodti hai tatha punarprachalan bal evam "ghera" banaati hai jo kundal/shanku sanyojan ko keindrit karne mein sahaayata pradaan karta hai aur chunbak antaraal ke saath anukoolit adhikaansh pistan-gati pradaan karta hai. makadi aamtaur par ek kada karne vaale resin se bhari laharadaar kapde ki disk se bani hoti hain. yeh shabd praarambhik nilanbanon ke aakaar, jismein chh: se aath mudi hui "taangon" se jude baikelaait saamagri se bane do sankeindrit chhalle the, se liya gaya hai. is sanrachana ke roopaantaranon mein kanon ke avarodh hetu namade ki ek chakati ka joda jaana shaamil tha taaki unke kaaran vauyas kundal ragad na khaae. jarman farm rulik abhi bhi lakdi ki bani makadiyon ke saath asaamaanya chaalak pradaan karti hai.

shanku ke chaaron or ka ghera rabad ya polistar fom ya resin lepit kapde ki laharadaar chhalla ho sakta hai; yeh donon baahari daayafraam paridhiyon tatha frem se juda hota hai. gheron ki ye vividh saamagriyaan, unke aakaar aur upachaar driver ke dhvanik aautaput ko naatakeeya dhang se prabhaavit kar sakte hain; pratyek shreni aur kriyaanvayan ke laabh aur haani hain. udaaharan ke liye, pauliyestar fom halka aur kifaayati hai, lekin ojon, paraabaingani prakaash, aardrata tatha uchch taapamaan ke sampark mein iska apachayan hota hai, jisse iska upayoga jeevan lagbhag 15 varsh tak saamit ho jaata hai.

vauyas kundal mein aam taur se taanbe ke taar ka upayog hota hai, haalaanki elyoomeeniym- aur bahut hi kam, chaandi-ka bhi pranyog kiya jaata hai. chunbakeeya antaraal shretr mein taar ki parivrtanasheel maatra pradaan karte hue, vauyas kundal ke taar ki anuprasth kaat, vruttaakaar, aayataakaar ya shatakoneeya ho sakti hai. kundal antaraal ke andar samaaksheeya roop se unmukh hoti hai, yeh chunbakeeya sanrachana mein ek chhoti golaakaar jagah (ek chhidr, khaancha ya naali) mein aage peechhe gati karti hai. antaraal ek sthaayi chunbak ke do dhruvon, pehla antaraal ka baahari hissa aur doosra keindreeya post (jise pol pees kaha jaata hai) ke beech ek keindrit chunbakeeya kshetr sthaapit karta hai. pol pees aur baikaplet praay: ek hi tukada hota hai jise polaplet ya yok kaha jaata hai.

aadhunik driver chunbak lagbhag hamesha sthaayi hote hain aur cheeni mitti, feraait, elkino ya adhik haal mein, durlabh mruda jaise niyodaaimiym aur saimeriym kobaalt ke bane hote hain. parivhan laagat mein vruddhi tatha chhote, halke upakaran ki chaah ke kaaran design mein bhaari feraait prakaar ki apeksha antim prakaar ke upayog ki pravrutti hai. bahut kam nirmaata abhi bhi vidyut chaalit kshetreeya kundaliyon ka upayog karte hain (aisi hi ek French hai). jab uchch kshetr-teevrata vaale sthaai chunbak upalabdh hue, to kshetr-kundal draaivaron ki vidyut aapoorti sambandhi samasyaaon ko khatm karne ke kaaran elyoomeeniym, nikal tatha kobaalt ki ek mishradhaatu, elniko lokapriya ho gayi. kareeb 1980 tak elniko ka lagbhag vishisht roop se upayog hota raha. khaaskar jab uchch shakti pravardhakon ke saath upayog kiye jaate hain, to dheele sanyojanon ke kaaran hone vaale aakasmik 'paup' aur 'klik' se elniko chunbak aanshik roop se vikshetrit ho sakte hain (chunbakatv nasht hona). chunbak ke punaraaveshan ke dvaara is nuksaan ko ulata ja sakta hai.

1980 ke baad, adhiktar (lekin sab naheen) driver nirmaata elniko ke sthaan par cheeni mitti tatha beriym ya straunshiym feraait ke maheen kanon ke mishran se bane feraait chunbak ka upayog karne lage. haalaanki in cheeni mitti ke maignet ki prati kilogram oorja elniko se kam hai, ye kam kharcheele hain tatha nirmaataaon ke liye di hui kaaryakshamata haasil karne ke liye bade kintu kifaayati chunbak banaana sambhav ho jaata hai.

design lakshyon ke aadhaar par chunbak ke aakaar aur prakaar tatha chunbakeeya paripth ke vivran bhinn-bhinn hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, dhruveeya khand ka aakaar vaak kundali tatha chunbakeeya kshetr ke beech chunbakeeya anyonyakriya ko prabhaavit karta hai aur kabhi-kabhi ek driver ke vyavahaar ko sanshodhit karne ke liye iska upayog kiya jaata hai. dhruvaagr par sajjit taanbe ki topi ya chanbakeeya-dhruv guha ke andar sthit ek bhaari angoothi ke roop mein ek “alaghupathak angoothi” ya fairaade paash shaamil kiya ja sakta hai. is jatilta ke laabh uchch aavruttiyon par pratibaadha kam hona, vistaarit uchch svar nirgam, haarmonik viroopan kam hona aur aamtaur par bade vaak kundali bhraman se jude prerakatv maudulan mein kami hona shaamil hain. doosari or, badhe hue chunbakeeya pratishtanbh ke saath taanbe ki topi ke liye ek chaude vaak antaraal ki jaroorat hoti hai, isse upalabdh abhivaah mein kami aati hai tatha tulya pradarshan ke liye ek bade chunbak ki aavashyakta hota hai.

jis prakaar ek speaker system banaane ke liye do ya do se adhik driver ek ant:kshetr mein sanyojit hote hain, use shaamil karte hue, driver design kala tatha vigyaan donon hai.[12][13][14] pradarshan sudhaarane ke liye aam taur par anubhavi shrotaaon ke prekshanon tatha uchch parishuddhata maap ke saath chunbakeeya, dhvanik, yaantrik, vidyut aur saamagri vigyaan siddhaant ke kuchh sanyojanon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. viroopan, paalibhvan, praavastha prabhaav, dhuri se alag anukriyaaen tatha sankraman jatiltaaen aadi kuchh mudde hain jinka speaker aur driver dijaainaron ko saamana karna padta hai. yeh sunishchit karne ke liye ki speaker ko kamre ke prabhaavon se mukt maapa ja sake, designer apratidhvanik kaksh ka upayog kar sakte hain, ya aise chainbaron ko ek seema tak pratisthaapit kar sakane waali anek ilektronik takaneekon mein se kisi ka upayog kar sakte hain. kuchh devalapars vaastavik-jeevan ki shravan sthitiyon ke anukaran ke uddeshya se sthaapit vishisht maanakeekrut kamre ke paksh mein apratidhvanik kakshon ka tyaag kar dete hain.

kaafi had tak moolyon, parivhan laagaton tatha vajan seemaaon par nirbhar karte hue, taiyaar speaker sistamon ka nirmaan vibhaajit hai. sthaaneeya kshetron se baahar kifaayati parivhan ke anukool aakaar se aam taur par bade aur bhaari uchch-ant speaker system saamaanyat: unke lakshit baajaar kshetron mein hi banaae jaate hain aur unki laagat $140,000 ya adhik prati jodi ho sakti hai.[15] sabse kam keemat ke speaker system tatha adhiktar driver cheen ya anya kam-laagat utpaadan sthalon mein utpaadit kiye jaate hain.

draaivaron ke prakaar

alag-alag vidyutagatikeeya driver ek seemit pitch seema ke andar ishtatam pradarshan karte hain. ekaadhik chaalak (jaise, sabavoofar, voofar, madhya-doori driver aur twitter) aam taur par ek poore laaudaspeekar system mein sanyojit hokar us seema se pare pradarshan karte hain.

poorn-seema driver

ek poorn-seema driver ko yathaasanbhav vyaapak aavrutti anukriya ke liye design kiya jaata hai. ye driver chhote hote hain, aamtaur par 3 se 8 inch (7.6 se 20.3 seinteemeetar) vyaas mein, yathochit uchch aavrutti anukriya pradaan karne vaale tatha nimn aavruttiyon par nimn-viroopan nirgam hetu dhyaan se design kiye gaye hote hain, haalaanki inka adhiktam nirgam star kam ho jaata hai. poorn-seema (ya adhik sahi-sahi, vyaapak-seema) driver sarvaadhik aam roop se jan udghoshana sistamon par, television par (haalaanki kuchh model haai-faai shravan ke liye upayukt hote hain), chhote radio, intarakaum, kuchh computer speekaron mein sune jaate hain. haai-faai speaker sistamon mein vyaapak seema drive ikaaiyon ke upayog se ekaadhik draaivaron ke beech asanpaati driver sthitiyon ya sankraman network muddon ke kaaran hone waali avaanchhaneeya anyonyakriyaaon se bacha ja sakta hai. vyaapak-seema driver haai-faai sistamon ke prashansakon ke daave ke anusaar dhvani ki sansaktata, ekal srot tatha vyatikran ke abhaav ke kaaran hai aur sanbhavat: sankraman ghatakon ki anupasthiti ke kaaran bhi hai. virodhi aam taur par vyaapak-seema draaivaron ki seemit aavrutti anukriya tatha maamooli nirgam kshamataaon (sabse vishesh roop se nimn aavruttiyon par) ke saath-saath unki ishtatam kaarya pradarshan tak pahunchane ke liye bade, vistrut, mahange ant:kshetron ki aavashyakta-jaise sancharan laainein ya shrrung.

poorn-seema draaivaron mein aksar vhijr naamak ek atirikt shanku lagaaya jaata hai, jo ek chhota, halka vaak kundali tatha praathamik shanku ke beech jod se juda hota hai. vhijr kon chaalak ki uchch aavrutti pratikriya pradaan karta hai aur iski uchch aavrutti dishikta ka vistaar karta hai, anyatha uchch aavruttiyon par baahya vyaas shanku saamagri dvaara keindreeya vaak kundali ke saath saamanjasya na rakh paane ke kaaran, vah atyant sankara ho jaata hai. mukhya shanku ka vhijr design mein is prakaar nirmaan kiya jaata hai ki vah kendra ki apeksha baahari vyaas mein adhik muda ho. nateeja yeh hota hai ki mukhya shanku kam aavruttiyaan vitrit karta hai vhijr shanku adhiktar uchch aavruttiyon mein yogadaan deta hai. choonki vhijr shanku mukhya daayafraam se chhota hota hai, isliye uchch aavruttiyon par nirgam visrjan, tulya ekal bade daayafraam ke saapeksh behtar hota hai.

seemit-doori ke draaivaron ka istemaal bhi akele, aamtaur par computer, khilaune aur ghadi radio mein kiya jaata hai. vyaapak-seema draaivaron ki apeksha ye driver kam vistrut tatha kam kharcheele hote hain aur bahut hi chhote sthaan mein samaane ke liye unhein gambhir roop se kai samjhaute karne padte honge. in anuprayogon mein, dhvani ki gunavatta ki praathamikta nimn hoti hai. maanav kaan dhvani ki kharaab gunavatta ke prati ullekhaneeya roop se sahanasheel hote hain aur seemit-doori draaivaron mein antarnihit viroopan, boli gayi sabd saamagri ki spashtata ko badhaate hue uchch aavruttiyon par unke nirgam ko badha sakta hai.

sabavoofar

ek sabavoofar audio spectrum ke sabse nichle bhaag, aamtaur par upabhokta sistamon ke liye 200 hartj se neeche[16], peshevar jeevant dhvani ke liye 100 hartj se neeche[17] aur teeechaeks (THX) anumodit sistamon mein 20 hartj se neeche upayog kiya jaata hai.[18] choonki aavruttiyon ki lakshit seema seemit hai, sabavoofar system ka design aamtaur par paaramparik laaudaspeekaron ki tulana mein kai maayanon mein saral hota hai, aksar ekal driver ek upayukt box ya antarvesh mein aarohit.

avaanchhit anunaadon (aamtaur par cabinet panel se) ke bina ati nimn mandr svaron ko sahi-sahi punarutpaadit karne ke liye, sabavoofar system ko thos banaana chaahiye aur uchit dhang se kasa hua hona chaahiye; achhe speaker aamtaur par kaafi bhaari hote hain. kai sabavoofar sistamon mein vidyut pravardhak aur nimn-aavrutti punarutpaadan sambandhi atirikt niyantranon ke saath ilektronik sab-filtar shaamil hote hain. in roopaantaron ko "sakriya sabavoofar" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[19] iske vipreet, "nishkriya" sabavoofaron ko baahari pravardhan ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

voofar

ek voofar ek driver hai jo nimn aavruttiyon ko punarutpaadit karta hai. driver ant:kshetr ke design ke saath sanyojan karke upayukt nyoon aavruttiyaan utpann karta hai (upalabdh design vikalpon ke liye speaker ant:kshetr dekhein). kuchh laaudaspeekar system sabse kam aavruttiyon ke liye voofar ka upayog karte hain, kabhi-kabhi sabavoofar ka upayog na karne ke liye paryaapt hota hai. iske atirikt, kuchh laaudaspeekar, madhya-doori driver ki aavashyakta khatm karte hue, voofar ka upayog madhya aavruttiyon ke liye karte hain. ise ek aise twitter ka chayan karke poorn kiya ja sakta hai, jo kaafi neeche kaam kar sakta hai, kaafi oonchi aavruttiyon par pratikriya dene vaale voofar ke saath sanyojit hokar, madhya aavruttiyon mein donon driver sansakt roopase jud jaate hain.

madhya-doori driver

ek madhya-doori speaker ek laaudaspeekar driver hai jo madhya aavruttiyaan utpann karta hai. madhya doori driver daayafraam kaagaj ya mishrit saamagri se banaaya ja sakta hai aur pratyaksh vikirn driver ho sakte hain. (balki chhote voofars ki tarah) ya ve sampeedn driver ho sakte hain (balki kuchh twitter ka design). agar madhya-doori driver ek seedha rediyetar hai, to ise ek laaudaspeekar ant:kshetr ke saamane vaale baadhak par sthaapit kiya ja sakta hai, ya yadi ek sanpeedn driver hai, to atirikt nirgam star tatha vikirn paitarn ke niyantran hetu bhaunpoo ki garadan par sthaapit kiya ja sakta hai.

twitter

chitr:Tw15ul9.jpg
ek gunbad twitter ka prasfotit drushya.

ek twitter uchch aavrutti driver hai jo ek speaker system mein uchchatam aavruttiyon ko punarutpaadit karta hai. twitter design ki kai kismein maujood hain, aavrutti anukriya, nirgam nishtha, vidyut chaalan, adhiktam nirgam star, aadi ke sambandh mein pratyek ki kshamataaen bhinn hain. narm-gunbad twitter ghareloo steeriyo system mein vyaapak roop se paae jaate hain aur bhaunpoo sajjit sanpeedn driver peshevar dhvani prabalan mein lokapriya hain. haal ke varshon mein ribn tveetars ne lokapriyta haalil ki hai, kyonki unki nirgam shakti peshevar dhvani prabalan ke liye upayogi star tak badha di gayi hai aur unka nirgam paitarn kshaitij dharaatal mein chauda hai, ek paitarn jiske sangeet samaarohon ke liye suvidhaajanak anuprayog hain.[20]

samaaksheeya driver

ek samaaksheeya driver do ya adhik sanyukt sankeindreeya draaivaron ke saath ek laaudaspeekar driver hai. samaaksheeya driver kai companiyon dvaara banaae gaye hain, jaise eltek, tainoya, pioneer, keief (KEF), BMS (BMS), kabaase aur jenilek.[21]

laaudaspeekar system design

sankraman

ek nishkriya krausaovar.
Bi-amped.

malti-driver speaker system mein prayukt, krausaovar ek sabasistam hai jo nivesh sanket ko vibhinn draaivaron ke anukool aavrutti seemaaon mein pruthak rakhata hai. driver apni prayojya aavrutti seema mein hi vidyut shakti praapt karte hain aur is prakaar draaivaron mein viroopan tatha unke beech vyatikran kam hota hai.

krausaovar sakriya ya nishkriya ho sakte hain. ek nishkriya krausaovar ek ilektronik paripth hai jismein ek ya adhik pratirodh, prerak ya gair-dhruveeya sandhaaritr ke sanyojan prayukt hote hain. ye bhaag dhyaanapoorvak design kiye gaye network mein gathit kiye gaye hain aur pravardhak ke sanketon ko alag-alag draaivaron ko vitrit karne se poorv aavashyak aavrutti band mein vibhaajit karne ke liye inhein adhiktar vidyut pravardhak tatha laaudaspeekar draaivaron ke beech mein rakha jaata hai. nishkriya krausaovar paripth ko khud shravya sanket se pare kisi baahya vidyut shakti ki jaroorat naheen hoti kintu vaak call tatha krausaovar ke beech avamandan gunaank mein ullekhaneeya kami hoti hai.[22] ek sakriya krausaovar ek electronic filtar paripth hai, jo shakti pravardhan se poorv sanket ko alag-alag aavrutti band mein vibhaajit karta hai, is prakaar pratyek baindapaas ke liye kam se kam ek vidyut pravardhak ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[22] nishkriya filtar bhi shakti pravardhan se pehle is tarah se istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, lekin sakriya filtaring ki tulana mein drudhta ke kaaran yeh ek asaamaanya samaadhaan hai. koi bhi takaneek jo krausaovar filtaring ke baad pravardhan ka upayog karti hai, vah saamaanyat: nyoonatam pravardhak channelon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par baai-emping, traai-emping, kvaid-emping aur isi prakaar aage, ke naam se jaani jaati hai.[23] kuchh laaudaspeekar dijaainon mein nishkriya aur sakriya krausaovar filtaring ka sanyojan prayukt hota hai, jaise madhya evam uchch aavrutti draaivaron ke beech nishkriya krausaovar tatha nyoon-aavrutti driver sanyukt madhya aur uchch aavruttiyon ke veech sakriya krausaovar.[24][25]

nishkriya krausaovar saamaanyat: speaker bakse ke andar sansthaapit hote hain aur ghar tatha kam shakti ke upayog ke liye krausaovar ka sabse saamaanya prakaar hai. car audio system mein, nishkriya krausaovar ek alag box mein, aavashyak sakta hai upayog ghatakon ke aakaar ko samaayojit. nishkriya krausaovar nimn-stareeya filtaring ke liye saamaanya ho sakta hai, ya 18 se 24 deebi prati saptak ki khadi dhalaan pradaan karne ke liye jatil. nishkriya krausaovaron ko driver, bhaunpoo ya ant:kshetr ke anunaad ki avaanchhit visheshataaon ko samaayojit karne ke liye design kiya ja sakta hai[26] aur ghatakon ki anyonyakriyaaon ke kaaran iska kriyaanvayan mushkil ho sakta hai. nishkriya krausaovar ki, driver ikaaiyon jinhein ve feed karte hain, ki bhaanti vidyut vahan seema hoti hai, niveshan haani hoti hain 10% aksar daava kiya hai) aur pravardhak dvaara dekha bhaar badal jaate hain. haai-faai duniya mein parivartan bahuton ke chinta ki baat hai.[26] jab uchch utpaadan star ki aavashyakta hoti hai, sakriya krausaovar behtar ho sakta hai. sakriya krausaovar saral paripth ho sakta hai jo ek nishkriya network ki pratikriya ki baraabari karta hai, ya vyaapak shravya samaayojan ki anumati dete hue adhik jatil ho sakta hai. kuchh sakriya krausaovar, aamtaur par digital laaudaspeekar prabandhan pranaali mein, aavrutti bainds ke beech phase aur samay mein sateek sanrekhan, tulyakaran aur gatik (sanpeedn aur seemaant) niyantran shaamil ho sakte hain.[22]

kuchh haai-faai aur peshevar laaudaspeekar sistamon mein ab ek onabord pravardhak system ke ek bhaag ke roop mein ke roop mein ek sakriya krausaovar paripth ko shaamil kiya jaata hai. ye speaker design ek pravardhak-poorv se ek sanket kebal ke alaava apni AC vidyut ki aavashyakta se pahachaane ja sakte hain. is sakriya sanrachana mein driver sanrakshan paripth aur ek digital laaudaspeekar prabandhan pranaali ki anya visheshataaen shaamil ho sakti hain. computer dhvani mein sanchaalit speaker system aam hain (ekal shrota ke liye) aur aakaar ke spectrum ke doosare chhor par, aadhunik sangeet kaaryakram saaund system jahaan unki upasthiti badh rahi hai mahatvapoorn aur teji se.[27]

ant:kshetr

ek asaamaanya trimaargi speaker system.cabinet sankeern hai taaki aavrutti us star tak badh sake, jis par ek "baifal step" naamak vivrtan prabhaav hota hai.

adhiktar laaudaspeekar sistamon mein ant:kshetr ya ek cabinet mein driver aarohit hote hain, ek baade milkar ke draaivaron mein ghudsavaar. ant:kshetr ki bhoomika draaivaron ko bhautik roop mein aarohit karne hetu sthaan pradaan karna tatha driver ke prushthabhaag se nikalne waali dhvani tarangon ke agrabhaag se nikli dhvani tarangon ke saath dhvansakaari vyatikran ko rokana hai; aamtaur se inke kaaran nirsan (udaaharan ke liye kangha-filtaring) aur kam aavruttiyon par ullekhaneeya roop se star aur gunavatta mein badlaav hota hai.

saralatam driver aarohan ek sapaat panel (yaani, vyaarodh) hota hai, jiske chhidron mein driver aarohit hote hain. haalaanki, is paddhati mein, vyaarodh ke aayaam ki tulana mein lambi tarangadairdhya waali dhvani aavruttiyaan radd ho jaati hain, kyonki shanku ke prushthabhaag se pratyavastha vikirn ka agrabhaag se vikirn ke saath vyatikran hota hai. ek aseem bade panel ke saath, is vyatikran ko poori tarah roka ja sakta hai. ek paryaapt bade moharaband box se is kriya ko kiya ja sakta hai.[28][29]

choonki anant aayaam ke panel avyaavahaarik hain, adhiktar ant:kshetr gatisheel daayaafraam se prushth vikirn ko saamit karke kaarya karte hain. ek moharaband ant:kshetr ek kathor aur vaayurodhak box mein dhvani ko seemit karke laaudaspeekar ke peechhe se utsarjit dhvani ke sancharan ko rokata hai. cabinet ki deevaaron mein dhvani ke prasaaran ko kam karne ke upaayon mein, cabinet ki moti deevaarein, kshayakaari deevaar saamagri, aantarik sudrudheekaran, mudi hui cabinet ki deevaarein- ya bahut hi kam, shyaanapratyaasth saamagri (jaise, khanijyukt kolataar) ya ant:kshetr ki androoni deevaaron par seese ki patali chaddar ki parat chadhaana shaamil hain.

haalaanki, ek kathor ant:kshetr aantarik roop se dhvani ko pratyaavartit karta hai, jo laaudaspeekar daayafraam ke dvaara vaapas sancharit ho sakti hai- pun: jiske parinaam mein dhvani ki gunavatta mein giraavat hoti hai. ise avashoshak saamagri ka upayog karke aantarik avashoshan dvaara kam kiya ja sakta hai (aksar jise “aavamandana” kaha jaata hai), jaise ant:kshetr mein kaanch ke reshe, oon, ya sinthetik faaibar batting ka prayog. ant:kshetr ke aantarik aakaar ko bhi is prakaar design kiya ja sakta hai ki dhvani ko laaudaspeekar daayaafraam se door pratyaavartit kiya ja sake, jahaan use avashoshit kar liya jaae.

anya prakaar ke ant:kshetr prushth dhvani vikirn ko parivrtit kar dete hain jisse yeh rachanaatmak roop se shanku ke saamane se utpaadit nirgam mein jud jaata hai. aisa karne vaale dijaainon (bais rifleks, paisiv rediyetar, traansamishn line, aadi sahit) ka upayog praay: prabhaavi nyoon-aavrutti anukriya ka vistaar karne aur driver ka nyoon-aavrutti nirgam badhaane ke liye kiya jaata hai.

draaivaron ke beech sankraman ko jitna sambhav ho sake utana jodrahit banaane ke liye, ek ya adhik driver ke aarohan sthal ko aage ya peechhe sarakaakar taaki pratyek driver ka dhvanik kendra samaan oordhvaadhar tal mein rahe, system dijaainaron ne draaivaron ko samay-sanrekhit (ya charan samaayojan) karne ke prayaas kiye hain. ismein speaker ka agrabhaag paachhe ki or jhukaana, pratyek driver ke liye alag ant:kshetr aarohan pradaan karna, ya (saamaanyat: kam) yahi prabhaav haasil karne ke liye ilektronik takaneek ka upayog karna. in prayaason ka parinaam kuchh asaamaanya cabinet dijaainon ke roop mein hua hai.

speaker aarohan yojana (cabinet sahit) vivrtan bhi utpann kar sakti hai jiske parinaamasvaroop aavrutti anukriyaaon mein shrrung aur giraavat ho sakti hai. uchchatar aavruttiyon par, jahaan tarangadairdhya cabinet ke aayaam ke samaan ya chhote hain, samasya saamaanyat: sabse badi ho jaati hai. is prabhaav ko cabinet ke saamane ke kinaaron ko golaai dekar, khud cabinet ko ghumaav dekar, chhote ya sankare ant:kshetr ka upayog karke, ek rananeetik driver vyavastha chunakar, driver ke chaaron taraf avashoshak saamagri ka upayog karke ya in ya anya yojanaaon ke kisi sanyojan ka upayog karke kam kiya ja sakta hai.

taaron ke sanyojan

ek laaudaspeekar par dvimaargi baadhyakaari post, banaana plag ke upayog se jude hue.
do dhaatu pattiyon ke hataane ke baad dvi taaron sveekaar karne mein saksham baadhyakaari stambhon ke do jodon ke saath ek 4-om laaudaspeekar.

adhiktar laaudaspeekaron mein sanket srot (udaaharan ke liye, shravya pravardhak ya riseevar se) ke saath sanyojan ke liye do taaron ke siron ka upayog kiya jaata hai. aisa ant:kshetr ke prushth bhaag mein stambh par baandhakar ya spring clip lagaakar kiya jaata hai. yadi baaen aur daaen speekaron ke taar (ek steeriyo setaap mein) ek-doosare se “afej mein” naheen jude hain (speaker aur pravardhak par + aur - sanyojan + se + tatha - se - jode jaane chaahiyen), to laaudaspeekar ghruvanata se baahar ho jaaenge. samaan sanket diye jaane par ek shanku mein, gati doosare ki vipreet disha mein hogi. is ke kaaran aamtaur par ek steeriyo rikaurding mein monofonik saamagri ka nirsan hoga, star mein kami hogi, sthaaneekaran adhik kathin ban jaaega, yeh sab dhvani tarangon ke vidhvansak vyatikran ke kaaran hoga.[krupaya uddharan jodein] jahaan speaker ek chauthaai tarang dairdhya ya kam se alag hote hai, vahaan nirsan ka prabhaav sabse adhik anubhav hota hai; nyoon aavruttiyaan sarvaadhik prabhaavit hoti hain. is prakaar ke taarakram se speekaron ko nuksaan naheen hota, kintu yeh ishtatam naheen hai.

vinirdesh

ek laaudaspeekar par nirdishteekaran lebal.

speaker vinirdeshon mein aam taur par shaamil hain:

  • speaker ya driver prakaar (keval alag-alag ikaaiya) - poorn seema voofar, twitter, ya madhya doori.
  • akele draaivaron ka aakaar . shanku draaivaron ke liye uddhrut aakaar aamtaur par tokari ka baahari vyaas hota hai.[30] haalaanki, kam saamaanyat: yeh shanku ke ghere ka sheersh se sheersh maapa gaya vyaas bhi ho sakta hai, ya ek aarohan chhidr ke kendra se iske vipreet kendra tak ki doori bhi ho sakti hai. vaak-kundali ka vyaas bhi vinirdisht kiya ja sakta hai. agar laaudaspeekar mein ek sanpeedn shrrung driver hai, shrrung ke gale ka vyaas diya ja sakta hai.
  • ghoshit shakti - ankit (ya nirantar bhi) shakti aur shikhar (ya adhiktam laghu-avadhi) shakti jo ek laaudaspeekar sanbhaal sakta hai (arthaat laaudaspeekar ko nasht karne se pehle adhiktam input shakti; yeh laaudaspeekar dvaara utpaadit dhvani nirgam naheen hota). yadi kisi driver ko kam aavruttiyon par usaki yontrik seemaaon se adhik par chalaaya jaae to yeh apni ghoshit shakti se kaafi kam par hi kshatigrast ho sakta hai.[31] tveetars bhi pravardhak kliping dvaara (in maamalon mein uchch aavruttiyon par pravardhak paripth badi maatra mein oorja ka utpaadan karte hain) ya sangeet se ya uchch aavruttiyon par sign tarang nivesh dvaara kshatigrast ho sakte hain. in sthitiyon mein se pratyek mein twitter ko usase adhik oorja milti hai jitni par vah bina kshatigrast hue apna astitv bacha sakta hai.[32] kuchh kshetraadhikaaron mein, shakti sanchaalan ka ek vidhik arth hai jo vichaaraadheen laaudaspeekaron ke beech tulana ki anumati deta hai. anyatr, shakti sanchaalan kshamata ke vibhinn arth kaafi bhramit ho sakte hain.
  • pratibaadha - aamtaur par 4Ω (om), 8Ω, aadi.[33]
  • avarodhak ya ant:kshetr prakaar (keval aavrut system) - muharaband, bais rifleks, aadi.
  • draaivaron ki sankhya (keval poorn speaker system) - dvimaargi, trimaargi, aadi

aur vaikalpik roop se:

  • krausaovar aavrutti (yaan) (keval bahu-driver system) - draaivaron ke beech vibhaajan ki ankit aavrutti seemaaen.
  • aavrutti anukriya - ek niyat nivesh star par aavruttiyon ki di hui seema mein maapit, ya nirdisht nirgam un aavruttiyon par bhinn-bhinn raha. kabhi kabhi is mein ek vichran seema "±a2.5 deebi" ke andar shaamil hoti hai.
  • theel/laghu maanak (keval ekal driver) - inmein shaamil hain driver ki F s (anunaad aavrutti), Q ts (ek driver ki Q, nyoonaadhik anunaad aavrutti par iska avamandan gunaank), V as (driver ka tulya vaayu anuvruti aayatan) aadi.
  • sanvedanasheelata - ek ananuranan vaataavaran mein ek laaudaspeekar dvaara utpaadit dhvani dabaav star, praay: dB mein nirdisht aur 1 vaut (8Ω mein 2.83 aaraemaes (rms) volt) ke nivesh ke saath 1 meter par maapa gaya, aamtaur par ek ya adhik aavruttiyaan. yeh rating aksar prabhaavashaali hone ke liye nirmaataaon dvaara nirdisht ki jaati hai.
  • adhiktam esapeeel - uchchatam nirgam jo laaudaspeekar prabandh kar sakta hai, ek vishesh viroopan star paar hone par, kshati se kam ya naheen. yeh rating aksar prabhaavashaali hone ke liye nirmaataaon dvaara nirdisht ki jaati hai aur aamtaur par aavrutti seema ya viroopan star ke sandarbh ke bina ki jaati hai.

ek gatisheel laaudaspeekar ki vidyut visheshataaen

ek draaivar ke dvaara ek pravardhak par daale gaye bhaar mein jatil vidyut pratibaadha- pratirodh aur dhaarita evam preranik donon pratighaaton ka sanyojan shaamil hai, jo ek driver ke gunon, iski yaantrik gati, krausaovar ghatakon ke prabhaav (yadi pravardhak aur driver ke beech sanket maarg mein koi hai) aur ant:kshetr tatha uske vaataavaran dvaara sanshodhit driver par vaayu bhaaran ke prabhaav ka sanyojan karta hai. adhiktar empaleefaayaron ke nirgam vinirdesh ek aadarsh pratirodhak bhaar mein ek vishisht shakti par diye gaye hain, diya jaata hai, haalaanki, ek laaudaspeekar ka iski aavrutti seema mein pratirodh niyat naheen rahata hai. iske bajaay, vaak kundali preranik hai, driver mein yaantrik anunaad hai, ant:kshetr driver ki vidyut aur yaantrik visheshataaon mein parivartan karta hai aur draaivaron aur pravardhak ke beech ek nishkriya krausaovar apni vividhtaaon ka yogadaan deta hai. parinaam ek bhaar pratirodh hai jo aavrutti ke saath kaafi vyaapak roop se parivrtit hota hai aur aamtaur par ek voltej aur vidyut ghaara ke beech ek parivrtinsheel phase sambandh bhi hota hai, jo aavrutti ke saath bhi badalta hai. kuchh pravardhak in badlaavon ka saamana doosaron ki tulana mein behtar kar sakte hain.

dhvani utpann karne ke liye, ek laaudaspeekar ko ek maudulit vidyut dhaara (ek pravardhak dvaara utpaadit) dvaara chalaaya jaata hai, jo ek “aspeekar kundali” (ek taanbe ke taar ki kundali) mein se gujarati hai, jo tab (pratirodhon evam anya balon mein se) ek chunbakeeya kshetr banaate hue kundali ko chunbakeekrut karti hai. speaker se gujarane vaale vidyut dhaara vichran is prakaar vividh chunbakeeya balon mein parivrtit hote hain, jo speaker daayafraam ko gati dete hain, jo is tarah se driver ko, pravardhak se mool sanket ke samaan vaayu gati utpann karne ke liye baadhya karte hain.

vidyutachunbakeeya maapan

poori tarah se ek laaudaspeekar ya system ki dhvani nirgam gunavatta ko shabdon mein niroopit karna anivaarya roop se asambhav hai. uddeshyaparak maap pradarshan ke kai pahaluon ke baare mein jaankaari pradaan karte hain, taaki soochit tulana aur sudhaar kiya ja sake, lekin maap ka koi sanyojan upayog mein ek laaudaspeekar system ke pradarshan ko sankshep mein prastut naheen karta hai, kyonki pareekshan mein prayukt sanket na to sangeet hote hain aur na hi bhaashan. aam maap ke udaaharan hain: aayaam aur charan visheshataaen banaam aavrutti; ek ya adhik sthitiyon ke adheen anukriya (jaise, varg tarang, sign tarang prasfot, aadi); dishikta banaam aavrutti (jaise, kshaitij, oordhvaadhar, goleeya, aadi); sannaadi antaraamaudulan viroopan banaam anek pareekshan sanketon mein se kisi ka upayog karte hue, esapeeel (SPL) nirgam; vibhinn aavruttiyon par sangrahit oorja (jaise, vaadan); pratibaadha banaam aavrutti; aur laghu sanket banaam deergh sanket pradarshan. in maapon mein se adhikaansh ke liye pradarshan hetu parishkrut aur aksar mahange upakaran ki tatha maapakarta ke sahi nirnaya ki bhi aavashyakta hoti hai, lekin aparishkrut dhvani dabaav star report karne ke liye aasaan hota hai, isliye yahi ekamaatr nirdisht maan hai- sateek shabdon mein kabhi-kabhi gumaraah karte hue. ek laaudaspeekar dvaara utpann dhvani dabaav star (SPL) ko deseebel (dBspl) mein maapa jaata hai.

dakshata banaam sanvedanasheelata

laaudaspeekar dakshata ko dhvani shakti nirgam vibhaajit vaidyut shakti nivesh ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai. adhiktar laaudaspeekar vaastav mein bahut aksham traansadyoosar hote hain; ek pravardhak dvaara laaudaspeekar ke liye bheji gayi vidyut oorja ka keval 1% dhvanik oorja mein badla jaata hai. shesh adhiktar vaak kundali tatha chunbak sanyojan mein ooshma ke roop mein badal jaati hai. iska mukhya kaaran drive ikaai ki dhvanik pratibaadha aur hava, jismein yeh vikirn karta hai, ki pratibaadha ke beech uchit pratibaadha Milan praapt karne mein kathinaai hai (kam aavruttiyon par is Milan mein sudhaar karna, speaker ant:kshetr dijaainon ka mukhya uddeshya hai). laaudaspeekar draaivaron ki dakshata aavrutti ke saath bhi badalti hai. udaaharan ke liye, hava aur driver mein badhte ghatiya Milan ke kaaran nivesh aavrutti ghatne par ek voofar driver ka nirgam ghatata hai.

diye hue nivesh ke liye esapeeel ke aadhaar par driver anumataank ko sanvedanasheelata anumataank kaha jaata hai aur saiddhaantik roop se yeh dakshata ke samaan hain. sanvedanasheelata ko saamaanyat: 1 vaut vaidyut nivesh par itne deseebel ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai, ise praay: ekal aavrutti par 1 meter par maapa jaata hai (haidafon ko chhodkar). prayukt voltej aksar 2.83 VRMS hota hai, jo 8Ω (ankit) speaker pratibaadha mein 1 vaut hota hai (anek speaker sistamon ke liye lagbhag sahi hai). is sandarbh ke saath liya maap deebi ke roop mein 2.83 vi @ 1mi uddhrut kiya jaata hai.

dhvani dabaav nirgam laaudaspeekar se ek meter par (ya ganiteeya roop se liye gaye maap ke baraabar) tatha aksh par maapa jaata hai (seedhe ise ke saamane), ki shart ke tahat ki laaudaspeekar ek aseem badi jagah mein ek aseem avarodhak par aarohit hokar vikirit ho raha hai. spasht roop se tab, sanvedanasheelata shuddh roop se dakshata ke saath sahasanbaddh naheen hai, kyonki yeh pareekshan kiye ja rahe driver ki dishikta aur vaastavik laaudaspeekar ke saamane dhvanik vaataavaran par bhi nirbhar karti hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek prashansak ka shrrung us disha mein adhik dhvani nirgam utpann karta hai jis disha mein iska rukh kiya jaata hai, dhvani tarangon ko prashansak se ek hi disha mein sankeindrit karte hue, is prakaar "keindrit" hota hai. shrrung vaak evam hava ke beech pratibaadha Milan mein bhi sudhaar karta hai, jisse ek di hui speaker shakti se adhik dhvanik shakti utpann hoti hai. kuchh maamalon mein, behtar pratibaadha Milan (dhyaan se ki gayi ant:kshetr design ke maadhyam se) speaker ko adhik dhvanik shakti ka utpaadan karne ki anumati dega.

  • vishisht ghareloo laaudaspeekar ki sanvedanasheelata 1 W @ 1 mi ke liye 85 se 95 dB tatha dakshata 0.5-4% hoti hai.
  • dhvani sudrudheekaran aur saarvajanik udghoshana laaudaspeekaron ki sanvedanasheelata shaayad 1 meter par 1 vaut ke liye 95 se 102 deebi tatha dakshata 4-10% hai.
  • rock kansart, stadium peee, samudri jayajayakaar, aadi ke speekaron ki sanvedanasheelata aamtaur par oonchi 103 se 110 deebi 1 vaut @ 1 meter tatha dakshata 10-20% hoti hai.

yeh jaroori naheen hai ki uchch adhiktam shakti anumataank ke saath ek driver jaroori naheen vah ek kam anumataank vaale speaker se teevr star par sanchaalit kiya ja sakta hai, kyonki sanvedanasheelata aur shakti prabandhan kaafi had tak svatantr gun hain. aagale udaaharanon mein, maanalein (saralata ke liye) ki tulana kiye ja rahe donon draaivaron ki vidyut pratibaadha samaan hai; donon samaan aavrutti par apne-apne paas band par sanchaalit hain; aur shakti sanpeedn tatha viroopan kam hain. pehle udaaharan ke liye, ek speaker doosare se 3 deebi adhik samvedansheel hai, samaan shakti nivesh ke liye do guni dhvani shakti ka utpaadan karega (ya 3 deebi teevratar), is prakaar, ek 100 vaut driver ("A") anumataank ke liye 92 deebi 1vaut @ 1 mi sanvedanasheelata ek 200 vaut ("bi") anumataank driver 1 vaut @ 1 meter ke liye 89 deebi ki tulana mein doguni dhvanik shakti utpann karega, jabki denein ko ek samaan 100 vaut nivesh par chalaaya jaata hai. is vishisht udaaharan mein, jab 100 vaut par sanchaalit hai, speaker A utana hi SPL ya teevrata ka utpaadan karega, jitna speaker bi 200 vaut nivesh ke saath utpaadan karta hai. is prakaar, ek speaker ki sanvedanasheelata mein 3 deebi ki vruddhi ka matlab hai ki ise di hui SPL praapt karne ke liye aadhi pravardhak bijli ki jaroorat hogi. yeh ek chhote, kam jatil shakti pravardhak aur aksar, kam samagr pranaali laagat ke roop mein anuvaadit hota hai.


uchch dakshata (vishesh roop se kam aavruttiyon par) ka compact ant:kshetr aakaar aur paryaapt kam aavrutti pratikriya ke saath sanyojan sambhav naheen hai. ek speaker system design karte samay teen mein se do maanak hi chune ja sakte hain. to, udaaharan ke liye, yadi vistaarit kam aavrutti pradarshan aur chhote se box ka aakaar mahatvapoorn hai, kam dakshata ko sveekaar karna chaahiye.[34] is angoothe ke niyam ko kabhi-kabhi haufamain ka lauh niyam (J. A. haufamain ke naam par, keelaech mein "H")[35]

shravan vaataavaran

Jay Pritzker Pavilion

At Jay Pritzker Pavilion, a LARES system is combined with a zoned sound reinforcement system, both suspended on an overhead steel trellis, to synthesize an indoor acoustic environment outdoors.

apne vaataavaran ke saath ek laaudaspeekar system ki anyonyakriya jatil hai aur bade paimaane par laaudaspeekar designer ke niyantran se baahar hai. adhikaansh shravan kaksh aakaar, roop, khand aur saaj-saamaan ke aadhaar par ek nyoonaadhik chintanasheel vaataavaran prastut karte hain. iska matlab yeh hai ek shrota ke kaan tak pahuainchane waali dhvani mein speaker system se seedhe aanevaali dhvani hi naheen, balki vahi dhvani ek ya adhik satahon se safar karke (sanshodhit hokar) deri se pahunchati hai. ye parilkshit dhvani tarangein, jab pratyaksh dhvani se judti hain to chayanit aavruttiyon par nirsan tatha yojan hote hain (jaise gunjayamaan kaksh maud se), is prakaar shrota ke kaan mein dhvani ke laya aur charitra badle hue pahunchate hain. maanav mastishk inmein se kuchh sahit, chhote badlaavon ke prati bahut samvedansheel hota hai aur yahi aanshik kaaran hai ki laaudaspeekar system bhinn shravan sthitiyon mein ya bhinn kamron mein bhinn dhvani deta hai.

ek laaudaspeekar system ki aavaaj mein ek mahatvapoorn kaarak vaataavaran mein maujood prasaar aur avashoshan ki raashi hai. ek vishisht khaali kamre mein taali ek haath, pardon ya kaaleen ke bina, ek tej goonj utpann hoti hai, jo avashoshan ki kami tatha sapaat deevaaron, farsh aur chhat se anuranan (goonj ki punaraavrutti) donon ke kaaran hoti hai. kathor satah vaale furniture, deevaar ke parde, aalamaariyaan, ati alankrut plaastar se chhat ki sajaavat pratidhvani ko badal deti hai, mukhyat: dhvani tarangadairdhya ke aakaar se milti kuchh had tak paraavarti vastuon ke dvaara utpann visran ke kaaran aisa hota hai. yeh kuchh had tak anyatha nagn sapaat satahon ki vajah se hue paraavartan ko tod deta hai aur aapatit tarang ki paraavartit oorja ko ek bade paraavartan kon par faila deta hai.

sthaanan

ek vishisht aayataakaar shravan kaksh, deevaaron, farsh aur chhat ki kathor samaanaantar satahon ke kaaran teenon aayaamon, baaen-daaen, oopar-neeche tatha aage-peechhe mein praathamik anunaad nod hote hain.[36] iske alaava, teen, chaar, paanch yahaan tak ki chh: seema satahon vaale jatil anunaad avasthaaen bhi hain jinmein sabhi satahein mil kar apragaami tarangein banaati hain. in avasthaaon ko kam aavruttiyaan sarvaadhik uttejit karti hain, kyonki lambe tarangadairdhya furniture sanyojanon ya sthaanan se adhik prabhaavit naheen hote. visheshakar chhote aur madhyamaakaar kamre jaise rikaurding studio, hom theatre aur prasaaran studio mein mod antaraal atyant mahatvapoorn hai. laaudaspeekaron ki kamron ki seemaaon se niktata prabhaavit karti hai ki kitni majabooti se anunaad uttejit hain, saath hi saath pratyek aavrutti par saapeksh shakti ko prabhaavit karti hai. shrota ka sthaan bhi mahatvapoorn hai, jaise ki ek seema ke nikat ek sthaan par aavruttiyon ke kathit santulan par ek bada prabhaav ho sakta hai. iska kaaran yeh hai apragaami tarang paitarn in sthaanon mein sabse aasaani se aur kam aavruttiyon par suni jaati hai, shroedar aavrutti se neeche - aamtaur par 200-300 hartj ke aaspaas, kamre ke aakaar par nirbhar karta hai.

dishikta

dhvani visheshagyon ne, dhvani sroton ke vikirn ka adhyayan karne mein kuchh samajhne ke liye mahatvapoorn avadhaaranaaon ka vikaas kiya hai ki kaise laaudaspeekaron ko samjha jaata hai. sabse saral sambhav vikirn srot ek bindu srot hai, jise kabhi kabhi ek saadhaaran srot kaha jaata hai. ek aadarsh bindu srot ek ati sookshm dhvani vikirnakaari sookshm bindu hai. ek chhote se kanpaayamaan gole ki kalpana karna aalaan ho sakta hai, jiska vyaas samaan roop se ghatata aur badhta hai, sabhi dishaaon mein samaan roop se dhvani tarangein bhejate hue, aavrutti se mukt.

ek laaudaspeekar system sahit, kisi bhi dhvani utpaadak vastu, ke aise hi saadhaaran binduon ke sanyojan se bane hone ke baare mein socha ja sakta hai. bindu sroton ke ek sanyojan ka vikirn paitarn ekal srot ke samaan naheen hoga, balki sroton ke beech doori aur unmukheekaran, vah saapeksh sthiti jis se shrota sanyojan sunata hai aur sandarbhit dhvani ki aavrutti par nirbhar karega. jyaamiti aur kalan ka upayog karke, sroton mein se kuchh saral sanyojanon ko aasaani se hal kiya ja sakta hai, doosaron ko naheen.

ek saadhaaran sanyojan hai, do saral srot ek doori ke dvaara alag hai aur praavastha-baahya kanpan kar rahe hain, ek sookshm gole ka vistaar hota hai, to doosare ka sankuchan. is jodi ko ek dvik ya dvidhruv ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur is sanyojan ke vikirn ek bahut chhote se ek bina avarodhak ke gatisheel laaudaspeekar ke sanchaalan ke samaan hai. ek dvidhruv ki dishikta 8 ank ke aakaar ki hai aur adhiktam nirgam do sroton ko jodne vaale ek vektar ke saath aur nyanatam paarshv ki or jab prekshan bindu donon sroton se samadoorasth hai, jahaan dhanaatmak aur rinaatmak tarangein ek doolare ko nirast kar deti hain. jabki adhikaansh driver dvidhruv hain, jis ant:kshetr se ve jude hain uske aadhaar par, ve ekaladhruv ya dvidhruv ki tarah vikirn kar sakte hain. yadi ek parimit avarodhak par aarohit hai aur in praavastha-baahya tarangon ko anyonyakriya karne di jaati hai, dvidhruv aavrutti anukriya parinaam mein sheersh aur shoonya ho jaate hain. jab prushth vikirn ko avashoshit ya ek box mein rok liya jaata hai, daayaafraam ek ekadhruveeya vikeerak ho jaata hai. ekadhruvon ko ek box ke vipreet paarshvon mein praavastha-mein aarohit karke (donon baahar ki or ya andar ki or svaraikya mein gati karte hain) banaae gaye dvidhruv speaker sarvadishik vikirn paitarn praapt karane ki ek vidhi hai.

chhah aavruttiyon par liye gaye chaar-driver audyogik stanbhi saarvajanik udghoshana laaudaspeekar ke dhruveeya khand.dhyaan dein ki kaise paitarn lagbhag kam aavruttiyon par sarvadish hai, 1 kHz par ek vistrut pankhe ke aakaar ke paitarn ke liye abhisaari hai, to lobes mein alag aur uchch[37]

vaastavik jeevan mein, alag-alag driver vaastav mein jatil shanku aur gunbadon ke roop mein 3di aakaar hain aur inhein vibhinn kaaranon se baadhika par rakha jaata hai. ek jatil aakaar ki dishikta ke liye ek ganiteeya abhivyakti, bindu ke sroton ke modelling sanyojan ke aadhaar par, aamtaur par sambhav naheen lekin doorasth ek golaakaar daayaafraam ke saath ek laaudaspeekar ki dishikta ek sapaat golaakaar pistan ke samaan hoti hai, isliye charcha ke liye ise ek saraleekrut udaaharan ke roop mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. shaamil ganiteeya bhautiki ke ek saral udaaharan, nimnalikhit par vichaar keejiye: ek anant baadhika par ek golaakaar pistan ki doorakshetr dishikta ke liye sootr hai jahaan , aksh par dabaav hai, trijya hai pistan, arthaat tarangadairdhya hai () aksh kon hai aur pratham prakaar ka Bessel falan hai.

ek samatal srot samaan roop se kam aavruttiyon ke liye jinka tarangadairdhya samatal srot ke aayaamon se adhik lamba hai, ke liye samaan dhvani vikeern hoga aur jaise-jaise aavrutti badh jaati hai is tarah ke ek srot se dhvani ek badhte hue sankare kon mein keindrit hogi. jitna chhota driver, utani uchch aavrutti, jahaan dishikta ka yeh sankuchan hota hai. yahaan tak ki agar daayaafraam bilkul golaakaar naheen hai, yeh prabhaav is prakaar hota hai ki bade srot adhik dishik hai. kai laaudaspeekar design banaaye gaye hain jinka lagbhag yahi vyavahaar hai. adhiktar sthirvaidyut ya chunbakeeya samatal design hain.

vibhinn nirmaata us sthaan mein jinke liye unhein design kiya gaya hai, ek vishisht prakaar ke dhvani kshetr ki rachana ke liye bhinn driver aarohan vyavastha ka upayog karte hain liye antariksh mein ek dhvani vishisht prakaar hai jiske liye ve taiyaar kar rahe hain banaane ke liye. parinaamasvaroop vikirn paitarn vaastavik yantron dvaara utpann dhvani ka baareeki se anukaran karne ke liye abhipret ho sakta hai, ya sirf nivesh sanket se niyantrit oorja vitran ka srujan karna (is paddhati ka prayog karne vaale kuchh mauneetar kahalaate hain, kyonki ve stoodiyon mein abhi record kiye gaye sanket ke pareekshan mein kiya ja sakta hai). pehle ka ek udaaharan hai, ek 1/8 gole ki ki satah par bahut se chhote draaivaron ke saath kamre ka corner system. is prakaar ke ek system ka design professor amar Bose-2201 ke dvaara peteint karaaya gaya tha aur vaastav mein vaanijyik utpaadan kiya gaya. baad mein Bose modelon mein jaan-boojhakar vaataavaran ki paravaah kiye bina laaudaspeekar dvaara swayam seedhe ya paraavartit dhvani ke utpaadan par jor diya gaya. ye design uchch nishtha halakon mein vivaadaaspad rahe hai, lekin vaanijyik roop se safal saabit hue hain. kai anya nirmaataaon ke design samaan siddhaanton ka paalan karte hain.

dishikta ek mahatvapoorn mudda hai kyonki yeh shrota dvaara suni jaane waali dhvani ke aavrutti santulan ko prabhaavit karta hai, iske saath hi speaker system ki kamre aur uske saamaan ke saath anyonyakriya ko bhi prabhaavit karta hai. ek speaker jo bahut hi dishik hai (yaani speaker aamukh ke lanbavat aksh par) ka parinaam uchch aavrutti rahit ek anuranan kshetr mein ho sakta hai, jo yeh prabhaav de ki yadyapi iski aksh par maap sahi hai, (poori aavrutti seema mein “asapaata”) kintu ismein trebal naheen hai. bahut vyaapak ya uchch aavruttiyon par teji se badhti dishikta yeh prabhaav de sakti hai ki trebal bahut adhik hai (yadi shrota aksh par hai) hai, ya bahut kam hai (yadi shrota aksh se pare hai). yeh us kaaran ki hissa hai, kyon aksh par anukriya maapan diye hue laaudaspeekar ki dhvani ki poorn visheshata varnan naheen hai.

doosare driver design

anya driver jo sabse adhik istemaal kiye jaane vaale seedhe vikirnakaari, ant:kshetr mein aarohit vidyut-gatisheel driver se alag hat kar hain un mein shaamil hain-

shrrung laaudaspeekar

ek trimaargi laaudaspeekar ki teen draaivaron mein se pratyek ke saamane shrrung ka upayog karta hai: twitter ke liye ek uthala shrrung, madhya aavruttiyon ke liye ek seedha, lamba shrrung, voofar ke liye mude hae shrrung.

shrrung laaudaspeekar laaudaspeekar system ka sabse puraana roop hai. vaak pravardhak megaafon mein shrrung ka upayog kam se kam 17veen shataabdi[38] jitna puraana hai aur yaantrik graamofon mein shrrung ka upayog sabse pehle 1857 mein hota tha. shrrung laaudaspeekar driver ke saamane ya peechhe roopit tarang pathak ka prayog laaudaspeekar ki dishikta badhaane aur chhote vyaas ke roopaantaran ke liye, deergh vyaas waali driver shanku satah par uchch dabaav sthiti tatha shrrung ke mukh par kam dabaav ki sthiti ke liye kiya jaata hai. is se laaudaspeekar ki sanvedanasheelata badh jaati hai aur dhvani ek parimit kshetr mein keindrit ho jaati hai. gale ka aakaar, mukh, shrrung ki lanbaai, saath hi kshetr vistaar dar ke saath yeh dhyaan rahe ki aavruttiyon ki ek range mein roopaantaran prakaarya pradaan karne ke liye drive ka Milan dhyaan se chuna jaana chaahiye (har shrrung apni dhvanik seema ke baahar kharaab pradarshan karta hai, uchch aur nimn donon aavrutti seemaaon par). ek bais banaane ke liye aavashyak lanbaai aur anuprasth mukh kshetr ya sab-bais shrrung ke liye kai foot lamba shrrung chaahiye. 'valit shrrung' kul aakaar ko kam kar sakte hain lekin dijaainaron ko samjhauta karne aur laagat tatha nirmaan jaisi vruddhi ki jatilta ko sveekaar karne ke liye majaboor kar dete hain. kuchh shrrung design na keval kam aavrutti shrung ko valit karta hai lekin, kamre ke kone mein deevaar ka upayog shrrung mukh ke vistaar ke roop mein karte hain. 1940 ke dashak ke ant mein, shrrung jinke mukh kamre ki deevaar ka kaafi hissa lelete the, ab haai-faai prashansakon ke beech anajaane naheen rahe. kamre ke aakaar ki sansthaapana ko bahut kam sveekaarya kiya gaya jab do ya adhik ki jaroorat hoti thi.

ek shrrung yukt speaker ki sanvedanasheelata 2.83 volt par 110 deebi (8 om par 1 vaut) 1meetar par jitna uchch ho sakti hai. 90 deebi ki ghoshit sanvedanasheelata ki tulana mein nirgam mein yeh sau guna vruddhi hai, jahaan uchch dhvani star ki aavashyakta hoti hai, ya pravardhan shakti saamit hoti hai, vahaan yeh anmol hai.

peejovidyut speaker

inhein bhi dekhein: Piezo tweeter

peejovidyut speaker ka upayog aamtaur par ghadiyon mein beepar ke roop mein, tatha anya ilektronik upakaranon mein aur kabhi-kabhi kam mahange speaker system mein twitter ke roop mein, jaise computer speaker aur portebal radio mein kiya jaata hai. paaramparik laaudaspeekaron ki tulana mein peejovidyut speaker ke kai faayde hain: ve atibhaar pratirodhak hain jo ki aam taur par adhiktar uchch aavrutti chaalakon ko nasht kar deta hai aur ve apne vaidyut gunon ke kaaran ek krausaovar ke bina istemaal kiye ja sakte hain. vaheen nuksaan bhi hain: kuchh pravardhak tharatharaana sakte hain jaise adhikaansh peejovidyut, jiske parinaamasvaroop viroopan ya pravardhak ko kshati ho sakta hai. iske atirikt, unki aavrutti anukriya, jyaadaatar maamalon mein, anya praudyogikiyon se halki hai. yahi kaaran hai ki inka aam taur par ekal aavrutti (beepar) ya gair-mahatvapoorn anuprayogon mein upayog kiya jaata hai.

peejovidyut speaker ka vistaarit uchch aavrutti nirgam ho sakta hai, yeh kuchh vishisht paristhitiyon ke liye upayogi hai: udaaharan ke liye sonaar anuprayog jinmein peejovidyut roopaantar nirgam upakaran (antarjaleeya dhvani utpann karne ke liye) aur nivesh upakaran ke roop mein (antarjaleeya maaikrofon ke sanvedan ghatak ke roop mein kaarya karne ke liye). in anuprayogon mein unke faayde hain, jinka leshamaatr bhi saral naheen hai, solid state nirmaan jo samudri paani ke prabhaavon ka pratirodh ribn aadhaarit upakaranon se behtar kar sakta hai.

chunbakeeya viroopan speaker

chunbakeeya viroopan tkaansadyoosar, chunbakeeya viroopan par aadhaarit hai, mukhya roop se inka istemaal sonaar paraashravya dhvani vikirk ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, lekin unke upayog audio speaker system mein bhi hota hai. chunbakeeya viroopan speaker draaivaron ke kuchh vishesh laabh hai: ve anya takaneekon ki tulana mein adhik bal (chhote ghumaav ke saath) pradaan kar sakte hain, kam bhraman anya dijaainon mein bade bhraman se vikrutiyon se bachaav kar sakte hain; chunbakeeyakaran kundali sthir hai aur isliye adhik aasaani se thandi ki ja sakti hai, kyonki ve majaboot hain, naajuk nilanban aur vaak kundali ki aavashyakta naheen hai. chunbakeeya viroopan speaker maudyool fausteks (Fostex)[39][40][41] aur fionik (FeONIC)[42][43][44][45] dvaara nirmit kiya gaya hai tatha sabavoofar draaivaron ka bhi utpaadan kiya gaya hai.[46]

sthirvaidyut laaudaspeekar

sthirvaidyut laaudaspeekar ek uchch voltata vidyut kshetr (chunbakeeya kshetr ki bajaay) ka upayog sthaitikt: aaveshit jhilli ko ke pranod parichaalan hetu kiya jaata hai. choonki ve ek chhoti vaak kundali ki bajaay poori jhilli ki satah par se sanchaalit hote hain, ve aamtaur par gatisheel draaivaron ki tulana mein ek adhik raikhik aur kam viroopan gati pradaan karte hain. unako nuksaan yeh hai ki daayaafraam bhraman gambhir roop se vyaavahaarik nirmaan seemaaon ke kaaran seemit hai, aage stetar tainaat hain, sveekaarya dakshata praapt karne ke liye uchchatar voltej ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jo vidyut aark ki pravrutti ko badhaata hai, saath hi speaker dvaara dhool ke kanon ko aakarshit karna badh jaata hai. kai varsh tak sthirvaidyut laaudaspeekaron ki pratishtha ek aamtaur par avishvasaneeya aur kabhi-kabhi khatarnaak utpaad ke roop mein thi. vartamaan praudyogikiyon ke saath aarking ek sambhaavit samasya bani hui hai, khaaskar jab painalon ko dhool ya gandagi, ekatr karne ki anumati hai ya jab uchch sanket star ke saath sanchaalit ho.

sthirvaidyut paaramparik roop se dvidhruveeya vikirk hote hain aur patali lacheeli jhilli ke kaaran aam shanku draaivaron ki bhaanti kam aavruttiyon ke nirsan hetu ant:kshetron mein prayog ke liye kam upayukt hai. is kaaran tatha kam bhraman kshamata ke kaaran, poorn seema sthirvaidyut laaudaspeekar prakruti se bade hain aur bais sabse sankare panel aayaam ke ek chauthaai ke baraabar tarang dairdhya waali aavrutti par rol karega. vaanijyik utpaadon ke aakaar ko kam karne ke liye, unhein kabhi kabhi ek paaramparik gatisheel driver jo bais aavruttiyon ko sanbhaalate hain, ke saath sanyojan mein uchch aavrutti driver ke roop mein upayog kiya jaata hai.

ribn aur samatal chunbakeeya laaudaspeekar

ek ribn speaker mein ek patala dhaatu-film ribn ek chunbakeeya mein nilambit hota hai. vidyut sanket ribn ko bheje jaate hain, jo inke saath chalta hai, is tarah dhvani paida hoti hai. ribn driver ka ek laabh yeh hai ki ribn ka dravyamaan bahut kam hota hai, is prakaar, yeh pratikriya bahut tej kar sakte hain, bahut achhi uchch-aavrutti anukriya haasil ki ja sakti hai. ribn laaudaspeekar aksar bahut naajuk, kuchh hava ke ek majaboot jhonke se faade ja sakte hain. adhiktar ribn twitter ek dvidhruveeya paitarn mein dhvani utsarjit karte hain, bahut kam mein dvidhruveeya vikirn paitarn ko seemit karne ke liye drudhstar hota hai. nyoonaadhik aayataakaar ribn ke kinaaron ke oopar aur neeche praavastha nirsan ke kaaran kam shravaneeya nirgam hota hai, lekin dishikta ki sahi raashi ribn ki lanbaai par nirbhar karti hai. ribn design ko aam taur par asaadhaaran shaktishaali chunbak ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo unke nirmaan ko mahanga banaate hai. ribn ka pratirodh bahut kam hota hai jise adhiktar pravardhak seedhe pranod parichaalit naheen kar sakte. nateejatan, ek apachaayi traansafaarmar ka upayog aam taur par ribn mein se vidyut dhaara badhaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. pravardhak ek bhaar dekhta hai, jo hai ribn ka pratirodh guna traansafaarmar feron ke anupaat ka varg. traansafaarmar ko dhyaan se is tarah design karna chaahiye ki iski aavrutti pratikriya aur parajeevi nuksaan dhvani ki gunavatta ko kam naheen karein, aage ki laagat aur paaramparik dijaainon ke saapeksh badh rahi jatilta ko na badhaae.

samatal chunbakeeya speekaron (ek sapaat daayaafraam par mudrit ya embeded conductor) kabhi-kabhi "ribn" ke roop mein varnit hai, lekin vaastav mein ribn speaker naheen hain. shabd samatal aam taur par speekaron, jinmein lagbhag aayataakaar aakaar ki sapaat satahein hoti hain jo dvidhruvi (yaani, aage aur peechhe) dhang se vikirn karti hain, ke liye aarakshit hai. samatal chunbakeeya speaker ek vaak kundali mudrit ya aarohit ek lacheeli jhilli se milkar banta hai. kundali mein pravaahit vidyut dhaara, daayaafraam ke donon taraf dhyaan se rakhe gaye chunbakon ke chunbakeeya kshetr ke saath anyonyakriya karke jhilli ko nyoonaadhik samaan roop se kanpaayamaan karti hai bina jhuke ya shikn pade. sanchaalan bal jhilli ki satah ke ek bade pratishat ko kavar karta hai aur kundali chaalit sapaat daayaafraam ki paaramparik anunaad samasyaaen kam karta hai.

bankan-tarang laaudaspeekar

bankan tarang traansadyoosars jaanboojhkar lacheela rakhe gaye daayaafraam ka upayog karte hain. saamagri ki kathorata kendra se baahar ki or badhti hai. laghu tarang dairdhya mukhya roop se bheetari kshetr se vikirn karti hain, jabki lambi tarangein speaker ke kinaare tak pahuainchati hain. baahar se vaapas kendra ki or paraavartan rokane ke liye, deergh tarangon ko aaspaas ke spanj dvaara avashoshit kar liya jaata hai. aise traansadyoosars vyaapak aavrutti seema ko (80 hartj se 35,00 hartj) kavar kar sakte hain tatha ek aadarsh bindu dhvani srot ke roop mein protsaahit kiya jaata hai.[47] is asaamaanya drushtikon ko keval kuchh nirmaataaon dvaara bahut alag vyavastha mein apnaaya ja raha hai. om vaulsh speekaron ki line mein Lincoln vaulsh dvaara design kiye gaye ek adviteeya driver ka upayog kiya jaata hai. Lincoln vaulsh ek pratibhaashaali engineer the, jo dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan radaar viksit karne waali engineering team ka hissa the. baad mein unhonne audio empaleefaayar design kiye aur unki antim pariyojana ek adviteeya, ek driver ke saath ek-maargi speaker tha. yeh ek bada shanku tha jiska munh neeche ek seelaband, vaayurodhak ant:kshetr mein tha. paaramparik speekaron ki tarah aage-aur-peechhe gati karne ki bajaay shanku laharaaya aur "sancharan line” naamak siddhaant ka upayog karke dhvani utpann ki. nae speaker ne ek ekal, poornataase prastut ki gayi ullekhaneeya spashtata waali dhvani tarang ka nirmaan kiya. vaulsh ke nae speaker design ka vikaas aur vipnan karne ke liye ek nai company om ekaaustiks banaai gayi. Lincoln vaulsh ka speaker janta ke liye jaari hone se pehle usaki mrutyu ho gayi. prototaaip om A viksit karne ke baad, 1973 mein om ne om ef speaker jaari karke mahakvapoorn prashansa praapt ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

flat panel laaudaspeekar

speaker system ka aakaar kam karne ke kai prayaas ho chuke hain, ya vaikalpik roop se unhein kam pratyaksh karne ka prayaas kiya gaya hai. aisa hi ek prayaas flat panel par aarohit vaak kundali ka vikaas tha jo dhvani srot ka kaarya karti thi. ye tab ek tatasth rang mein banaaye ja sakte hain aur deevaaron par latakaae ja sakte hain jahaan un par anya speekaron ki bajaay kam dhyaan jaae, ya jaanboojhkar us par aise paitarn peint kiye jaaen ki ve alankrut roop mein kaarya kar sakein. flat panel takaneek ke saath do samasyaaen sambandhit hain: pehli, ek flat panel jaroori taur par usi saamagri mein ek shanku aakaar se adhik lacheela hai aur isliye ek ekal ikaai ke roop mein gati karega aur doosra hai, panel mein anunaadon ka niyantran mushkil hai, jiski vajah se kaafi vikrutiyon ki sambhaavana hai. aisi halki, drudh saamagri jaise staayarofom ka upayog karke kuchh pragati ki gayi hai aur kai flat panel system haal ke saalon mein vaanijyik roop se utpaadit kiye gaye hain.[48]

vitrit mod laaudaspeekar

flat panel speaker system ka naye kaaryaanvayan mein ek jaanboojhkar rakha gaya lacheela panel aur ek "uttejak" shaamil hai, kendra se door aarohit tatha is prakaar sthit ki nyoonatam anunaadon ke saath panel ko kanpan ke liye uttejit kar sake. aisi takaneek ka upayog karne vaale speaker vyaapak dishikta paitarn ke saath (virodhaabhaasi dhang se kuchh-kuchh bindu srot ki bhaanti)[krupaya uddharan jodein] dhvani ka punarutpaadan kar sakte hain aur kuchh computer speaker dijaainon mein tatha bukashelf laaudaspeekaron mein inka upayog kiya gaya hai.[49][not in citation given]

heel vaayu gati traansadyoosars

oscar heel ne 1960 ke dashak mein vaayu gati traansadyoosar ka aavishkaar kiya tha. is paddhati mein, ek chunnatadaar daayaafraam ek chunbakeeya kshetr mein aarohit hota hai aur ek sangeet sanket ke niyantran mein band hone aur khulne ke liye majaboor kiya jaata hai. aavedit sanket ke anusaar hava chunnaton ke beech mein se gujar kar dhvani paida karti hai. driver ribn se kam kamjor aur ribn (aur adhik poorn uchch stareeya utpaadan karne mein saksham), sthirvaidyut ya chunbakeeya samatal twitter design ki tulana mein kaafi adhik daksh hain.

California ke ek nirmaata, iesaes ne design ka license liya aur heel ko naukri par rakh liya tatha 1970 aur 1980 ke dashakon mein uske tveetars ka upayog karke speaker system ki ek shrrunkhala ka utpaadan kiya. ek bade ameriki khudara store shrrunkhala, radio shaik ne bhi ek samay aise tveetars ka upayog karne vaale speaker system beche the. vartamaan mein, Germany mein in donon draaivaron ke do nirmaata hain, jinmein se ek tveetars ka upayog karte hue uchch-ant peshevar speekaron ki shrrunkhala aur praudyogiki par aadhaarit madhya-doori draaivaron ka utpaadan kar raha hai. America mein Martin logan anek eemati speekaron ka utpaadan karta hai.

plaajma chaap speaker

plaajma chaap laaudaspeekar vidyut plaajma ka upayog vikeerak tatv ke roop mein karte hain. choonki plaajma mein dravyamaan nyoonatam hota hai, lekin aaveshit hota hai isliye vidyut kshetr dvaara iska prabandhan kiya ja sakta hai, parinaam mein shravya seema se oonchi aavruttiyon ka bahut raikhik utpaadan hota hai. is paddhati ke rakharakhaav aur vishvasaneeyata ki samasyaaon ke kaaran yeh bade paimaane par baajaar ke upayog ke liye anupayukt ho jaati hai. 1978 mein albookark, enaem mein air fors vaipans laiboretri ke elan E. hil ne ek twitter, plaajmaatroniks hil type. design kiya tha jiska plaajma heeliym gas se utpann kiya gaya tha.[50] isse, agrani dyooken kaurporeshan, jisne 1950 ke dashak ke dauraan aayanovaik (Britain mein aayanofen ke naam se vipnan kiya gaya) ka utpaadan kiya tha, dvaara utpaadit plaajma tveetars ki ek pichhli peedhi mein hava ke aaraef (RF) apaghatan se utpaadit ojon aur naaitras oksaaid[50] se bacha ja saka. vartamaan mein, Germany mein kuchh nirmaata bache hain jo is design ka upayog karte hain, unhonne ek ise-swayam-karein design prakaashit kiya hai aur yeh Internet par upalabdh hai.

iske ek kifaayati roopaantar mein driver ke liye ek lau ka upayog kiya gaya hai, kyonki lau mein aayanit (vaidyut aaveshit) gaisein hoti hain.[51]

digital speaker

bahut peechhe 1920 ke dashak mein digital speaker bail laibs dvaara kiye gaye prayogon ka vishay raha hai. design saral hai, pratyek bit driver ka niyantran karti hai, jo ya to poori tarah 'on' hai ya 'of'.

is design ke saath samasyaaen hain jinki vajah se avyaavahaarik hone ke kaaran ise vartamaan ke liye tyaag diya gaya hai. pratham, bits ki ek uchit sankhya ke liye (paryaapt dhvani punarutpaadan gunavatta ke liye aavashyak), speaker system ka bhautik aakaar bahut bada ho jaata hai. doosare, enaalaug digital roopaantaran ki antarnihit samasyaaon ke kaaran upaghatan ka prabhaav aparihaarya hai, isliye shravya nirgam aavrutti kshetr mein samaan aayaam ke saath namoona chayan aavrutti ke doosari taraf “aparaavartit” hota hai, jiske kaaran vaanchhit nirgam ke saath paraadhvanik ka asveekaarya uchch star hota hai. is se paryaapt roop se nipatne ke liye koi vyaavahaarik yojana naheen pai gayi hai.

shabd "digital" ya "digital taiyaar" aksar speaker ya haidafon par vipnan uddeshyon ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai, lekin ye pranaaliyaan oopar varnit bhaavana mein digital naheen hain. balki, ve paaramparik speaker hain jinhein digital dhvani srot ke saath prayog kiya ja sakta hai, jaisa kisi bhi paaramparik speaker ke saath hota hai (jaise, optikl media, emapee3 (MP3) pleyars, aadi).

inhein bhi dekhein

  • alma (ALMA)
  • odiyofaail
  • audio shakti
  • baindavidth vistaar
  • computer speaker
  • daayaafraam (dhvaniki)
  • digital speaker
  • dishaatmak dhvani
  • dhool topi
  • electronics
  • sthirvidyut speaker
  • ferofluid#heet sthaanaantaran
  • tokari
  • aavrutti pratikriya
  • gitaar speaker
  • hedafon
  • uchch-ant audio
  • hom theatre
  • vidyut pratibaadha
  • aaisobairik speaker
  • laaudaspeekar nirmaataaon ki soochi
  • laaudaspeekar dhvaniki
  • laaudaspeekar sanlagnak
  • laaudaspeekar maap
  • chunbak
  • madhya-shreni ke speaker
  • moving aairan speaker
  • sangeet kendra
  • pairaabolik laaudaspeekar
  • plenafons
  • rotari voofar
  • sanvedanasheelata
  • altraasaaund se dhvani
  • dhvani prajanan
  • saaundabaar
  • cabinet speaker
  • speaker stainds
  • speaker taar
  • studio nigraani
  • super twitter
  • chaaron or dhvani
  • thiyele/laghu model
  • twitter
  • vaak kundali
  • voofr
  • wireless speaker

sandarbh

  1. "Tesla and the Loudspeaker". http://www.tfcbooks.com/teslafaq/q&a_040.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-21.
  2. "Loudspeaker History". http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/recording/loudspeaker.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-21.
  3. "Jensen History". http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/recording/jensen.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-02-03.
  4. J. Eargle and M. Gander (2004). "Historical Perspectives and Technology Overview of Loudspeakers for Sound Reinforcemen". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 52 (4): 412–432 (p. 416). http://www.aes.org/journal/online/JAES_V52/jaes.cfm?file=JAES_V52_4/JAES_V52_4_PG412.pdf.
  5. Walter Schottky
  6. Spanias, Andreas; Ted Painter, Venkatraman Atti (2007). Audio Signal Processing and Coding. Wiley-Interscience. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 047004196X. http://books.google.com/books?id=J7_nVWzx1Q4C.
  7. Lansingheritage.com: (1937 vivranika chhavi) the shiyrar haurn sistams for thiytars
  8. bojk, aar.ti., electronics patrika, June 1940.
  9. lainsing viraasat.laaudaspeekars baai lainsing: first time in history. a too-ve laaud speaker in compact form . (1943 soochi chhavi)
  10. lainsing viraasat.1966 vauis of the thiytar (soochi chhavi)
  11. Audioheritage.org. John hiliard ki jeevani , 6 May 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  12. Davis, Don; Carolyn Davis (1997). "Loudspeakers and Loudspeaker Arrays" (quote=We often give lip service to the fact that audio allows its practitioners to engage in both art and science. mein). Sound System Engineering (2 san॰). Focal Press. pa॰ 350. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0240803051. http://books.google.com/books?id=ouyzH6vsIIwC&pg=PA350. abhigman tithi: March 30, 2010.
  13. Fremer, Michael (April 2004). "Aerial Model 20T loudspeaker". Stereophile (Source Interlink Media). http://www.stereophile.com/floorloudspeakers/404aerial/#. abhigman tithi: March 30, 2010.
  14. Fantel, Hans (June 6, 1993). "Speaker Design Goes Modern". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/06/06/arts/home-entertainment-speaker-design-goes-modern.html?pagewanted=1. abhigman tithi: March 30, 2010.
  15. nirpeksh dhvani, ank 175, October 2007. echapi ka kaaryashaala: echapi ke sampaadak ki chauis awards.speaker system: the nola grand refareins MK (Mk) IV.1, $145,000 (maanak samaapt)
  16. hom speekars glausari. Crutchfield.com (21-06-2010). 12-10-2010 ko pun:praapt.
  17. Young, Tom (December 1, 2008). "In-Depth: The Aux-Fed Subwoofer Technique Explained". Study Hall. ProSoundWeb. p. 2. http://www.prosoundweb.com/article/in_depth_the_aux_fed_subwoofer_technique_explained/P2/. abhigman tithi: March 3, 2010.
  18. DellaSala, Gene (August 29, 2004). "Setting the Subwoofer / LFE Crossover for Best Performance". Tips & Tricks: Get Good Bass. Audioholics. http://www.audioholics.com/tweaks/get-good-bass/setting-the-subwoofer-lfe-crossover-for-best-performance. abhigman tithi: March 3, 2010.
  19. "Glossary of Terms". Home Theater Design. ETS-eTech. p. 1. http://www.home-theater-designers.com/glossary.html. abhigman tithi: March 3, 2010. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  20. nyuveindik, joris A. (1988) "compact ribn twitter/midreinj laaudaspeekar." audio engineering society.
  21. "Genelec 8260A Technical Paper". Genelec. September 2009. pp. 3–4. http://www.genelec.com/documents/other/Genelec%208260A%20Technical%20Paper.pdf. abhigman tithi: 24 September 2009.
  22. a aa i iliyt dhvani utpaad. road iliyt, 2004. sakriya banaam. nishkriya krausaovar. 16 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  23. Boston dhvanik society. the bi.A.S. speaker, September, 1978. Peter dablyoo. Michelle: "the di-23 krausaovar kain bi yujd for baai-emping, traai-emping aur iven kvaad-emping."
  24. iedablyoo (EAW) keef (KF)300/600 shrrunkhala - compact three-ve vait (VAT) sistams . baai-empd aur anya mod ke beech teen laaudaspeekar jode hue hain.
  25. yaurkavile U215 speaker - 1600w 2x15 / 3x5 inch / 1 inch . baai-empd aur poori tarah se nishkriya mod ke beech teen laaudaspeekar jode hue hain.
  26. a aa iliyt dhvani utpaad. road iliyt, 2004. design of paisiv krausaovars. 16 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  27. SVConline.com, brus borgaarsan. baayars guide: pauvard peee (PA) laaudaspeekar, 1 January 2006' . "a dajn iyars ago, pauvard peee (PA) laaudaspeekars var di reyar eksepashans. toode, do not ekjaiktali the rul, de sartenali command a signeefikeint end satedali inkrijing share of the profeshanal maarketaples."
  28. prashn. dhvani par dhvani, June 2004.ported aur an-ported ke bich mein kya antar hai?
  29. rikaard nirmaata.anant rok
  30. iaaie (EIA) RS-278-B "laaudaspeekaron ke liye badhte aayaam"
  31. iliyt dhvani utpaad. road iliyt, 2006. speaker daimej , 16 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  32. iliyt dhvani utpaad. road iliyt, 2006. empaleefaayaron ke bigadne par twitter kyon uda? 16 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  33. iaaie (EIA) RS-299 "laaudaspeekar, gatisheel, chunbakeeya sanrachanaaen aur pratibaadha"
  34. laaudaspeekar design tredaofs
  35. haufamain aayaran kaanoon
  36. "dhvaniki", liyo beranek, adhyaaya 10, maikagrau hil books, 1954
  37. dhruveeya paitarn faail aavruttiyon par kamjor ho jaati hai: speaker ek baush 36 vaat LA1-UW36x hai, chaar samaan 4 inch driver ke saath stanbhaakaar model ek ant:kshetr mein khadi vyavastha [70] inch ooncha).dhruveeya bhavishyavaani software seeelaef (CLF) vyooar hai. laaudaspeekar nirmaata dvaara ek CF2 faail mein jaankaari ekatr ki gayi thi.
  38. Trumpet, Speaking and Hearing”. Encyclopæadia Britannica (11th). (1911). Cambridge University Press.
  39. Yamada, Takeyoshi (November 2005). "Fostex Prototypes Tabletop Vibration Speaker System Using Super Magnetostrictor". Tech-On!. http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS_EN/20051117/110823/. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-05. "The cone-shaped speaker system is 95 mm in diameter and 90 mm high. It features an actuator using a magnetostrictor that extends and shrinks in line with magnetic field changes. The actuator converts input sound into the vibration and conveys it to the tabletop thus rendering sound."
  40. Onohara, Hirofumi (November 2006). "(WO/2006/118205) GIANT-MAGNETOSTRICTIVE SPEAKER". World Intellectual Property Organization. http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?wo=2006118205. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-05. "A giant-magnetostrictive speaker exhibiting good acoustic characteristics when it is used while being placed on a horizontal surface."
  41. , JP WO/2006/118205
  42. "Whispering Windows" (PDF). FeONIC. http://media.feonic.com/downloads/specs/Retail_Whispering_Windows_-_FeONIC_F1.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-05.
  43. "FeONIC D2 Audio Drive" (PDF). FeONIC. p. 1. http://media.feonic.com/downloads/specs/D2SpecsheetNov2008.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-05. "The D2 is unlike traditional speaker technology because it uses a very high powered magnetostrictive smart material as the driver instead of a moving coil. The material was originally developed by the US military for sonar applications and is now de-restricted for commercial use."
  44. Tibu, Florin. "Terfenol-D: No Speakers = Great Sound!". Softpedia. http://news.softpedia.com/news/Terfenol-D-No-Speakers-Great-Sound-79569.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-05.
  45. "MINDCo launches FeONIC Invisible & Green audio". Economic Zones World. January 2010. http://news.ezw.com/News.aspx?newsID=15.
  46. "FeONIC S–Drive Bass Sounder" (PDF). FeONIC. November 2008. http://media.feonic.com/downloads/specs/SDriveSpecsheetNov2008.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-05.
  47. steeriyofaail patrika.om vaulsh 5 laaudaspeekar (dik olshar dvaara sameeksha, June 1987)
  48. the engineering June 2007 aartikl diskasing solyooshan too direct saaund
  49. enaeksati (NXT). distreebyuted mod laaudaspeekar efaikyoo (FAQ)
  50. a aa hil plaasmaatroniks ka varnan kiya. 26 March 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  51. ri: kud you pleej faaind research ri:saaund riprodakshan vaaya gas flem end ilektrik

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