laataviya

laataviya ganaraajya
Latvijas Republika
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: laataviyaai: Tēavzemei un Brīavīabai
(hindi: "pitrubhoomi aur svatantrata ke liye")
raashtragaan: Dievs, svēaatī Latviju!
(ishvar laataviya ko aasheervaad de)
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
reega
30°a30′aN 10°a3′aE / 30.5°aN 10.05°aE / 30.5; 10.05
raajabhaasha(eain) laataviyaai
sarkaar sansadeeya lokatantr
- raashtrapati vaaira vaaik-friiberga
- pradhaanamantri eigars kaalvitis
svatantr laataviya swayam ko pratham ganaraajya se avirt maanata hai
- (roos se) ghoshit 1 November, 1918
- maanyata-praapt 26 January, 1921
- poorn 21 August, 1991
kshetrafal
- kul 64,589 varg kilometer (124vaan)
24,931 varg meal
- jal (%) 1.5%
janasankhya
- July 2005 janaganana 23,07,000 (141vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2005 praakkalan
- kul 29.42 arab $ (95vaan)
- prati vyakti 17,300 $[1] (71vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2003) 0.836
bahut uchch · 48vaan
mudra Euro (Euro, €) (EUR)
samay mandal iiti (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+2)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) iiesati (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
doorabhaash koot 371
Internet teeeladi .lv

laataviya ya laataviya ganaraajya (laataviyaai : Latvijas Republika) uttarapoorvi Europe mein sthit ek desh hai aur un teen baaltik ganaraajyon mein se ek hai jinka dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad bhootapoorv soviyt sangh mein vilay kar diya gaya. iski seemaaen lithuaaniya, estoniya, Belarus aur roos se milti hain. yeh aakaar ki drushti se ek chhota desh hai aur iska kul kshetrafal 64,589 varg kimi aur janasankhya 22,31,50 (2009) hai.[1]

laataviya ki rajdhani hai reega jiski anumaanit janasankhya hai 8,26,000. kul janasankhya ka 60% laataviyaai mool ke naagrik hai aur lagbhag 30% log roosi mool ke hain. yahaaain ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai laataviyaai, jo baaltik bhaasha parivaar se hai. yahaaain ki aadhikaarik mudra hai laats.

laatviya ko 1991 mein soviyt sangh se svatantrata mili thi. 1 May, 2004 ko laataviya Europeeya sangh ka sadasya bana. yahaaain ke vartamaan raashtrapati hain - vaaldis jaatlars.

anukram

itihaas

terahaveen se solahaveen shataabdiyon tak laataviya livoniya aur kauralaind tak faila hua tha aur pruseeyaai raajaaon ke adheen tha. satrahaveen sadi mein laataviya par Poland aur sveedan ne adhikaar kar liya.

athaarahaveen sadi mein, nyestaad ki sandhi ke baad livoniya aur kauralaind roosi saamraajya ka bhaag ban gaye. iski sarkaar kauralaind aur livoniya dono se milkar bani thi.

roosi gruhayuddh ke dauraan (1917-1922), laataviya ke adhikaansh sainya vaahiniyon ne Germany ke viruddh bolshevik ke paksh mein yuddh kiya tha. laataviya pehli baar 1918 mein ek svatantr raashtra ke roop mein astitv mein aaya.

doosare vishv yuddh ke dauraan, ispar pratham baar (do anya baaltik ganaraajyon ke saath) soviyt sangh ne aakraman kiya aur baad mein naaji Germany ne aur antat: 1944 mein soviyt sangh ne ise sanyojit kar ek soviyt ganaraajya bana diya.

1991 mein soviyt sangh ke vightan ke baad yeh ek baar fir ek svatantr raashtra ke roop mein astitv mein aaya. lithuaaniya aur estoniya se vilg laataviya ne svatantr raashtra raashtramandal ki sadasyata grahan naheen ki balki laataviya nein Euro-atalaantik eka ka chunaav kiya aur April 2004 mein naato ka sadasya bana aur 1 May 2004 ko Europeeya sangh ka.

prashaasanik prabhaag

laataviya 26 prashaasakeeya kshetron aur 7 nagareeya kshetron mein vibhaajit hai jinhein laataviya mein kramash: apriņaaķaais aur lielpilsēaatas kaha jaata hai.

1 ejkraukl (Aizkraukle) 12 jelagaava* (Jelgava) 23 reejikn (Rēazekne) Latvia districts numbered.png
2 aluksn (Alūaksne) 13 jurmaala* (Jūarmala) 24 reejikn* (Rēazekne)
3 baalvi (Balvi) 14 kraaslaava (Krāaslava) 25 reega (Rīaga)
4 bauska (Bauska) 15 kuldiga (Kuldīaga) 26 reega* (Rīaga)
5 seesis (Cēasis) 16 lipja (Liepāaja) 27 saaldas (Saldus)
6 daugaavpils (Daugavpils) 17 lipja* (Liepāaja) 28 taalsi (Talsi)
7 daugaavpils* (Daugavpils) 18 limbaaji (Limbažai) 29 tookoomas (Tukums)
8 dobeel (Dobele) 19 loodja (Ludza) 30 vaalka (Valka)
9 goolbeen (Gulbene) 20 madona (Madona) 31 vaalmeera (Valmiera)
10 jeekaabpils (Jēakabpils) 21 ogre (Ogre) 32 ventspils (Ventspils)
11 jelagaava (Jelgava) 22 preeili (Preiļai) 33 ventspils* (Ventspils)

raajaneeti

100-seaton waali ekavidhaai laataviyaai sansad, jise saiima (Saeima) kaha jaata hai, chunaavon dvaara prati chaar varsh mein chuni jaati hai. raashtrapati ka chunaav saiima dvaara ek anya chunaav mein kiya jaata hai aur yeh bhi prati chaar varsh mein hota hai. raashtrapati dvaara pradhaanamantri niyukt kiya jaata hai, jo apni mantreeparishd ke saath, kaaryakaari shaakha banaata hai, jise saiima mein vishvaas mat praapt karna hota hai. yahi sansadeeya pranaali doosare vishv yuddh se poorv bhi thi. sarvochch civil sevak 16 raajya sachiv hote hain.

laataviya mein 18 varsh se oopar ke sabhi laataviyaai naagrik sansadeeya chunaavon matadaan kar sakte hain.

raashtrapati chunaav 2007

raashtrapati chunaav, 31 May 2007

vaaldis jaatlars ko sansad dvaara raashtrapati chuna gaya.

pratyaashi paksh mein vipaksh mein
vaaldis jaatlars 58 40
eivaars entjins 39 59

aam chunaav

2006 ke aam chunaav

2006 ke sansadeeya chunaavon mein 19 raajaneetik dalon mein bhaag liya tha. in chunaavon mein pradhaanamantri eigkaars kaalvitis ke sattaaroodh gathabandhan ko jeet mili.

sansad (Saeima), 7 October 2006

dal aur gathabandhan mat % seatein parivartan
janavaadi dal (Tautas partija) 1,77,481 19.56 23 +3
haritvaadi aur krushak sangh (Zaļao un Zemnieku savienīaaba)
  • laataviyaai krushak sangh (Latvijas Zemnieku savienīaaba)
  • laataviyaai harit dal (Latvijas Zaļaā partija)
1,51,595 16.71 18 +6
naveen yug (Jaunais Laiks) 1,48,602 16.38 18 -8
sadbhaav kendra (Saskaņaas centrs)
  • raashtreeya sadbhaav dal (Tautas saskaņaaas partija)
  • laataviyaai samaajavaadi dal (Latvijas Sociāalistiskā partija)
1,30,887 14.42 17 +17
gathabandhan dal "laataviya pratham" (Latvijas Pirmā partija) aur "laataviyaai maarg" (Latvijas Ceļaš)
77,869 8.58 10 +/-0
janmabhoomi aur svatantrata ke liye (Tēavzemei un Brīavīabai/LNNK) 62,989 6.94 8 +1
sanyukt laataviya mein maanav adhikaar (Par cilvēaaka tiesīaabāaam vienotā Latvijā) 54,684 6.03 6 -19
laataviyaai saamaajik lokatantr aur shram dal (Latvijas Sociāaldemokrāatiskā strāaadnieku partija) 31,720 3.5 0
dharati maata (Dzimtene) 18,860 2.08 0
laataviya ke liye sabhi! (Visu Latvijai!) 13,469 1.48 0
naveen lokatantravaadi (Jaunie Demokrāati) 11,505 1.27 0
kul 9,01,173 100.0 100

janamat sangrah 2008

August 2008 ka samvaidhaanik janamat sangrah

2 August, 2008 ko sansad ko bhang karne ko lekar samvidhaan mein sanshodhan karne ke liye janamat sangrah hua. matadaan karne baale 96% logon ne iska samarthan kiya aur 3.5% logon ne virodh mein matadaan kiya, lekin bahut kam matadaan ke kaaran (50% se kam) ise radd kar diya gaya.

peinshan vruddhi ke liye August 2008 ka janamat sangrah

23 August, 2003 ko peinshan vruddhi ke liye ek janamat karavaaya gaya. ise bhi kam matadaan ke kaaran radd kar dena pada kyonki yeh abheesht 4,53,730 maton tak naheen pahuainch paaya tha.[2] yadi janamat is sujhaav ke paksh mein hota to sarkaar peinshan ko vartamaan 50 laats se badhaakar 135 laats kar deti. yeh janamat bhinn raajaneeti samaaj sangh dvaara samarthit tha, jo ek raajanaitik dal banana chaahata hai.

janasaankhyiki

nasleeya aadhaar par laataviyaai nivaasi[3]
laataviyaai 59.2%
roosi 28.0%
belaaroosi 3.7%
yookreni 2.5%
polaindi 2.4%
lithuaaniyaai 1.3%
anya 2.9%

2009 ke anumaanaanusaar laataviya ki janasankhya 22,31,50 hai. 2009 ki janasankhya anumaan ke aadhaar par janm pratyaasha 72.15 varsh hai. mahila jeevan pratyaasha hai 77.59 varsh aur purush jeevan pratyaasha hai 66.59 varsh.

jaateeya aur nasleeya vividhta

sadiyon se laataviya ek bahunasleeya desh raha hai, lekin 20veen sadi ke dauraan vishv yuddhon, pravaasan aur baaltik jarmanon ko hataane ke kaaran, yahoodi narasanhaar (haulokaast) aur soviyt adhikran ke kaaran janasaankhyaki mein bahut parivartan aaya. 1897 ke roosi saamraajya ki janaganana ke anusaar, laataviyaai log kul 19.3 lakh ki janasankhya ka 68.4% the; roosi mool ke 12%, yahoodi 7.4%, jarman 6.2% aur polaind mool ke 3.4%.

dharm

sabse bada dhaarmik samudaaya hai isaai, yadyapi keval 7% janasankhya hi niyamit roop se dhaarmik gatividhiyon mein sakriya hai. sabse bade samooh hain:
iveinglikl lootharan church of laataviya - 4,50,000
roman Catholic - 4,50,000
laataviyaai orthadauks - 3,50,000

bhaasha

laataviyaai bhaasha, laataviya ki aadhikrik bhaasha hai. is bhaasha ke pratham bolne vaalo ki sankhya 14 lakh hai. iske atirikt 1,50,000 log anya deshon mein is bhaasha ko bolte hain. laataviyaai bhaasha ko bolne vaale adesheeya logon ki sankhya apekshaakrut roop se adhik hai jo ek chhoti bhaasha ke liye bahut hai. laataviya ki bhaasha neeti ke kaaran yahaaain ki 8 lakh ki jaateeya-alpasankhyak janasankhya mein se 60% is bhaasha ko bolte hain. laataviyaai bhaasha ka upayog laataviya ke saamaajik jeevan mein badh raha hai.[4]

laataviyaai ek baaltik bhaasha hai aur yeh lithuaaniyaai se sarvaadhik milti-julati hai, lekin donon paraspar-subodh naheen hain.

soviyt sangh ka bhaag rahane aur badi sankhya mein roosi mool ke logon ki sankhya ke kaaran roosi bhaasha bhi bahut logon dvaara boli jaati hai aur vruddh peedhi ke adhisankhya log roosi samajh sakte hain.

arthavyavastha

laataviya vishv vyaapaar sangathan (1999 se) aur Europeeya sangh (2004 se) ka sadasya hai.

varsh 2000 ke baad se laataviya ki vruddhi dar Europe mein sarvaadhik mein se ek hai. haalaanki, laataviya ki mukhyat: upabhog-chaalit vruddhi ke kaaran 2008 ke ant aur 2009 ke aarambh mein laataviyaai GDP dhah gayi, jo vaishvik aarthik mandi ke kaaran aur adhik chapet mein I. varsh 2009 ke pratham teen maheenon mein laataviyaai arthavyastha mein 18% ki giraavat I, jo Europeeya sangh mein sarvaadhik thi. yoorostait data ke anusaar, kraya shakti ke aadhaar par laataviya ki prati vyakti aay 2008 mein Europeeya sangh ka 56% thi.

January 2009 mein rajdhani reega mein aarthik sankat ko lekar dange hue jo sarkaar ki kathorata neetiyon ka virodh kar rahe the. pradarshanakaariyon ki maaaingein thi ki sansad bhang kar di jaae, jabki raashtrapati vaaldis jaatlars ne sarkaar ko chetaaya ki yadi naagrikon ki maaaingein na maani gain to samayapoorv chunaav kar diya jaaega. sarkaar ko aaiemaef se 7.5 arab Euro praapt karne ke liye vetanon mein kami karni padi aur kosovo se August 2009 mein kuchh sainik hataane pade.

shiksha

laataviya vishvavidyaalaya, laataviya mein sabse puraana vishvavidyaalaya hai aur yeh rajdhani reega mein sthit hai. daugaavpils vishvavidyaalaya doosra sabse puraana vishvavidyaalaya hai.

parivhan

yahaaain yaataayaat ka sadak ke daaaini or chalne ka niyam hai.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain