laalabahaadur shaastri

laalabahaadur shaastri
लालबहादुर शास्त्री

kaaryakaal
9 June 1964 – 11 January 1966
raashtrapati sarvapalli Radhakrishnan
poorv adhikaari javaaharalaal Nehru
uttaraadhikaari gulajaareelaal nanda (kaaryavaahak)

Bhaarat ke videsh mantri
kaaryakaal
9 June 1964 – 18 July 1964
poorv adhikaari gulajaareelaal nanda
uttaraadhikaari sardaar svarn Singh

kaaryakaal
4 April 1961 – 29 August 1963
pradhaan mantri javaaharalaal Nehru
poorv adhikaari govind vallabh pant
uttaraadhikaari gulajaareelaal nanda

janm 2 October 1904
mugalasaraaya, british Bhaarat
mrutyu 11 January 1966(1966-01-11) (umr 61)
taashakand, soviyt sangh
raajanaitik party bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress
jeevan sangi lalita shaastri
pesha raajaneta, svatantrata senaani
dharm hindu dharm

laalabahaadur shaastri (janm: 2 October 1904 mugalasaraaya - mrutyu: 11 January 1966 taashakand), Bhaarat ke doosare pradhaanamantri the. vah 9 June 1964 se 11 January 1966 ko apni mrutyu tak lagbhag athaarah maheene Bhaarat ke pradhaanamantri rahe. is pramukh pad par unka kaaryakaal adviteeya raha.

Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke pashchaat shaastreeji ko uttar pradesh ke sansadeeya sachiv ke roop mein niyukt kiya gaya tha. govind ballabh pant ke mantrimndal mein unhein police evam parivhan mantraalaya saunpa gaya. parivhan mantri ke kaaryakaal mein unhonne pratham baar mahila sanvaahakon (kandaktars) ki niyukti ki thi. police mantri hone ke baad unhonne bheed ko niyntran mein rakhane ke liye laathi ki jagah paani ki bauchhaar ka prayog praarambh karaaya. 1951 mein, javaaharalaal Nehru ke netrutv mein vah akhil Bhaarat kaaaingres committee ke mahaasachiv niyukt kiye gaye. unhonne 1952, 1957 va 1962 ke chunaavon mein Congress party ko bhaari bahumat se jitaane ke liye bahut parishram kiya.

javaaharalaal Nehru ka unke pradhaanamantri ke kaaryakaal ke dauraan 27 May, 1964 ko dehaavasaan ho jaane ke baad saaf suthari chhavi ke kaaran shaastreeji ko 1964 mein desh ka pradhaanamantri banaaya gaya. unhonne 9 June 1964 ko Bhaarat ke pradhaan mantri ka pad bhaar grahan kiya.

unke shaasanakaal mein 1965 ka Bhaarat Pak yuddh shuroo ho gaya. isse teen varsh poorv cheen ka yuddh Bhaarat haar chuka tha. shaastreeji ne apratyaashit roop se hue is yuddh mein Nehru ke mukaabale raashtra ko uttam netrutv pradaan kiya aur Pakistan ko karaari shikast di. iski kalpana Pakistan ne kabhi sapane mein bhi naheen ki thi.

taashakand mein Pakistan ke raashtrapati ayoob Khan ke saath yuddh samaapt karne ke samjhaute par hastaakshar karne ke baad 11 January 1966 ki raat mein hi rahasyamaya paristhitiyon mein unki mrutyu ho gayi.

unki saadagi, deshbhakti aur imaandaari ke liye maranoparaant Bhaarat ratn se sammaanit kiya gaya.

anukram

sankshipt jeevani

laalabahaadur shaastri ka janm 1904 mein mugalasaraaya (uttar pradesh) mein munshi shaarada prasaad shreevaastav ke yahaaain hua tha. unke pita praathamik vidyaalaya mein shikshak the at: sab unhein munsheeji hi kehte the. baad mein unhonne raajasv vibhaag mein lipik (klark) ki naukri kar li thi.[1] laalabahaadur ki maaain ka naam raamadulaari tha. parivaar mein sabse chhota hone ke kaaran baalak laalabahaadur ko parivaar vaale pyaar mein nanhein kehkar hi bulaaya karte the. jab nanhein athaarah maheene ka hua durbhaagya se pita ka nidhan ho gaya. usaki maaain raamadulaari apne pita hajaareelaal ke ghar mirjaapur chali gayeen. kuchh samay baad uske naana bhi naheen rahe. bina pita ke baalak nanhein ki paravarish karne mein uske mausa raghunaath prasaad ne usaki maaain ka bahut sahayog kiya. nanihaal mein rahate hue usane praathamik shiksha grahan ki. uske baad ki shiksha harishchandr haai school aur kaashi vidyaapeeth mein hui. kaashi vidyaapeeth se shaastri ki upaadhi milne ke baad unhonne janm se chala aa raha jaatisoochak shabd shreevaastav hamesha hamesha ke liye hata diya aur apne naam ke aage 'shaastri' laga liya. iske pashchaat shaastri shabd laalabahaadur ke naam ka paryaaya hi ban gaya.

1928 mein unka vivaah mirjaapur nivaasi ganeshaprasaad ki putri lalita se hua. lalita shaastri se unke chh: santaanein huin, do putriyaaain-kusum va suman aur chaar putr-harikrushn, anil, suneel va ashok. unke chaar putron mein se do-anil shaastri aur suneel shaastri abhi hain, shesh do divangat ho chuke hain. anil shaastri Congress party ke ek varishth neta hain jabki suneel shaastri bhaarateeya janta party mein chale gaye.

raajaneetik jeevan

"maro naheen, maaro!" ka naara laalabahaadur shaastri ne diya jisne kraanti ko poore desh mein prachand kiya.

sanskrut bhaasha mein snaatak star tak ki shiksha samaapt karne ke pashchaat ve Bhaarat sevak sangh se jud gaye aur deshaseva ka vrat lete hue yaheen se apne raajanaitik jeevan ki shuruaat ki. shaastreeji sachche gaandheevaadi the jinhonne apna saara jeevan saadagi se bitaaya aur use gareebon ki seva mein lagaaya. bhaarateeya svaadheenata sangraam ke sabhi mahatvapoorn kaaryakramon va aandolanon mein unki sakriya bhaageedaari rahi aur uske parinaamasvaroop unhein kai baar jailon mein bhi rahana pada. svaadheenata sangraam ke jin aandolanon mein unki mahatvapoorn bhoomika rahi unamein 1921 ka asahayog aandolan, 1930 ka daandi March tatha 1942 ka Bhaarat chhodo aandolan ullekhaneeya hain.

doosare vishv yuddh mein inglaind ko buri tarah ulajhata dekh jaise hi netaaji ne aajaad hind fauj ko "Delhi chalo" ka naara diya, gaandhi ji ne mauke ki najaakat ko bhaaainpate hue 8 August 1942 ki raat mein hi Mumbai se aaingrejon ko "Bhaarat chhodo" va bhaarateeyon ko "karo ya maro" ka aadesh jaari kiya aur sarkaari suraksha mein yaravada Pune sthit aaga Khan pailes mein chale gaye. 9 August 1942 ke din shaastreeji ne Allahabad pahuainchakar is aandolan ke gaandheevaadi naare ko chaturaai poorvak "maro naheen, maaro!" mein badal diya aur apratyaashit roop se kraanti ki daavaanal ko poore desh mein prachand roop de diya. poore gyaarah din tak bhoomigat rahate hue yeh aandolan chalaane ke baad 19 August 1942 ko shaastreeji giraftaar ho gaye.

shaastreeji ke raajaneetik digdarshakon mein purushottamadaas Tandon aur pandit govind ballabh pant ke atirikt javaaharalaal Nehru bhi shaamil the. sabse pehle 1929 mein Allahabad aane ke baad unhonne tandanaji ke saath Bhaarat sevak sangh ki Allahabad ikaai ke sachiv ke roop mein kaam karna shuroo kiya. Allahabad mein rahate hue hi neharooji ke saath unki niktata badhi. iske baad to shaastreeji ka kad nirntar badhata hi chala gaya aur ek ke baad ek safalta ki seedhiyaaain chadhate hue ve neharooji ke mantrimndal mein gruhamantri ke pramukh pad tak ja pahuainche. aur itna hi naheen, Nehru ke nidhan ke pashchaat bhaaratavarsh ke pradhaan mantri bhi bane.

pradhaan mantri

unki saaf suthari chhavi ke kaaran hi unhein 1964 mein desh ka pradhaanamantri banaaya gaya. unhonne apne pratham samvaadadaata sammelan mein kaha tha ki unki sheersh praathamikta khaadyaann moolyon ko badhne se rokana hai aur ve aisa karne mein safal bhi rahe. unke kriyaakalaap saiddhaantik na hokar poornat: vyaavahaarik aur janta ki aavashyakataaon ke anuroop the.

nishpaksh roop se yadi dekha jaaye to shaastreeji ka shaasan kaal behad kathin raha. pooainjeepati desh par haavi hona chaahate the aur dushman desh ham par aakraman karne ki firaak mein the. 1965 mein achaanak Pakistan ne Bhaarat par saayan 7.30 baje havaai hamla kar diya. paramparaanusaar raashtrapati ne aapaat baithak bula li jismein teenon raksha angon ke pramukh va mantrimndal ke sadasya shaamil the. sanyog se pradhaanamantri us baithak mein kuchh der se pahuainche. unke aate hi vichaar-vimarsh praarambh hua. teenon pramukhon ne unase saari vastusthiti samajhaate hue poochha: "sar! kya hukm hai?" shaastreeji ne ek vaakya mein tatkaal uttar diya: "aap desh ki raksha keejiye aur mujhe bataaiye ki hamein kya karna hai?"

shaastreeji ne is yuddh mein Nehru ke mukaabale raashtra ko uttam netrutv pradaan kiya aur jaya javaan-jaya kisaan ka naara diya. isse Bhaarat ki janta ka manobal badha aur saara desh ekajut ho gaya. iski kalpana Pakistan ne kabhi sapane mein bhi naheen ki thi.

Brigadier hari Singh, jo us samay pratham bhaarateeya bakhtaraband divijn ki 18veen unit mein sainik the, Lahore (Pakistan) mein baraki police thaane ke baahar tainaat

Bhaarat Pak yuddh ke dauraan 6 sitmbar ko Bhaarat ki 15vi paidal sainya ikaai ne dviteeya vishv yuddh ke anubhavi major general prasaad ke nettrutv mein ichhogil nahar ke pashchimi kinaare par Pakistan ke bahut bade hamle ka datakar mukaabala kiya. ichhogil nahar Bhaarat aur Pakistan ki vaastavik seema thi. is hamle mein khud major general prasaad ke kaafile par bhi bheeshan hamla hua aur unhein apna vaahan chhod kar peechhe hatna pada. bhaarateeya thalasena ne dooni shakti se pratyaakraman karke baraki gaaainv ke sameep nahar ko paar karne me safalta arjit ki. isse bhaarateeya sena Lahore ke havaai adde par hamla karne ki seema ke bheetar pahuainch gayi. is apratyaashit aakraman se ghabaraakar America ne apne naagrikon ko Lahore se nikaalne ke liye kuchh samay ke liye yuddhaviraam ki appeal ki.

aakhirkaar roos aur amarika ki mileebhagat se shaastreeji par jor daala gaya. unhein ek sochi samajhi saajish ke tahat roos bulavaaya gaya jise unhonne sveekaar kar liya. hamesha unke saath jaane waali unki patni lalita shaastri ko bahala fusalaakar is baat ke liye manaaya gaya ki ve shaastreeji ke saath roos ki rajdhani taashakand na jaayein aur ve bhi maan gayeen. apni is bhool ka shreemati lalita shaastri ko mrutyuparyant pachhataava raha. jab samjhauta vaarta chali to shaastreeji ki ek hi jid thi ki unhein baaki sab shartein manjoor hain parantu jeeti hui jameen Pakistan ko lautaana haragij manjoor naheen. kaafi jaddojahed ke baad shaastreeji par antarraashtreeya dabaav banaakar taashakand samjhaute ke dastaavej par hastaakshar kara liye gaye. unhonne yeh kehte hue hastaakshar kiye the ki ve hastaakshar jaroor kar rahe hain par yeh jameen koi doosra pradhaan mantri hi lautaayega, ve naheen. Pakistan ke raashtrapati ayoob Khan ke saath yuddhaviraam ke samjhaute par hastaakshar karne ke kuchh ghante baad 11 January 1966 ki raat mein hi unki mrutyu ho gayi. yeh aaj tak rahasya[2] bana hua hai ki kya vaakai shaastreeji ki maut hrudayaaghaat ke kaaran hui thi? kai log unki maut ki vajah jahar[3] ko hi maanate hain.

shaastreeji ko unki saadagi, deshbhakti aur imaandaari ke liye aaj bhi poora Bhaarat shraddhaapoorvak yaad karta hai. unhein maranoparaant varsh 1966 mein Bhaarat ratn se sammaanit kiya gaya.

rahasyapoorn mrutyu

Mumbai mein shaastreeji ki aadamakad pratima

taashakand samjhaute par hastaakshar karne ke baad usi raat unki mrutyu ho gayi. mrutyu ka kaaran heart ataik bataaya gaya. shaastreeji ki antyeshti poore raajakeeya sammaan ke saath shaantivn (Nehru ji ki samaadhi) ke aage yamuna kinaare ki gayi aur us sthal ko vijay ghaat naam diya gaya. jab tak Congress sansadeeya dal ne indira gaandhi ko shaastri ka vidhivt uttaraadhikaari naheen chun liya, gulajaari laal nanda kaaryavaahak pradhaanamantri rahe.[4]

shaastreeji ki mrutyu ko lekar tarah-tarah ke kayaas lagaaye jaate rahe. bahutere logon ka, jinmein unke parivaar ke log bhi shaamil hain, mat hai ki shaastreeji ki mrutyu heart ataik se naheen balki jahar dene se hi hui.[2] pehli inkvaayari raaj Narayan ne karavaayi thi, jo bina kisi nateeje ke samaapt ho gayi aisa bataaya gaya. maje ki baat yeh ki indiyn paarliyaamentri laaibreri mein aaj usaka koi rikaard hi maujood naheen hai.[5] yeh bhi aarop lagaaya gaya ki shaastreeji ka post maartam bhi naheen hua. 2009 mein jab yeh savaal uthaaya gaya to Bhaarat sarkaar ki or se yeh jabaav diya gaya ki shaastreeji ke private Doctor aara0ena0chugh aur kuchh roos ke kuchh doctoron ne milkar unki maut ki jaaainch to ki thi parantu sarkaar ke paas usaka koi record naheen hai. baad mein pradhaanamantri kaaryaalaya se jab iski jaankaari maaaingi gayi to usane bhi apni majaboori jataayi.[2]

shaastreeji ki maut mein sambhaavit saajish ki poori pol outlook naam ki ek patrika ne kholi.[5][5]2009 mein, jab south Asia par CIA ki nazar (angreji: CIA's Eye on South Asia) naamak pustak ke lekhak anuj dhar ne soochana ke adhikaar ke tahat maaaingi gayi jaankaari par pradhaanamantri kaaryaalaya ki or se yeh kehna ki "shaastreeji ki mrutyu ke dastaavej saarvajanik karne se hamaare desh ke antarraashtreeya sambandh kharaab ho sakte hain tatha is rahasya par se parda uthate hi desh mein uthal-puthal machne ke alaava sansadeeya visheshadhikaaron ko thes bhi pahuainch sakti hai. ye tamaam kaaran hain jisse is savaal ka jabaav naheen diya ja sakta.".[2]

sabse pehle san 1978 mein prakaashit[6] ek hindi pustak lalita ke aaainsoo[7] mein shaastreeji ki mrutyu ki karun katha ko svaabhaavik dhaing se unki dharmapatni lalita shaastri ke maadhyam se kahalavaaya gaya tha. us samay (san unnis sau athahattar mein) lalitaaji jeevit theen.[8]

yahi naheen, kuchh samay poorv prakaashit ek anya angreji pustak mein lekhak patrakaar Kuldeep naiyar ne bhi, jo us samay taashakand mein shaastreeji ke saath gaye the, is ghatna chakr par vistaar se prakaash daala hai. gat varsh July 2012 mein shaastreeji ke teesare putr suneel shaastri ne bhi Bhaarat sarkaar se is rahasya par se parda hataane ki maaaing ki thi.[9]

sandarbh

  1. "Lal Bahadur Shastri: The Fatherless Child". http://www.freeindia.org/biographies/greatleaders/shastri/page4.htm. abhigman tithi: 13 March 2007.
  2. a aa i E Dhawan, H. "45 years on, Shastri's death a mystery – PMO refuses to Entertain RTI Plea Seeking Declassification of Document". the times of indiya , New Delhi Edition, Saturday, 11 July 2009, page 11, columns 1–5 (top left)
  3. hatyaarin raajaneeti-hindi vikeesrot par
  4. U.N. Gupta (2003). Indian Parliamentary Democracy. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. 121. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8126901934.
  5. a aa i http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?281537
  6. Hindustan (Hindi daily) New Delhi 12 January 1978 (lalita ke aaainsoo ka vimochan)
  7. *Book:Lalita Ke Ansoo on worldcat
  8. paanchajanya saahityaalochan 24 faravaree1980
  9. Saba Naqvi (Jul 16, 2012). "Clear air on Lal Bahadur Shastri's death: Son". Hindustan times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/Jaipur/Clear-air-on-Lal-Bahadur-Shastri-s-death-Son/Article1-915545.aspx. abhigman tithi: 6 sitmbar 2013.

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