laal kila

nirdeshaank: 28°a39′a21″aN, 77°a14′a25″aE

yunesko vishv dharohar sthal
laal kila
vishv dharohar soochi mein ankit naam
दिल्ली का लाल किला, दिल्ली के लोकप्रिय पर्यटन स्थलों में से एक
desh saaaincha:INDIA
prakaar saanskrutik
maanadand ii, iii, iv
sandarbh 231
yunesko kshetr Asia-paisifik
shilaalekhit itihaas
shilaalekh 2007 (31vaan satr)


Delhi ke kile ko laal - kila bhi kehte hain, kyonki yeh laal rang ka hai. yeh Bhaarat ki rajdhani nai Delhi se lagi puraani Delhi shahar mein sthit hai. yeh yunesko vishv dharohar sthal mein chayanit hai.[1]

anukram

itihaas

laal kile ka mukhya-dwaar, jise Lahore dwaar bhi kehte hain. isi kile par Bhaarat ka raashtreeya dhvaj svatantrata ke kshan se shaan se faharaata hai.

laal kila evam shaahajahaaainnaabaad ka shahar, mugal baadshah shaahajahaaain dvaara E s 1639 mein banavaaya gaya tha. laal kile ka abhinyaas fir se kiya gaya tha, jisse ise saleemagadh kile ke sang ekeekrut kiya ja sake. yeh kila evam mahal shaahajahaaainnaabaad ki madhyakaaleen nagari ka mahatvapoorn kendra-bindu raha hai. laalakile ki yojana, vyavastha evam saundarya mugal srujanaatmakata ka shirobindu hai, jo ki shaahajahaaain ke kaal mein apne charam utkarsh par pahuainchi. is kile ke nirmaan ke baad kai vikaas kaarya swayam shaahajahaaain dvaara kiye gaye. vikaas ke kai bade pahaloo aurangajeb evam antim mugal shaasakon dvaara kiye gaye. sampoorn vinyaas mein kai moolabhoot badlaav british kaal mein 1857 ka pratham svatantrata sangraam ke baad kiye gaye the. british kaal mein yeh kila mukhyat: chhaavani roop mein prayog kiya gaya tha. balki svatantrata ke baad bhi iske kai mahatvapoorn bhaag sena ke niyantran mein 2003 tak rahe.

laal kila mugal baadshah shaahajahaaain ki nai rajdhani, shaahajahaaainnaabaad ka mahal tha. yeh Delhi shahar ki saataveen muslim nagari thi. usane apni rajdhani ko Agra se Delhi badla, apne shaasan ki pratishtha badhaane hetu, saath hi apni naye-naye nirmaan karaane ki mahatvakaaainksha ko nae mauke dene hetu bhi. ismein usaki mukhya ruchi bhi thi.

yeh kila bhi Tajmahal ki bhaanti hi yamuna nadi ke kinaare par sthit hai. vahi nadi ka jal is kile ko gherakar khaai ko bharati thi. iske poorvottari or ki deevaar ek puraane kile se lagi thi, jise saleemagadh ka kila bhi kehte hain. saleemagadh ka kila islaam shaah soori ne 1546 mein banavaaya tha. laalakile ka nirmaan 1638 mein aarambh hokar 1648 mein poorn hua. par kuchh maton ke anusaar ise laalakot ka ek puraatan kila evam nagari bataate hain, jise shaahajahaaain ne kabjaa karke yeh kila banavaaya tha. laalakot hindu raaja pruthveeraaj chauhaan ki baarahaveen sadi ke antim daur mein rajdhani thi.

11 March 1783 ko, sikhon ne laalakile mein pravesh kar deevaan-A-aam par kabjaa kar liya. nagar ko mugal vajeeron ne apne sikh saathiyon ka samarpan kar diya. yeh kaarya karor sinhiya misl ke sardaar baghel Singh dhaaleevaal ke kamaan mein hua.

naap jokh

laalakila saleemagadh ke poorvi chhor par sthit hai. isko apna naam laal baluaa patthar ki praacheer evam deevaar ke kaaran mila hai. yahi iski chaar deevaari banaati hai. yeh deevaar 1.5 meal (2.5 kimi) lambi hai aur nadi ke kinaare se iski ooainchaai 60 feet (16mee), tatha 110 feet (35 mi) ooainchi shahar ki or se hai. iske naap jokh karne par gyaat hua hai, ki iski yojana ek 82 mi ki vargaakaar grid (chaukhaane) ka prayog kar banaai gayi hai.

laal kile ki yojana poorn roop se ki gayi thi aur iske baad ke badlaavon ne bhi iski yojana ke moolaroop mein koi badlaav naheen hone diya hai. 18veen sadi mein kuchh luteron evam aakramanakaariyon dvaara iske kai bhaagon ko kshati pahuainchaai gayi thi. 1857 ka pratham svatantrata sangraam ke baad, kile ko british sena ke mukhyaalaya ke roop mein prayog kiya jaane laga tha. is sena ne iske kareeb assi pratishat mandapon tatha udyaanon ko nasht kar diya. .[2] in nasht hue baagon evam bache bhaagon ko punarsthaapit karne ki yojana san 1903 mein umaid daanish dvaara chalaai gayi.

iski vaastukala

praangan ki imaaraton ka drushya

laal kile mein uchchastar ki kala evam vibhooshak kaarya drushya hai. yahaaain ki kalaakrutiyaaain faarasi, Europeeya evam bhaarateeya kala ka sanshleshan hai, jiska parinaam vishisht evam anupam shaahajahaani shaili tha. yeh shaili rang, abhivyanjana evam roop mein utkrusht hai. laalakila Delhi ki ek mahatvapoorn imaarat samooh hai, jo bhaarateeya itihaas evam usaki kalaaon ko apne mein samete hue hai. iska mahatva samay ki seemaaon se badhkar hai. yeh vaastukala sambandhi pratibha evam shakti ka prateek hai. san 1913mein ise raashtreeya mahatva ke smaarak ghoshit hone se poorvaisaki uttarakaaleenata ko sanrakshit evam parirkshit karne hetu prayaas hue the.

iski deevaarein, kaafi suchikkanata se taraashi gain hain. ye deevaarein do mukhya dvaaron par khuli hain ― Delhi gate evam Lahore gate. Lahore gate iska mukhya praveshadvaar hai. iske andar ek lamba baajaar hai, chatta chauk, jiski deevaarein dukaanon se kataarit hain. iske baad ek badaa khula sthaan hai, jahaaain yeh lambi uttar-dakshin sadak ko kaatati hai. yahi sadak pehle kile ko sainik evam naagrik mahalon ke bhaagon mein baantati thi. is sadak ka dakshini chhor Delhi gate par hai.

nakkarakhaana

Lahore gate se chatta chauk tak aane waali sadak se lage khule maidaan ke poorvi or nakkaarakhaana bana hai. yeh sangeetajnyaon hetu bane mahal ka mukhya dwaar hai.

deevaan-A-aam

is gate ke paar ek aur khula maidaan hai, jo ki mulat: deevaane-A-aam ka praangan hua karta tha. deevaan-A-aam. yeh janasaadhaaran hetu bana vruhat praangan tha. ek alankrut sinhaasan ka chhajja deevaan ki poorvi deevaar ke beechon beech bana tha. yeh baadshah ke liye bana tha aur sulemaan ke raaj sinhaasan ki nakal hi tha.

nahar-A-bahisht

raajagaddi ke peechhe ki or shaahi niji kaksh sthaapit hain. is kshetr mein, poorvi chhor par ooainche chabootaron par bane gumbadadaar imaaraton ki kataar hai, jinse yamuna nadi ka kinaara dikhaai padta hai. ye mandap ek chhoti nahar se jude hain, jise nahar-A-bahisht kehte hain, jo sabhi kakshon ke madhya se jaati hai. kile ke poorvottar chhor par bane shaah burj par yamuna se paani chadhaaya jaata hai, jahaaain se is nahar ko jal aapoorti hoti hai. is kile ka pariroop Quraan mein varnit svarg ya jannat ke anusaar bana hai. yahaaain likhi ek aayat kehti hai,

yadi pruthvi par kaheen jannat hai, to vo yaheen hai, yaheen hai, yaheen hai.

mahal ki yojana moolaroop se islaami roop mein hai, parantu pratyek mandap apne vaastu ghatakon mein hindu vaastukala ko prakat karta hai. laalakile ka praasaad, shaahajahaani shaili ka utkrusht namoona prastut karta hai.

jnaana

mahal ke do dakshinvarti praasaad mahilaaon hetu bane hain, jinhein janaana kehte hain: mumataaj mahal, jo ab sangrahaalaya bana hua hai, evam rang mahal, jismein suvarn mandit nakkaasheekrut chhatein evam sangamarmar sarovar bane hain, jismein nahar-A-bahisht se jal aata hai.

khaas mahal

dakshin se teesara mandap hai khaas mahal. ismein shaahi kaksh bane hain. inmein raajasi shayan-kaksh, praarthana-kaksh, ek baraamada aur musamman burj bane hain. is burj se baadshah janta ko darshan dete the.

deevaan-A-khaas

deevaan-A-khaas, raajasi niji sabha kaksh

agala mandap hai deevaan-A-khaas, jo raaja ka muktahast se susajjit niji sabha kaksh tha. yeh sachiveeya evam mantreemandal tatha sabhaasadon se baithakon ke kaam aata thaais mndap mein peetra dyoora se pushpeeya aakruti se mandit stambh bane hain. inmein suvarn part bhi madhi hai, tatha bahumoolya ratn jade hain. iski mool chhat ko rogan ki gayi kaashth nirmit chhat se badal diya gaya hai. ismein ab rajat par suvarn mandan kiya gaya hai.

agala mandap hai, hamaam, jo ko raajasi snaanaagaar tha, evam Turkey shaili mein bana hai. ismein sangamarmar mein mugal alankaran evam rangeen paashaan bhi jade hain.

moti masjid

hamaam ke pashchim mein moti masjid bani hai. yeh san 1659 mein, baad mein banaai gayi thi, jo aurangajeb ki niji masjid thi. yeh ek chhoti teen gumbad waali, taraashe hue shvet sangamarmar se nirmit hai. iska mukhya falak teen meharaabon se yukt hai, evam aangan mein utarata hai.jaha fulo ka mela hai

hayaat bakhsh baag

iske uttar mein ek vruhat aupachaarik udyaan hai jise hayaat bakhsh baag kehte hain. iska arth hai jeevan daayi udyaan. yeh do kulyaaon dvaara dvibhaajit hai. ek mandap uttar dakshin kulya ke donon chhoron par sthit hain evam ek teesara baad mein antim mugal samraat bahaadur shaah jafar dvaara 1842 banavaaya gaya tha. yeh donon kulyaaon ke milan sthal ke kendra mein bana hai.

The master-builders of the Red Fort were Hamid and Ahmad

aadhunik yug mein mahatva

raat ke vidyut prakaash mein jagamagaata laal kila

laal kila Delhi shahar ka sarvaadhik prakhyaat paryatan sthal hai, jo laakhau paryatakon ko prativrsh aakarshit karta hai. yeh kila vah sthal bhi hai, jahaaain se Bhaarat ke pradhaan mantri svatantrata diwas 15 August ko desh ki janta ko sambodhit karte hain. yeh Delhi ka sabse badaa smaarak bhi hai.

ek samay tha, jab 3000 log is imaarat samooh mein raha karte the. parantu 1857 ke svatantrata sangraam ke baad]], kile par british sena ka kabjaa ho gaya, evam kai rihaayashi mahal nasht kar diye gaye. ise british sena ka mukhyaalaya bhi banaaya gaya. isi sangraam ke ekdam baad bahaadur shaah jafar par yaheen mukadama bhi chala tha. yaheen par November 1945 mein indiyn national army ke teen afsaron ka court maarshal kiya gaya tha. yeh svatantrata ke baad 1947 mein hua tha. iske baad bhaarateeya sena ne is kile ka niyantran le liya tha. baad mein December 2003 mein, bhaarateeya sena ne ise bhaarateeya paryatan praadhikaariyon ko saunp diya.

is kile par December 2000 mein lashkar-A-toeba ke aatankvaadiyon dvaara hamla bhi hua tha. ismein do sainik evam ek naagrik mrutyu ko praapt hue. ise media dvaara kaashmeer mein Bhaarat - Pakistan shaanti prakriya ko baadhit karne ka prayaas bataaya gaya tha.[3][4][5]

kila paryatan vibhaag ke adhikaar mein

1947 mein Bhaarat ke aajaad hone par british sarkaar ne yeh parisar bhaarateeya sena ke havaale kar diya tha, tab se yahaan sena ka kaaryaalaya bana hua tha. 22 December 2003 ko bhaarateeya sena ne 56 saal puraane apne kaaryaalaya ko hataakar laal kila khaali kiya aur ek samaaroh mein paryatan vibhaag ko saunp diya. is samaaroh mein raksha mantri George Fernandes ne kaha ki ki sashastr senaaon ka itihaas laal kile se juda hua hai, par ab hamaare itihaas aur viraasat ke ek pahaloo ko duniya ko dikhaane ka samay hai.[6]

mugal shahanshaah shaahajahaan ne 1638 mein laal kile ke nirmaan ke aadesh diye the. lagbhag isi samay usane Agra mein apni svargeeya patni ki yaad mein Tajmahal banavaana shuroo kiya tha. laal kile par 1739 mein faaras ke baadshah naadir shaah ne hamla kiya tha aur vah apne saath yahaan se svarn mayoor sinhaasan le gaya tha, jo baad mein Irani shahanshaahon ka prateek bana.

1857 ke gadar ke baad british sena ne laal kile par niyantran kar liya.

sandarbh

  1. Red Fort Complex - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  2. Dalrymple W., The Last Mughal: Emperor Bahadurshah Zafar and the Fall of Delhi.
  3. Red Fort death sentence is upheld, [1] The BBC, 13 September 2007.
  4. Lashkar raids Red Fort, guns down 3, The Statesman, 22 December 2000.
  5. Visitors gape at Red Fort in disbelief, the hindu, 25 December 2000.
  6. "bhaarateeya sena ne Delhi ka laal kila khaali kiya". vauyas of America. Archived from the original on 2006-07-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20060726153633/http://voanews.com/hindi/archive/2003-12/a-2003-12-22-10-1.cfm/. abhigman tithi: 2008.

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