kvaark

Three colored balls (symbolizing quarks) connected pairwise by springs (symbolizing gluons), all inside a gray circle (symbolizing a proton). The colors of the balls are red, green, and blue, to parallel each quark's color charge. The red and blue balls are labeled "u" (for "up" quark) and the green one is labeled "d" (for "down" quark).
protaun

kvaark (/ˈkwɔaark/ or /ˈkwɑaark/) ek praathamik kan hai tatha yeh padaarth ka mool ghatak hai. kvaark ekajut hokar sammishr kan hedraun banaate hai, parmaanu naabhik ke mukhya avayav protaun va nyootraun inmein se sarvaadhik sthir hain. [1] naisargik ghatna rang bandhan ke kaaran, kvaark na kabhi seedhe prekshit hua ya ekaant mein paaya gaya; ve keval hedraunon ke bheetar paaye ja sakte hai, jaise ki berionon (udaaharanaarth: protaan aur nyootraan) aur mesaunon ke roop mein.[2][3]

kvaark ke anek aantarik gun hai, jinme vidyut aavesh, dravyamaan, rang aavesh aur spin sammilit hai. kan bhautiki ke maanak model mein kvaark ekamaatr praathamik kan hai jo sabhi chaar moolabhoot ant:kriya ya maulik balon ( vidyut chunbakatv, gurutvaakarshan, prabal ant:kriya aur durbal ant:kriya) ko mahasoos karta hai, saath hi yeh maatr gyaat kan hai jiska vidyut aavesh praathamik aavesh ka poornaank gunanafal naheen hai.

kvaark ke chhah prakaar hai, jo jaane jaate hai flevar se: ap , daaun, strenj, chaarm, top aur bautam.[4] ap va daaun kvaark ke dravyamaan sabhi kvaarko mein sabse kam hai. apekshaakrut bhaari kvaark kanika kshaya ki prakriya ke maadhyam se teevrata se ap va daaun kvaark mein badal jaate hain. kanika kshaya, ek uchch dravya avastha ka ek nimn dravya avastha mein parivartan hai. is vajah se, ap va daaun kvaark aam taur par sthir hote hai aur brahmaand mein sabse aam hain, vaheen strenj, chaarm, bautam aur top kvaark keval uchch oorja takkaron mein utpann kiye ja sakte hai. har kvaark flevar ke pratikn hote hai jinke parimaan to kvaark ke baraabar hote hai parantu chinh vipreet rakhate hai tatha yeh enteekvaark ke roop mein jaane jaate hai.

kvaark model svatantr roop se bhautikvidon mare Gale-man aur George vaaig dvaara 1964 mein prastaavit kiya gaya tha. [5] kvaark hedraunon ke ang ke roop mein pesh kiye gaye the. 1968 mein stainaford raikhik tvarak kendra par prayog hone tak unke bhautik astitv ke bahut kam pramaan the.[6][7]tvarak prayogon ne sabhi chhah flevaron ke liye pramaan pradaan kiye. top kvaark sabse ant mein farmeelaib par 1995 mein khoja gaya. [5]

anukram

vargeekaran

inhein bhi dekhein: staindard model
A four-by-four table of particles. Columns are three generations of matter (fermions) and one of forces (bosons). In the first three columns, two rows contain quarks and two leptons. The top two rows' columns contain up (u) and down (d) quarks, charm (c) and strange (s) quarks, top (t) and bottom (b) quarks, and photon (γ) and gluon (g), respectively. The bottom two rows' columns contain electron neutrino (ν sub e) and electron (e), muon neutrino (ν sub μ) and muon (μ), and tau neutrino (ν sub τ) and tau (τ), and Z sup 0 and W sup ± weak force. Mass, charge, and spin are listed for each particle.
Six of the particles in the Standard Model are quarks (shown in purple). Each of the first three columns forms a generation of matter.

kvaark moolabhoot kan mein se ek hai, jisse padaarth banta hai. protaun va nyootraun inhi moolabhoot kano se bane hote hai. kvaark ko unke flevar se jaana jaata hai aur yeh h: prakaar ke hote hain:-ap kvaark, chaarm kvaark, taap kvaark, daaun kvaark, strenj kvaark aur baatam kvaark. inke pratik chinh kramash: u, c, t, d, s aur b hai. pehle teen prakaar ke kvaark ap-type kvaark tatha shesh daaun-type kvaark kahalaate hain. ap aur daaun kvaark ka dravyamaan sabhi kvaarko mein sabse kam hota hai. bhaari dravyamaan vaale kvaark, dravyamaan ke kshaya ke kaaran teji se ap va daaun kvaark mein parivrtit hote hain, kyonki ap va daaun kvaark saadhaaranataya sthaayi hote hain aur brahmaand mein sabse adhik paaye jaate hain. kvaark ka pratikn {anti partical} enti-kvaark kahalaata hai, pratyek prakaar ke kvaark ke pratikn hote hai, jo kramash: enti-ap kvaark---- enti-baatam kvaark kahalaate hai.

kvaark akele naheen paaye jaate, varan hameinsha samooh mein paaye jaate hai. kvaark se milkar banane vaale avayav hedraun {hadrons} kahalaate hai. teen kvaark ke sanyonjan se beryaun {baryons}, teen enti-kvaark ke sanyojan se enti-beryaun tatha ek kvaark evam ek enti-kvaark ke sanyojan se mesaun bante hai. do ap kvaark evam ek daaun kvaark ke sanyojan se protaun tatha ek ap kvaark evam do daaun kvaark ke sanyojan se nyootraun bante hai. beryaan, mesaan, protaan, nyootraan, nyookliaan {ek protaan + ek nyootraun} aur parmaanu nabhik, yeh sabhi hedraun kahalaate hai kyonki sabhi kvaark se milkar bane hote hai. kvaark ka saankhyikeeya vyavahaar farmion hota hai.

gun

kvaark mein kai prakaar ke gun hote hai, jaise vidyut aavesh, rang aavesh (color charge), bhrami ya prachakran {spin} aur dravyamaan. pratikn mein bhi yeh sabhi gun paaye jaate hai, parantu vipreet hote hai.

vidyut aavesh

ap-type kvaark ka vidyut aavesh +2/3 aur daaun-type kvaark ka -1/3 hota hai. inke pratikn (anti partical) ka aavesh vipreet kramash: -2/3 aur +1/3 hota hai. kvaark ke sanyojan se banane vaale kano ka vidyut aavesh, usamein paaye jaane vaale kvaarko ke kul vidyut aavesho ke yog ke baraabar hota hai. jaise:- protaan ka vidyut aavesh, do ap-kvaark aur ek daaun-kvaark ke vidyut aavesho ke kul yog ke baraabar arthaat 1 hota hai. isi tarah nyutraan ka vidyut aavesh shoonya hota hai.

kan sanyojan vidyut aavesh
protaan 2u+d {+2/3}+{+2/3}+{-1/3}=1
nyootraan u+2d {+2/3}+{-1/3}+{-1/3}=0

durbal ant:kriya

mukhya lekh : durbal ant:kriya

beeta kshaya ka fenamen aarekh

kan bhautiki ki chaar moolabhoot ant:kriya on mein se ek, keval durbal ant:kriya ke maadhyam se ek flevar ka kvaark kisi anya flevar ke kvaark mein tabdeel ho sakta hai. ek W bosaun ko avashoshit ya utsarjit karke kisi bhi ap-prakaar kvaark (ap, chaarm aur top kvaark) ko kisi bhi daaun-prakaar kvaark (daaun, streinj aur bautam kvaark) mein parivrtit kar sakte hain tatha isi tarah theek iske vipreet. yeh flevar parivartan tantr beeta kshaya ki rediyodharmi prakriya ka kaaran banta hai, jismein ek nyootraun (n) ka ek protaun (p), ek ilektraun (e⁻) aur ek ilektraun enteenyutreeno (νe) mein "vibhaajan" ho jaata hai (chitr dekhein). yeh tab hota hai jab kisi nyootraun (UDD) mein koi ek daaun kvaark ka aabhaasi W⁻ bosaun utsarjak dvaara ap kvaark mein kshaya ho jaata hai aur nyootraun ko ek protaun (uud) mein badal deta hai. W⁻ bosaun fir ek ilektraun aur ek ilektraun enteenyutreeno mein toot jaata hai. [8]

n p + e + νe (beeta kshaya, haidraun noteshan)
udd uud + e + νe (beeta kshaya, haidraun noteshan)

prabal ant:kriya evam rang aavesh

inhein bhi dekhein: rang aavesh evam prabal ant:kriya
A green and a magenta ("antigreen") arrow canceling out each other out white, representing a meson; a red, a green, and a blue arrow canceling out to white, representing a baryon; a yellow ("antiblue"), a magenta, and a cyan ("antired") arrow canceling out to white, representing an antibaryon.
All types of hadrons have zero total color charge.
The pattern of strong charges for the three colors of quark, three antiquarks, and eight gluons (with two of zero charge overlapping).

kvaantam kromodaayanaamiks (QCD) ke anusaar, kvaark janmajaat rang aavesh naamak gunadharm rakhate hai. teen tarah ke rang aavesh hote hai- hara, laal, aur neela. isi tarah teen prati rang aavesh hote hai-mejenta, syaan aur peela. har kvaark ek rang vahan karte hai, jabki pratyek enteekvaark prati rang vahan karte hai. rang aavesh keval kvaark aur gluon mein hote hai. [9] dhyaan rahe, rang aavesh ka drushya prakaash ke rang varnakram se koi sambandh naheen hai.

teen rangon ke bhinn-bhinn sanyojanon ke saath kvaarkon ke aaveshon ke madhya aakarshan aur pratikrshan ki pranaali prabal ant:kriya kahalaati hai, jiski madhyasthata gluon naamak bal vaahak kan dvaara hoti hai; iski neeche mein vistaar se charcha hui hai. vah siddhaant jo prabal ant:kriyaaon ko bataata hai kvaantam kromodaayanaamiks (QCD) kahalaata hai. A quark, which will have a single color value, can form a bound system with an antiquark carrying the corresponding anticolor. The result of two attracting quarks will be color neutrality: a quark with color charge ξ plus an antiquark with color charge −ξ will result in a color charge of 0 (or "white" color) and the formation of a meson. This is analogous to the additive color model in basic optics. Similarly, the combination of three quarks, each with different color charges, or three antiquarks, each with anticolor charges, will result in the same "white" color charge and the formation of a baryon or antibaryon.[10]

bhrami

kvaark ki bhrami ya prachakran 1/2 hoti hai.

dravyamaan

sandarbh va strot

  1. "Quark (subatomic particle)". britainika vishvakosh. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/486323/quark. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-29.
  2. R. Nave. "Confinement of Quarks". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Particles/quark.html#c6. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-29.
  3. R. Nave. "Bag Model of Quark Confinement". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Particles/qbag.html#c1. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-29.
  4. R. Nave. "Quarks". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Particles/quark.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-29.
  5. a aa B. Carithers, P. Grannis (1995). "Discovery of the Top Quark" (PDF). Beam Line (SLAC) 25 (3): 4–16. http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/3/25-3-carithers.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-23.
  6. E.D. Bloom; and others; Destaebler; Drees; Miller; Mo; Taylor; Breidenbach evam anya (1969). "High-Energy Inelastic ep Scattering at 6° and 10°". Physical Review Letters 23 (16): 930–934. Bibcode 1969PhRvL..23..930B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.930.
  7. M. Breidenbach; and others; Kendall; Bloom; Coward; Destaebler; Drees; Mo evam anya (1969). "Observed Behavior of Highly Inelastic Electron–Proton Scattering". Physical Review Letters 23 (16): 935–939. Bibcode 1969PhRvL..23..935B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.935.
  8. "Weak Interactions". Virtual Visitor Center. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. 2008. http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/weakinteract.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-28.
  9. R. Nave. "The Color Force". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/color.html#c2. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-26.
  10. B.A. Schumm (2004). Deep Down Things. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 131–132. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-8018-7971-X. OCLC 55229065.