kutub-ud-deen aibak

kutubuddeen ebak ka Lahore mein makabara

kutubuddeen aibak (faarasi: قaaطaaب اaaلaaدaaیaaن اaaیaaبaaک) madhya kaaleen Bhaarat mein ek shaasak, Delhi saltanat ka pehla sultaan evam gulaam vansh ka sthaapak tha. usane keval chaar varsh (12061210) hi shaasan kiya. vah ek bahut hi pratibhaashaali sainik tha jo das bankar pehle gori saamraajya ke sultaan muhammad gori ke sainya abhiyaanon ka sahaayak bana aur fir Delhi ka sultaan.

anukram

praarambhik varsh

kutub al deen (ya kutubuddeen) turkistaan ka nivaasi tha aur uske maata pita turk the. is kshetr mein us samay das vyaapaar ka prachalan tha aur ise laabhaprad maana jaata tha. daason ko uchit shiksha aur prashikshan dekar unhein raaja ke haath frokht (bechana) karna ek laabhadaayi dhandha tha. baalak kutubuddeen isi vyavastha ka shikaar bana aur use ek vyaapaari ke haathon bech daala gaya. vyaapaari ne use fir nishaapur ke kaaji fkhrooddeen abdul ajeej koofi ko bech diya. abdul ajeej ne baalak kutub ko apne putr ke saath sainya aur dhaarmik prashikshan diya. par abdul ajeej ki mrutyu ke baad uske putron ne use fir se bech diya aur antat: use muhammad gori ne khreed liya.

kutub meenaar, jo ab vishv dharohar hai, uske kaal mein nirmit hui thi.

gor ke Mehmood ne aibak ke saahas, kartavyanishtha tatha svaamibhkti se prabhaavit hokar use shaahi astabal (ghudsaal) ka adhyaksh (ameer-A-akhoor) niyukt kar diya. yeh ek sammaanit pad tha aur use sainya abhiyaanon mein bhaag lene ka avsar mila. taraain ke dviteeya yuddh mein pruthveeraaj chauhaan ko paraajit kar, maarane ke baad aibak ko bhaarateeya pradeshon ka soobedaar niyukt kiya gaya. vah Delhi, Lahore tatha kuchh anya kshetron ka uttaradaayi bana.

aibak ke sainya abhiyaan

usane gori ke sahaayak ke roop mein kai kshetron par sainya abhiyaan mein hissa liya tha tatha in abhiyaanon mein usaki mukhya bhoomika rahi thi. iseese khush hokar gori use in kshetron ka soobedaar niyukt kar gaya tha. Mehmood gori vijay ke baad rajputana mein rajput raajakumaaron ke haath satta saunp gaya tha par rajput turkon ke prabhaav ko nasht karna chaahate the. sarvapratham, 1192 mein usane Ajmer tatha Meerut mein vidrohon ka daman kiya tatha Delhi ki satta par aaroodh hua. Delhi ke paas indraprasth ko apna kendra banaakar usane Bhaarat ke vijay ki neeti apanaayi. Bhaarat par isse pehle kisi bhi muslim shaasak ka prabhutv tatha shaasan itne samay tak naheen tika tha.

jaat saradaaron ne haaainsi ke kile ko gher kar turk kiledaar malik naseeruddeen ke liye sankat utpann kar diya tha par aibak ne jaaton ko paraajit kar haaainsi ke durg par pun: adhikaar kar liya. san 1194 mein Ajmer ke usane doosare vidroh ko dabaaya aur kannauj ke shaasak jayachand ke saatathachandavaar ke yuddh mein apne svaami ka saath diya. 1195 isvi mein usane koil (Aligadh) ko jeet liya. san 1196 mein Ajmer ke medon ne truteeya vidroh ka aayojan kiya jismein Gujarat ke shaasak bheemadev ka haath tha. medon ne kutubuddeen ke praan sankat mein daal diye par usi samay Mehmood Gauri ke aagaman ki soochana aane se medon ne ghera utha liya aur aibak bach gaya. iske baad 1197 mein usane bheemadev ki rajdhani anhilvaada ko loota aur akoot dhan lekar vaapas lauta. 1197-98 ke beech usane kannauj, chandavaar tatha badaayooain par apna kabja kar liya. iske baad usane sirohi tatha maalava ke kuchh bhaagon par adhikaar kar liya. par ye vijay chirsthaayi naheen rah saki. isi saal usane banaaras par aakraman kar diya. 1202-03 mein usane chandel raaja paramardi Dave ko paraajit kar kaalinjar, mahoba aur khajuraaho par adhikaar kar apni sthiti majboot kar li. isi samay gori ke sahaayak senaapati bakhyiyaar khilji ne Bengal aur Bihar par adhikaar kar liya.

shaasak

apni mrutyu ke poorv Mehmood gori ne apne vaaris ke baare mein kuchh ailaan naheen kiya tha. use shaahi khaanadaan ki bajaay turk daason par adhik vishvaas tha. gori ke daason mein aibak ke atirikt gayaasuddeen Mehmood, yaldauj, kubaacha aur aleemardaan pramukh the. ye sabhi anubhavi aur yogya the aur apne aap ko uttaraadhikaari banaane ki yojana bana rahe the. gori ne aibak ko malik ki upaadhi di thi par use sabhi saradaaron ka pramukh banaane ka nirnaya naheen liya tha. aibak ka gaddi par daava kamjor tha par usane visham paristhitiyon mein kushalata poorvak kaam kiya aur antat: Delhi ki satta ka svaami bana. gori ki mrutyu ke baad 24 June 1206 ko kutubuddeen ka raajyaarohan hua par usane sultaan ki upaadhi dhaaran naheen ki. iska kaaran tha ki anya gulaam sardaar yaldauj aur kubaacha usase irshya rakhate the. unhonne masood ko apne paksh mein kar aibak ke liye visham paristhiti paida kar di thi. hainlaanki turkon ne Bengal tak ke kshetr ko raund daala tha fir bhi unki sarvochchata sandigdh thi. rajput bhi vidroh karte rahate the par iske baavajood aibak ne in sabka datakar saamana kiya. bakhtiyaar khilji ki mrutyu ke baad aleemardaan ne svatantrata ki ghoshana kar di thi tatha aibak ke svaamitv ko maanane se inkaar kar diya tha. in kaaranon se kutubuddeen ka shaasanakaal keval yuddhon mein hi beeta. usaki mrutyu 1210 mein ghode se polo khelte samay gir kar ek durghatana mein hui thi.

usaki mrutyu ke baad aaraamashaah gaddi par baitha par jyaade din tik naheen paaya. tab iltutamish

inhein bhi dekhein